Although, compared with the foreign trade of silk, porcelain, tea and other commodities, the share of metallic trade was very small, metallic trade had close relationship with the politics, economy and military affairs of the state, because precious metals such as gold and silver were medium of commercial exchange, and because copper and iron were important military stuff.
Hitherto secret wartime work was widely disseminated, and new military, industrial and other applications of the emerging discipline were identified.
An extraction procedure employing chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide in combination with organophosphorus extractants (used successively or simultaneously) was developed for reprocessing of wastes from military industry.
Zhdanov, rector of the Rostov State University (RSU), received the following letter from Moscow signed by the Commander of the Dzerzhinskii Military Academy (now the Peter the Great Academy of Strategic Rocket Forces):
Government military spending on both sides provided funding to explore new acoustoelectronic concepts in universities, institutes, and major defense companies.
Recently, ultraviolet photoelectronics emerged in response to the needs of medicine, biology, military equipment, and the problem of the hole in the ozone layer.