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conductance
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High-frequency titration curves are discussed for various methods of experimental determination (the Q-meter, Z-meter and F-meter methods), using equivalent circuits for C-type and L-type titrating cells. It has been found that for the cases of L-type cell with Q-determination and C-type cell with Z- or F-determination, the quantity measured in the course of titration changes monotonously with .the increase of conductivity of the solution. In these cases, the high-frequency titration curve should be similar...

High-frequency titration curves are discussed for various methods of experimental determination (the Q-meter, Z-meter and F-meter methods), using equivalent circuits for C-type and L-type titrating cells. It has been found that for the cases of L-type cell with Q-determination and C-type cell with Z- or F-determination, the quantity measured in the course of titration changes monotonously with .the increase of conductivity of the solution. In these cases, the high-frequency titration curve should be similar in shape to that obtained in an ordinary conductometric titration. Two mistakes appearing in literature are here pointed out. (1) The equivalent parellel circuit and the equivalent series circuit for the C-type titrating cell do give the identical result for the value of the conductance of the solution which gives the maximum loss of high-frequency energy in the cell. (2) The appearance of a maximum high-frequency loss with increasing conduc- tance of the solution in the C-type cell is not the result of the Debye-Falkenhagen effect. The use of Pt wire electrodes in direct contact with solution for high-frequency titration is suggested. Satisfactory titration curves have been obtained with wire electrodes and a series capacitor to act as a C-type cell with much less shielding troubles.

1.對高頻滴定用的C式和L式滴定池,Q表法,Z表法及F表法测定得到的滴定曲線,與溶液電導改變的關係,用等效電路的理論,作了全面的討論。除C式滴定池Q表法測定,文獻中已有討論外,L式滴定池Q表法測定時,和C式滴定池Z表法和F表法測定時,滴定過程中測定的量都與溶液的電導值單調變化。 2.指出了文獻中的錯誤。C式滴定池應用等效串聯電路與等效並聯電路計算的結果,是完全等同的。C式滴定池的高頻電能損耗與溶液中電解質濃度的關係,與Debye-Falkenhagen效應無關。 3.提出了用鉑絲電極直接插入溶液的高頻滴定法。

Experiments have shown that the probe electrodes for the direct current measurement of conductance can be improved in the following way. Fritted glass filter-sticks filled with KCl solutions and fitted with Ag-AgCl electrodes were used as the probe electrodes, instead of the liquid junction electrodes suggested by Elias and Schiff. These electrodes were found to be satisfactory for both aqueous and mixed H_2O-dioxan solutions, diffusion being neglegible, and they can be used many times in succession without...

Experiments have shown that the probe electrodes for the direct current measurement of conductance can be improved in the following way. Fritted glass filter-sticks filled with KCl solutions and fitted with Ag-AgCl electrodes were used as the probe electrodes, instead of the liquid junction electrodes suggested by Elias and Schiff. These electrodes were found to be satisfactory for both aqueous and mixed H_2O-dioxan solutions, diffusion being neglegible, and they can be used many times in succession without deterioration.

实驗証明,用濾棒裝成的探針电极测量电解質溶液的导电度是合用的。从它所测得的几种电解質在混合溶剂中的导电度与精密的交流电法所测得的值很接近。这种电极一經装成后可反复使用,而且在测量过程中几无扩散效应。

A simple method to measure and analyse the factors affecting the maximum frequency of oscillation of transistors is described. From the maximum frequencies of oscillation measured with certain external series resistances connected in the base and collector circuits, the frequency of zero db current gain fT, base resistance rb, collector capacitance Cc, and also the intrinsic characteristic frequency fTd of the transistor can be deduced. The method of analysis is also discussed in the case when the collector...

A simple method to measure and analyse the factors affecting the maximum frequency of oscillation of transistors is described. From the maximum frequencies of oscillation measured with certain external series resistances connected in the base and collector circuits, the frequency of zero db current gain fT, base resistance rb, collector capacitance Cc, and also the intrinsic characteristic frequency fTd of the transistor can be deduced. The method of analysis is also discussed in the case when the collector conductance introduced by base width modulation plays an important role in limiting the maximum frequency of oscillation of the transistor. The connection between the maximum frequency of oscillation of drift transistor and its external parameters is discussed finally. It is concluded that when proper corrections are made for drift transistors, not only fTd, rb, and Cc, but also the magnitude of drift field in the base region of drift transistors can be deduced.

本文讨论了晶体管最高振荡频率有关因素的一种测量分析方法。利用在基极和集电极迴路中串入外加串联电阻后测量最高振荡频率的变动,可以同时获得晶体管共发射极短路电流放大零增益频率f_T、基极电阻γ_b、集电极电容C_c以及本征的特性频率f_(Td)。讨论了当基极层厚度调制作用所致的集电极电导起作用时的分析方法。最后分析了漂移晶体管最高振荡频率与晶体管外部参数的关系,结果说明,上述方法在考虑了适应于漂移晶体管的修正步骤后,除同样能得到f_(Td)、γ_b、C_c等有关参数外,还可以分析得出漂移晶体管基极层中的漂移电场强度。

 
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