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geography
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  地理
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The digital elevation model (DEM), an important source of information, is usually used to express a topographic surface in three dimensions and to imitate essential natural geography.
      
DEM has been applied to physical geography, hydrology, ecology, and biology.
      
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Guo Shou-jing, the famous scientist in the Yuan Dynasty, took charge of a large-scale latitude surveying in 1279 A.D. which is well-known as Si Hai Ce Yan( Surveying at four-sea areas ) in the history of Chinese geodetic ast(?)surveying. 27 observation stations were established at that time over a vast range of 11.000 Li long from north to south and 6,000 Li wide frow east to west. Nanhai(the South China Sea) station played a very important role in surveying since it was the southernmost amony 27 stations and...

Guo Shou-jing, the famous scientist in the Yuan Dynasty, took charge of a large-scale latitude surveying in 1279 A.D. which is well-known as Si Hai Ce Yan( Surveying at four-sea areas ) in the history of Chinese geodetic ast(?)surveying. 27 observation stations were established at that time over a vast range of 11.000 Li long from north to south and 6,000 Li wide frow east to west. Nanhai(the South China Sea) station played a very important role in surveying since it was the southernmost amony 27 stations and held by Guo himself. This srticle discusses the problem of latitude surveying at Nanhai Sea from the aspects of historical geography and geodetic astronomical surveying. It consists of three perts. In the first part, the author expounded from the view of the geographical concept of the ancient name Nanhai that the surveying was carried out at the sea of Nanhai instead of in Guang Zhou which was also called Nanhai in the past. Secondly, the observation station at Nanhai was situated on the Xi Sha islands. T (?) the possibility of surveying there was further proved by the facts that the Chinese people exploited and managed the Xi Sha Islands before the Yuan Dyaasty. Thirdly, it discussed the instruments which were used in astronomical surveying by Guo and the reason of the difference of latitude values obtained at present and at that time on Nanhai. In the end, the author pointed out the historical fact that the Yuan government sent Guo himself to survey the latitude on the Xi Sha Islands is an undisputed evidence which shows that the islands in the south China Sea era the sacred territory of China since ancient times.

公元1279年,元代著名科学家郭守敬主持了大规模的纬度测量,即历史上著名的“四海测验”。这次测量共设有27个观测站,“南海”观测站是其中占有重要地位的一个。本文对郭守敬在“南海”测量纬度的问题进行了探讨。论证了南海测量的观测站应在西沙群岛;并从元代以前对西沙群岛的开发经营来进一步论述在该处进行测量的可能性。本文还从元朝“四海测验”的测量仪器和测量误差等方面讨论了“南海”观测站的测量误差。

1.Regional Geography had an important position for a long period in the history of geography. But since the 1950s regional geography has seldom been studied. The writer considers that its causes are as follows; first, science has splitted up increasingly, systematic geography has developed fast, yet synthetic research work is relatively weak; secondly, there are weakness and difficulties in studying regional geography,2.Geography has two most prominent characteristics, regionalism...

1.Regional Geography had an important position for a long period in the history of geography. But since the 1950s regional geography has seldom been studied. The writer considers that its causes are as follows; first, science has splitted up increasingly, systematic geography has developed fast, yet synthetic research work is relatively weak; secondly, there are weakness and difficulties in studying regional geography,2.Geography has two most prominent characteristics, regionalism and synthesis. The high synthesis of the interaction between man and land on the basis of regions is unique to geography,In this sense, the main characteristic of geography is shown mostly in regional geography.Regional geography synthetically deals with the interrelated geographical elements which give certain commonness and uniqueness to the region. There are a lot of synthetic problems concerning regional geography in practice.Re-gional geography should play the role it should do. In order to develop geo-. graphy completely, it is necessary to rejuvenate regional geography.3.The old regional geography can't meet the needs of today's situation, we should reform regional geography on the basis of modern science.(1) Persistng in the Regional and Synthetic View.The important facts and characteristics of geography within a region should be comprehensively explored with an synthetic eye.Every element and part of a region should be understood thoroughly .On this basis the synthesis on a higher level can be made.(2) Taking Man and Land Relationship as the Research CoreThe theory of man and land relationship of today has been further devel-oped than before. How to coordinate the relationship between man and nature has become the important aim of geography. Geography studies the areal systems of man and land relationship.According to certain indexes,the areal systems on the earth surface can be divided into regions with different sizes, and the man and land relationship within these regions is the research core of regional geography.( 3 ) Taking Topical Study as the Main FormOn the basis of a comprehensive study of a region,some prominent aspects within a region which belong to man and land relationship and reflect the characteristic of the region would be selected and studied thoroughly. The geographical background and the associated elements that caused some problems would be focused and stated. How to impel and turn these problems to benefit human society -would be discussed.(4) Applying Quantitative Method, Constructing Various Models and Making System AnalysisWe should make full use of the modern techniques and means and scientific methods in regional geography, thus promoting the modernization of the research work of regional geography.

区域地理学在地理学史上长期居重要地位,但是五十年代以后一度衰落。区域性和综合性是地理学的两个特点。区域地理学综合研究赋予区域某种同一性和独特性的相互联系的地理要素。实践中有大量综合性课题涉及区域地理问题,区域地理学应该重新得到重视。 旧的区域地理学已不适应当前形势的要求,应当在现代科学的基础上改造区域地理学。必须(1)坚持区域观点和综合观点;(2)以人地关系作为研究核心;(3)以论题研究为主要形式;(4)应用计量方法,建立多种模式,进行系统分析。充分利用先进的技术手段和科学的方法,以促进区域地理研究工作的现代化。

The middle of the nineteenth century is the great turning point in the development of geography, marking the end of the classic and the beginning of the scientific geography. All these happened in Germany. The geography in this period synthesized all kind of concepts from the great discoveries, the rich facts of geographical knowledge, the great advances of natural science and philosophy. Geography at that time was based on the conception of integrity. The division of geography...

The middle of the nineteenth century is the great turning point in the development of geography, marking the end of the classic and the beginning of the scientific geography. All these happened in Germany. The geography in this period synthesized all kind of concepts from the great discoveries, the rich facts of geographical knowledge, the great advances of natural science and philosophy. Geography at that time was based on the conception of integrity. The division of geography into the physical and the human was a phenomenon of later development. The establishment of the 19th century's unifying cencept in Germany had a profound influence upon the modern and contemporary geography.This paper aims at analysing the development of philosophy and matural science of that time in the relation with integrity conception.The geographical idea is synthetically influenced by philosophy ideas of kant, Hegel and Feuerbach, Marx and Engels etc., while the development of natural sciences provided the basis for establishing conception of unity for the contents of geography reguired in the connection of phenomena. Later, the authors discuss the conception of unity from the angle of the geography itself. The pioneers of the scientific geography were Humboldt and Ritter, followed by Richthofen and Ratzel. They played an active role in the development of scientific contents of geography both in theory and practice.The authors emphasize that both the regional and unifying conceptions are still the core of modern geography in spite of the tendency of branching off in the field of geography itself.

“地理学要免被瓜分,就要坚持它的中心原则,这个原则就是各种自然现象和形态同人类的相关。”

 
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