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coarsen
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  粗化
     The results show that the Ti3Al+TiAl lamellae in alloys discontinuously coarsen gradually after heat treatment, and this kind of discontinuous coarsening transformation can refine grain size of alloys, the better result of refining grains was achieved in Ti44.3Al3.0Cr alloy.
     结果表明,保温一定时间后,两种合金中的Ti3Al+TiAl片层组织都会发生不连续粗化转变,这种转变的结果能在一定程度上细化合金的晶粒尺寸,其中Ti44.3Al3.0Cr合金的晶粒细化效果更佳。
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     Furthermore, NiAl precipitates coarsen in the Cr(Mo) phase and dislocation appears in the Cr(Mo) phase. Microhardness of as-fabricated (DS)NiAl-28Cr-5Mo-lHf alloy is much higher than that of (DS)NiAl-28Cr-6Mo and basically unchanged after heat treatment.
     此外,Cr(Mo)相中的NiAl微粒粗化,在Cr(Mo)相中出现了位错线,定向凝固NiAl-28Cr-5Mo-1Hf合金的显微硬度明显高于NiAl-28Cr-6Mo合金,热处理后,合金的硬度值基本保持不变。
短句来源
     The evolution of microstructure daring thermal fatigue for 4Cr5MoSiV1 steel are investigated by means of TEM. It is found that the M 23C 6 carbides coarsen during fatigue test.
     用透射电子显微分析了 4Cr5MoSiV1钢热疲劳后的显微结构变化 ,结果表明 ,在热疲劳过程中M2 3C6 碳化物粒子发生粗化 ,M2 3C6 的尺寸r和热疲劳循环次数间并不服从简单的指数关系。
短句来源
     The longer second-stage ageing time only causes δ' particles,except T1 particles, to coarsen.
     长时间终时效仅使δ'相粗化但不会使T_1相粗化
短句来源
     The fine particles did not coarsen during the final stages of processing and about 75% of the fine particles, measured in the final product, remained a stable size of 4-8nm.
     细小颗粒在后段加工过程中不会粗化,据对产品的测量,大约75%的颗粒尺寸稳定在4-8nm。
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  “coarsen”译为未确定词的双语例句
     When the sintering temperature rises from 1 200 to 1 400℃,the relative density of the samples doped with 0,0.5% and 1% CaO increase 20%,but the relative densi-ties of the samples doped with 2% and 4% CaO decrease and the grains coarsen obviously.
     当烧结温度从1 200当升高到1 400℃时,CaO掺杂量为0、0.5%和1.0%的样品相对密度提高20%以上,但当CaO掺杂量为2%和4%时,陶瓷样品相对密度反而下降,且晶粒明显长大。
短句来源
     W grain gradually coarsen with the increment of sintering temperature, fine grain W-Cu alloy with relative density 98%,hardness HB264,W grain size 350 nm was obtained at 1 200 ℃/30 min.
     W晶粒随着烧结温度的升高而增大,1200℃烧结30min获得了相对密度为98%以上、硬度为HB264、晶粒尺寸约为350nm的细晶W-Cu合金。
短句来源
     During creep,there is no obvious change of MX,while M_7C_3 carbides disappear and M_(23)C_6 carbides coarsen gradually,even a few M_(23)C_6 carbides transform to M_6C.
     结果表明,蠕变断裂过程中,MX稳定性较好,但M7C3数量逐渐减少,M23C6聚集、长大,并且有少量M23C6转变为M6C;
短句来源
     When tempered at much higher temperature, needle-shaped carbides of M2C would coarsen and loss the coherent relationship with matrix, and changed into other kinds stable carbides, such as M23C6 and M7C3;
     析出相与基体间的共格关系随回火温度的升高而失去,并转化为M23C6或 M7C3.分布在晶界的膜状奥氏体有韧化作用.
短句来源
     When the lamellar spacing coarsen there are four ways to result in coarsening the lamellar spacing of Pb-Sn eutectic, which are Sn phase merging, Pb phase merging, Sn phase growth and Pb phase growth. There is the value of νλ~2 = 284.03μm~3/s which is greater than the value ofνλ_m~2 = 261.6μm~3/s calculated by JH model.
     2) Ni-24.19wt%Nb共晶合金的两相共晶间距在低速定向凝固时满足Vλ~2=284.03μm~3/s,比JH理论计算的Vλ_m~2=261.6μm~3/s大8.5%。
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     As the crystallization temperature and time increase, the crystals coarsen and properties are improved.
     随着晶化温度和晶化时间的增加,材料的性能得到改善,析出的晶粒尺寸增大。
短句来源
     recrystallizaed austenite grain begin to coarsen at the temperature above 950℃ .
     加热温度超过 95 0℃以上 ,细化了的奥氏体晶粒开始粗化 ;
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  coarsen
When heavily deformed and aged at high temperature, the alloy shows an accelerated process of recrystallization, and precipitates are found to coarsen.
      
Planar slip bands can be seen in the deformed substructures, and the slip bands coarsen with increasing aging temperature or time.
      
The size of the Ag3Sn particles is also greatly reduced by La doping, and the particles coarsen during thermal aging, albeit at a much reduced rate than in the undoped alloy.
      
The plate- and lamella-like Ag3Sn phases break up into small parts and these broken parts, together with small Ag3Sn particles, coarsen into pebble-like phases during high-temperature aging.
      
The cavities coarsen with a constant volume corresponding to ~0.75 lattice sites per implanted He atom and have surface areas 3-7 times that of the wafer area for fluences of 1 × 1017 He/ cm2.
      
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After the construction of reservior in an alluvial stream, the equilibrium condition of the downstream channel will be upsetted due to the reduction of sediment supply. This will result in a change in the form and gradient of the channel. The direction of the displacement will lead to a reduction of the sediment carrying capacity of the channel, through which the river regains its equilibrium. The whole process is accomplished by the flattening of the bed slope, as suggested by the theories generally accepted...

After the construction of reservior in an alluvial stream, the equilibrium condition of the downstream channel will be upsetted due to the reduction of sediment supply. This will result in a change in the form and gradient of the channel. The direction of the displacement will lead to a reduction of the sediment carrying capacity of the channel, through which the river regains its equilibrium. The whole process is accomplished by the flattening of the bed slope, as suggested by the theories generally accepted at the present. From a study of the fluvial processes of Colorado River and some other streams, it appears that a decrease in channel gradient is one of the three possibilities only, and should not be regraded as an universal rule. In fact, the change in bed slope below an impounding reservoir depends essentially on the geologic and geographic conditions of that area. It is first considered that the channel width does not change materially in the downstream direction. In many of the sandy rivers, there exists, a layer of gravel or pebble below the finer surface material. The inclination of this layer is generally steeper than the present bed slope. After the releasing of clear water from the reservoir, the surface material is carried away and thereby exposing the coarse layer, first near the dam and gradually extended to the downstream. This will result in an uneven erosion along the direction of the flow, and the steepening of the channel gradient is the consequence of such a process. The Colorado Eiver below the Hoover Dam belongs to this case. If the distribution of the bed material in the downstream, direction is more or less uniform, and if there exists no coarse layer within a finite depth below the bed surface, the bed will be degraded as a whole and the channel gradient remains essentially at its initial value. Results of flume study seem to indicate that such is the case. The Colorado Eiver below both the Parker and the Imperial Dam also belongs to this group. Only when there is a base level within a short distance from the dam which controls the depth of scour at that neighborhood, or if ther is a tributary which brings coarser material into the lower part of the reach, will the channel slope below the dam become flatter. On the other hand, if the river is impounded in a gorge and enters a plain not far away from the dam site, the width of the channel on the alluvial fan becomes progressively wider downstream. It is then possible that the depth of degradation decreases in the downstream direction and the slope becomes flatter. This case is well illustrated by one of the rivers in U. S. S. R. It must be realized that no matter how the channel gradient below an impounding reservoir changes, it is mainly through the coarsening of the bed material which makes the channel regains its equilibrium. Two different types of the coarsening of the bed material can be distinguished from the field data available. One of which is the exposing of a gravel or pebble layer below the present alluvium. As soon as this layer is exposed, there will be a sudden jump in the bed material size, and the stream channel becomes stable again. The othertype of coarsening of bed material takes place continuously and at a much slower rate. One often fails to notice the occurence of such a phenomenon, as the size of the bed material only increases in a relatively small amount. Yet, such a small increase in bed material size results in a much significantly rise of the roughness coefficient, by remolding the sand bars on the bed surface. Both the velocity of the flow and the sediment carrying capacity of the channel will be reduced, and the river gradually re-establishes its equilibrium. It is now possible to calculate such a proeess according to the theories on sediment transport and river roughness. Following the coarsening of the bed material, the down-cutting rate of the stream channel decreases with time. Both the flume studies and field measurements indicate that the relationship between the down-cutting rate and the cumulative time of erosion is an exponential one. This study demonstrates that the fluvial processes of an alluvial channel depend very much on the hydrographic conditions of the basin, of which the stream forms a part. One can't visualize the whole aspect of the problem (?)y studying the fluvial proteases through hydraulics, view-point only.

冲积河流上修建水库以后,下游河道将失去平衡。河流为了重新建立平衡,必将发生一系列的变化。本文对这—变化的过程,提出了一些新的概念。根据枢纽下游所在地区的地质地理条件,河流的坡降可以有各种不同的变化。坡降的渐趋和缓只是三种可能性中的一种,不能当做普遍规律来看待。河槽的重新建立平衡,主要是通过河床质的粗化作用。河床质的粗化现象具有两种不同的类型。一种是河床表层复盖物因清水冲刷而外移,露出了底下属于另一地质时代的较粗的卵石层,这时河床质的粒径会发生突变。另一种是由于水流的分迭作用,河床质的变化是连续的,徐缓的。在第二种情况下,河床质的粒径虽然变化不多,但是,通过河底沙垅的加多,却可以使曼宁糙率系数有很快的增加,这就使水流的流速降低,挟沙能力减小,河流逐渐建立起新的平衡。随着河床质的渐次粗化,河床的冲刷下切率与时俱減。野外实测结果及水槽试验成果都指出冲刷率与冲刷历时之间成一指数关系。河床质中不能为水流所挟运的颗粒所占百分比愈大,冲刷率下降得愈快,河道重新恢复平衡所需要的时间也愈短。从黄河下游的具体情况来判断,将来修建枢纽以后,下游河道在承受清水冲刷时可能作整体下降,坡降的变化不会很大。黄河下游的河床质虽然很细,同样也...

冲积河流上修建水库以后,下游河道将失去平衡。河流为了重新建立平衡,必将发生一系列的变化。本文对这—变化的过程,提出了一些新的概念。根据枢纽下游所在地区的地质地理条件,河流的坡降可以有各种不同的变化。坡降的渐趋和缓只是三种可能性中的一种,不能当做普遍规律来看待。河槽的重新建立平衡,主要是通过河床质的粗化作用。河床质的粗化现象具有两种不同的类型。一种是河床表层复盖物因清水冲刷而外移,露出了底下属于另一地质时代的较粗的卵石层,这时河床质的粒径会发生突变。另一种是由于水流的分迭作用,河床质的变化是连续的,徐缓的。在第二种情况下,河床质的粒径虽然变化不多,但是,通过河底沙垅的加多,却可以使曼宁糙率系数有很快的增加,这就使水流的流速降低,挟沙能力减小,河流逐渐建立起新的平衡。随着河床质的渐次粗化,河床的冲刷下切率与时俱減。野外实测结果及水槽试验成果都指出冲刷率与冲刷历时之间成一指数关系。河床质中不能为水流所挟运的颗粒所占百分比愈大,冲刷率下降得愈快,河道重新恢复平衡所需要的时间也愈短。从黄河下游的具体情况来判断,将来修建枢纽以后,下游河道在承受清水冲刷时可能作整体下降,坡降的变化不会很大。黄河下游的河床质虽然很细,同样也存在着粗化的可能。通过粗化作用,可以使河床下切的深度大大减低。

A kind of qranular structure was found in a high-strength low-alloy C-Mn steel containing V and Ti as rolled. Toughness of the steel fluctuates drastically in so far as it sometimes decreases to quite a low value with the appearance of this kind of structure.Some experiments with different rolling schdules have been carried out in order to observe the condition and the cause of formation for such a structure. As a result, a series of influencing factors have been found, such as temperature holding before finish...

A kind of qranular structure was found in a high-strength low-alloy C-Mn steel containing V and Ti as rolled. Toughness of the steel fluctuates drastically in so far as it sometimes decreases to quite a low value with the appearance of this kind of structure.Some experiments with different rolling schdules have been carried out in order to observe the condition and the cause of formation for such a structure. As a result, a series of influencing factors have been found, such as temperature holding before finish rolling, finish rolling temperature, reductions and cooling rates. It is shown by experiments that a root cause of the formation of granular structure is that the steel with coarsened austenite grains has been overcooled to a great extent.The mechanism of the formation of granular structure has been also investigated. The granular structure is composed of two parts-the matrix and the "Islands". While the matrix is Widmanstatten ferrite, the "Island" is a product of transformation of which the carbonsegregated austenite is trapped between Widmanstatten ferrite and finally it transformed into Jmartensite for the increase in concentration of both C and Mn.In view of what has been stated above, a resonable controlled rolling schedule is suggested here such that a desired composite property of rather high strength and ductility can he attained to a level of a, =45 kg/mm2. Captions of metallographic photos (See photo pages appended , pp. 6-8 )Fig. 1. Granular structure in C-Mn-V-Ti steel A(×200).Fig. 2. Granular bainite in Mo-B steel(×535).Fig. 3. Metallographic structure of steel A and steel B as rolled(×370)(a) steel B, (b) steel A.Fig. 4. Metallographs under formation of granular structure in steel A(×370), quenching as cooled to(a) 625℃; (b) 600℃; (c) 575℃; (d) 550℃;Fig. 5. The electron micrograph of "Islands" in granular structure of steel A(×7500,carbon replica).

在含钒钛的低合金高强度碳锰钢的热轧状态组织中发现一种粒状组织。随着这种组织的出现,钢的冲击韧性发生很大波动,有时甚至下降到很低值。为了探明粒状组织形成的条件和原因,本工作进行了几种不同的轧制工艺试验。结果得出一系列影响因素,诸如终轧前的待温、终轧温度和变形量及冷却速度等。试验结果证明粒状组织产生的本质原因乃是具有粗化了的奥氏体晶粒的钢,受到某种程度的过冷所致。 本工作也研究了粒状组织形成机理,结果发现,粒状组织是由基体和“岛屿”两部分组成。基体是魏氏组织铁素体,而“岛屿”是被魏氏组织铁素体围挤在中间的富碳奥氏体的转变产物。 根据试验研究,提出了这种钢合理的控制轧制方案,能够保证得到高强度高塑性等预期综合机械性能。

Four-year performance tests on creep and creep-rupture strength under vari-ous stress levels at 700℃ have been carried out for a modified 35Ni-15Cr iron-base superalloy with Al+Ti content reduced from 5 to 3%. It is shown that thehigh temperature properties of this alloy are superior to those of other superalloysof the same type such as ЭИ787, ЭИ437Б, Nimonic 80 and 80A, etc. It seemsthat such an alloy may meet the demands of turbine blade materials for longtime service at 700℃. However, microstructural observations...

Four-year performance tests on creep and creep-rupture strength under vari-ous stress levels at 700℃ have been carried out for a modified 35Ni-15Cr iron-base superalloy with Al+Ti content reduced from 5 to 3%. It is shown that thehigh temperature properties of this alloy are superior to those of other superalloysof the same type such as ЭИ787, ЭИ437Б, Nimonic 80 and 80A, etc. It seemsthat such an alloy may meet the demands of turbine blade materials for longtime service at 700℃. However, microstructural observations showed that stressingpromotes phase transformation, e. g. γ' phase tends to coarsen directionally whileσ and Laves phases precipitate out much earlier. The results of room temperaturetensile tests after rupture exposure further confirm the acceptability of such alloyas gas turbine blade material for long-term uses.

将一种35Ni-15Cr型铁基高温合金的Al+Ti含量由5%降低至3%,经长达四年之久的高温持久、蠕变及高温长期时效后的冲击试验结果表明,其高温长期性能良好,超过ЭИ787,ЭИ437Б,Nimonic 80和80A等,可以满足700℃长期使用的燃气轮机动叶片的要求.组织结构的研究表明,应力加速相变过程,使γ′相发生定向聚集,使σ相和Laves相提前析出.持久断裂试验后的室温瞬时性能介乎作为燃气轮机动叶片长期使用后的Inconel 700和Inconel X之间,保持到一个可以接受的水平.

 
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