From the simulation with this model,the high accurate predicted pressure wave is obtained,and the mass flow error is less than 1% in all the possible cases,even the case of the simulation of combined MSEM system.

A method is also presented to further reduce the overhead caused by this signature function while guaranteeing a given delay for control flow error detection.

The field test shows that the flow error calculated by simple heat exchanger model is within ±1.5% with the calibrated flow meter as comparing baseline.

By introducing an "active DSCC" field in DS beacon, IAPP enhancement protocol improves the management capability of network administrator, and enhances the role of DSC in handover process and query process. Thecombination of the fault DS beacon detection and DSC detection while handover and query occurring speeds up the invalid DSC detecting procedure. The detail flow, error recovery mechanism, and performance analysis are represented.

Program static detection, a method of information and data flow analysis for source program with PASCAL like language is presented,which is an effective method for decreasing program errors such as data flow error,infinitive program iteration,etc.

The cross-flow error in the one-dimensional spectra also becomes much less important in the dissipation range of the measured spectra.

The cross-flow error and the error caused by the unsteady convection of the small-scale motions were evaluated for typical measurements.

Expressions were developed to estimate the cross-flow error that occurs in the one-dimensional velocity spectra determined by applying Taylor's frozen field hypothesis to measurements with single- and cross-wire probes.

Existing flow-based measurement tools use average per-flow error as the primary measure of accuracy.

S-shaped inlet design is frequently adopted in modern aircraft. The flow through such an inlet undergoes severe changes as the inlet axis is much curved. Moreover, disturbances caused by fuselage and the inlet interact with each other so that the flow field is rather complicated. A simple uniform method may not give cost-effective results for the whole three-dimensional flow field of such a combination of the inlet and fuselage. Ref. [1] uses a mixed finite difference method to solve the above internal and external...

S-shaped inlet design is frequently adopted in modern aircraft. The flow through such an inlet undergoes severe changes as the inlet axis is much curved. Moreover, disturbances caused by fuselage and the inlet interact with each other so that the flow field is rather complicated. A simple uniform method may not give cost-effective results for the whole three-dimensional flow field of such a combination of the inlet and fuselage. Ref. [1] uses a mixed finite difference method to solve the above internal and external flow problem in an orthogonal mesh. The geometrical complexity of the inlet-fuse- lage combination causes great difficulty in generating the appropriate mesh system and treating the boundary conditions, especially near the entrance of the inlet. The body boundary condition is usually satisfied near the body surface because the mesh is not body-fitted (a 3-D body-fitted mesh is rather difficult to generate and makes the governing equations and its solution more complex). This causes great mass flow error near the entrance of the inlet, where the duct wall is of the converging-diverging shape and has the great- est curvature. Ref. [2] provides a perturbation method to treat the internal flow of any slender ducts. While the method has proved to be very fast and accurate inside the inlet duct, it cannot cope with the flow through the con- verging-diverging duct next to the entrance either, because the "slender assumption" is violated thereabout. Considering that the finite element meth- od is extremely flexible in the choice of mesh systems and quite accurate in approximating boundary conditions, we come up with the idea to embed the finite element method into the finite difference and perturbation meth- ods in the above area. Thus, we form a hybrid method which can fully ex- ploit the advantages and eliminate the disadvantages of the three different methods. Finite element approximation to a nonlinear partial differential equa- tion leads to it set of nonlinear algebraic equations, which is generally solved by means of iteration. For a three-dimensional problem, a very large set of linear algebraic equations must be solved for each iteration. This re- quires tremendous amounts of computer memory and CPU time. Ref. [3] forms the finite element equations by using the Galerkin method and solves the nonlinear algebraic equations through a Newton-Raphson iteration. Ref. [5] uses a least-square method to deal with the nonlinearity, whereas Ref. [6] presents a line-relaxation method to solve two-dimensional problems. The present paper develops a three-dimensional finite element method which is based on the Galerkin formulation and uses a surface-relaxation iteration to solve the resulting nonlinear finite element equations. This greatly reduces the computer memory and CPU time. Moreover, the Seidal method of iter- ation is employed to speed up the convergence of the nonlinear iteration. The above method is easy to implement and we use it to do the embe- dded calculation in the troublesome converging-diverging area of the inlet next to the entrance, where the finite difference and perturbation methods in [1] and [2] fail to give accurate results. The finite element computation is carried out with the entrance boundary condition provided by the finite-difference method and the exit boundary condition provided by the perturbation method. Results obtained from the embedded calculation show that the surface-relaxation finite element method developed in this paper is of good accuracy and rate of convergence. It takes only 11～14 times of iteration for a converged solution. Although the present paper is only a preliminary attempt to combine the finite-element, finite- difference and perturbation methods, it is a success. The embedded calculations reduce the mass flow error from the 7% in [1], to a max- imum less than 2%, which is an evidence of great improvement in accuracy.

This paper introduces a watchdog timer withbandpass behavior,which issues reset or interrupt signals if the WDT pulses generated by the microcomputer have a period either too long or too short. It alsodiscusses program module partitioning and some verification mechanisms, besides execution time checking,each module has self--checking for the reasonablenessof results, the flow errors of module boundaries crossing, which is realized by assigning a flag at the entrypoint and matching the flag at the exit...

This paper introduces a watchdog timer withbandpass behavior,which issues reset or interrupt signals if the WDT pulses generated by the microcomputer have a period either too long or too short. It alsodiscusses program module partitioning and some verification mechanisms, besides execution time checking,each module has self--checking for the reasonablenessof results, the flow errors of module boundaries crossing, which is realized by assigning a flag at the entrypoint and matching the flag at the exit point of themodule.

This paper studies the flow errors by using high precision one dimensional unsteady flow model to simulate eight-cylinder middle speed diesel engines and presents effective measures to reduce flow erros. The result is that the flow is basically balanced when using the simulation program to compute eight-cylinder middle speed disesel engines and the flow errors are within 2%.