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For the special case of his construction that gives groups of type E6, we connect the two papers by answering the question: Given an Albert algebra A and a separable quadratic field extension K, what is the index of the resulting algebraic group?
      
What is the highest Tc for phonon-mediated superconductivity
      
These results demonstrate the role of hydrogen bonds in molecular assembly formations and what is more, would be beneficial for understanding and fine tuning of the assembling of truxene-related opto-electronic materials.
      
In this paper we first review what is known about the kinetics of Meta II formation, the role and stoichiometry of protons in Meta II formation, the kinetics of the light-induced changes of proton concentration, and the site of proton uptake.
      
This confirms the conclusion arrived at by the authors in [1], where it was shown that if the Knudsen layer is left out of account, which is precisely what is usually done, it is impossible to obtain correct boundary conditions.
      
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It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter...

It is pointed out in this paper that the following apparent discrepancies exist in Coulomb's Theory: (1) In any problem in mechanics, a force to be definite must have all the three factors involved under consideration. In Coulomb's Theory, however, the point of application of the soil reaction on the plane of sliding is somehow neglected, thus enabling the arbitrary designation of the obliquity of the earth pressure on the wall to be equal to the friction angle between the wall surface and soil. As a matter of principle, the point of application should never be slighted while the obliquity of the earth pressure could only have a value that is compatible with the conditions for equilibrium. (2) If the point of application of the soil reaction is taken into account in the problem, the sliding wedge would only tend to slide either on the plane of sliding or on the surface of wall but not on both at the same time, thus frustrating the very conceptidn of sliding wedge upon which Coulomb's Theory is founded. (3) The above discrepancies arise from the fact that the shape of the surface of sliding should be curvilinear in order to make the wedge tend to slide as desired, while Coulomb, however, adopted a plane surface instead. (4) Coulomb, in finding the plane of sliding, made use of the maximum earth pressure on the wall (for active pressure), which refers to the different magnitudes of pressure corresponding to different assumed inclinations of the plane of sliding. But from the relation between the yield of wall and amount of pressure, this maximum value is really the minimum pressure on the wall, which it is the purpose of the theory to find. In engineering books, however, this terminology of maximum pressure has caused considerable confusion, with the result that what is really the minimum pressure is carelessly taken as the maximum design load for the wall. How can a minimum load be used in a design?This paper also attempts to clarify some contended points in Rankine's Theory: (1) It is claimed by Prof. Terzaghi that Rankine's Theory is only a fallacy because of the yield of wall and that of the soil mass on its bed. This charge is unjust as it can be compared with Coulomb's Theory in the same respect. (2) Some books declare that Rankine's Theory is good only for walls with vertical back, but it is proved in this paper that this is not so. (3) It is also generally believed that Rankine's Theory is applicable only to wall surfaces with no friction. This is likewise taken by this paper as unfounded and illustration is given whereby, in this regard, Rankine's Theory is even better than Coulomb's, because it contains no contradiction, as does Coulomb's.

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。...

本文從力學觀點對庫隆理論提出下列問題:(1)在解算力學問題時,每個力有三個因素都該同時考慮,但庫隆對土楔滑動面上土反力的施力點竟置之不理,因而才能對擋土墙上土壓力的傾斜角作一硬性假定,使它等於墙和土間的摩阻角,然而施力點是不能不管的,因而土壓力的傾斜角是不能離開平衡條件而被隨意指定的。(2)如果考慮了土反力的施力點,則土楔祇能在滑動面上,或在墙面上,有滑動的趨勢,而不能同時在兩個面上都有滑動的趨勢,因而庫隆的基本概念“滑動土楔”就站不住了。(3)問題關鍵在滑動面的形狀;如要使土楔在滑動面和墙面上同時有滑動趨勢,則滑動面必須是曲形面,然而庫隆採用了平直形的滑動面。(4)庫隆的土楔滑動面是從墙上最大的土壓力求出的(指主動壓力),這裏所謂“最大”是指適應各個滑動面的各個土壓力而言,但對適應墙在側傾時土壓力應有的變化來說,這個最大土壓力却正是墙上極限壓力的最小值。一般工程書籍,以為這土壓力既名為最大,就拿它來用作設計擋土墙的荷載,荷載如何能用最小的極限值呢?本文對朗金理論中的下列問題作了一些解釋:(1)朗金理論在擋土墙的位移問題上所受的限制,是和庫隆理論一樣的,竇薩基教授曾就此問題認為朗金理論是幻想,似乎是無根據的。(2)有些工程書中認為朗金理論是專為垂直的墙?

A new iodine heterocycle, 3,6-dinitro-dibenzopyriodonium bisulfate (Ⅲa), prisms, m.p. 217.5° (dec.), was found to be readily prepared in 86% yield by treating 4,4'-dinitrodiphenylmethane with iodosyl sulfate, which was conveniently obtained by stirring a stoichiometric mixture of iodine and sodium iodate in concentrated sulfuric acid. The iodonium compound (Ⅲa) could be converted to the chloride (Ⅲb), colorless needles, m.p. 211.5° (dec), bromide (Ⅲc), yellowish needles. m.p. 217.5° (dec.), iodide (Ⅲd), yellow...

A new iodine heterocycle, 3,6-dinitro-dibenzopyriodonium bisulfate (Ⅲa), prisms, m.p. 217.5° (dec.), was found to be readily prepared in 86% yield by treating 4,4'-dinitrodiphenylmethane with iodosyl sulfate, which was conveniently obtained by stirring a stoichiometric mixture of iodine and sodium iodate in concentrated sulfuric acid. The iodonium compound (Ⅲa) could be converted to the chloride (Ⅲb), colorless needles, m.p. 211.5° (dec), bromide (Ⅲc), yellowish needles. m.p. 217.5° (dec.), iodide (Ⅲd), yellow powder, m.p. 164° (dec.) and picrate (Ⅲe), yellow needles, m.p. 183-184° (dec.) by treating its solution in formic acid with a 50% formic acid solution of sodium chloride, sodium bromide or potassium iodide or with an alcoholic solution of picric acid respectively. The structural formula (Ⅲ) of the new iodonium compounds was derived by means of potassium permanganate oxidation of the bisulfate (Ⅲa) to 2-iodo-4-nitrobenzoic acid, and by thermal decomposition of the iodide (Ⅲd) to 2,2'-diiodo-4, 4'-dinitro-diphenyl-methane (Ⅵ) (60% yield), m.p. 158-159°, the structure of which was shown by analysis and by comparison with what is known about the behavior of other iodonium iodides, e.g., 4,4'-dicarboethoxy-diphenylene iodonium iodide (Ⅷ), which decomposes on heating yielding 2,2'-diiodo-4,4'-dicarboethoxydiphenyl (Ⅸ). Compound (Ⅵ) could be reduced with tin and hydrochloric acid to a diamino compound (Ⅶ).The iodonium salt (Ⅲa) possessed the interesting property that when it was treated with dilute sodium hydroxide solution at room temperature with the addition of ethyl acetate or pyridine, a beautiful bluish-green color gradually developed in the organic layer. When it was heated with dry pyridine, the same color developed. The colored ethyl acetate solution changed to brownish yellow on acidification with dilute sulfuric acid and regained its bluish-green color when the acidified solution was made alkaline.Under similar conditions as described above, reaction between diphenylmethane and iodosyl sulfate gave a grayish substance, m.p. 210-212°, which was insoluble in common solvents. This substance was possibly a polymeric compound of formula (Ⅺ).

1.4,4'-二硝基二苯甲烷(Ⅰ)與硫酸亚碘醯(Ⅱ)作用,生成一种新型的含碘杂環化合物(Ⅲ_a)。 2.化合物Ⅲ_a與氯化鈉、溴化鈉、碘化鉀或苦味酸作用,置换成为相應的鹵化物(Ⅲ_(b-d))或苦味酸盐(Ⅲ_e)。 3.用鹼性高錳酸鉀溶液氧化化合物Ⅲ_a得2-碘代-4-硝基苯甲酸。 4.碘化物(Ⅲ_d)在它的熔點温度进行熱解,得2,2'-二碘代-4,4'-二硝基二苯甲烷。继还原,得相應的二氨基化合物。二者均为新化合物。 5.化合物Ⅲ_a用氢氧化鈉溶液处理,得到蓝绿色物質,溶於乙酸乙酯、丙酮、吡啶中成鲜明的蓝绿色溶液。乙酸乙酯溶液酸化後变成黄棕色,再鹼化復现蓝绿色。将化合物Ⅲ_a在无水吡啶中加熱,亦呈现蓝绿色。 6.在类似的条件下,二苯甲烷與硫酸亚碘醯起作用。

Although most higher plants are hermophroditic, monoecious or dioeoious plants are not infrequently met with in nature. In some cases, plants or organs of one sex possess greater economic value than those of the other sex. Therefore, to change the sex of plants or vary the numbar of either male or female flowers (usually toward the direction of femaleness) is of both theoretical and practical significance.It has long been observed that the sexuality of plants changes with a change of environmental factors. But...

Although most higher plants are hermophroditic, monoecious or dioeoious plants are not infrequently met with in nature. In some cases, plants or organs of one sex possess greater economic value than those of the other sex. Therefore, to change the sex of plants or vary the numbar of either male or female flowers (usually toward the direction of femaleness) is of both theoretical and practical significance.It has long been observed that the sexuality of plants changes with a change of environmental factors. But those -observed facts received little attention in the past, since they could not be reconciled with the then-prevalent chromosome theory of sex determination. Biologists of the Michurin school believe .that sexuality of plants is but one of the characteristics that the plant exhibits under certain environmental conditions. Thus, like any other characteristic, it is determined by the metabolic conditions of the plants themselves. We are convinced that by changing one or more of the environmental factors, thereby altering the metabolic pattern of the plants, we can successfully control the sexuality of plants for the banefit of mankind.Minina in her monograph has comprehensively reviewed the literature pertinent to the change of sexuality in the plant world under changed enviromental conditions. It has been shown that either treatment with CO, or an alteration of the nutritional status of plants can affect the sex expression of plants.The present investigation purposes to study in greater detail the principles governing the formation of male and female flowers in the cucumber plants.Treatment of the 24-day-old cucumber seedlings with CO gas (at 1%, 0.5% and 0.3%) for 161 hours has remarkably altered the order in which the mala and .female flowers appear. The numbar of female flowers greatly increases, whereas the male flowers do not appear until much later. Marked morphological changes have also been noticed. Physiologically, treated young plants decrease their respiratory activity by 50-70%, as measured at the close of the experimental period. The activity of catalasa has had corresponding changes.When plants are given ample phcspliorus fertilizer successively at the 3-leaf stage, the. stage of bud appearance, and the stage of opening of the female flowers, they bear much more female flowers, whereas the number of male flowers remains unchanged. Plants thus treated also show lower calalase activity hi their leaves.Higher water content of the soil has favored the formation of female flowers. Plants grown under such condition absorb more nitrogen than control plants. This is in line with what is reported in the literature to the effect that high nitrogen is favorable for the development of femaleness.The increase of the number of female flowers is not necessarily connected with the state of the growth of plants. This has led us to believe that it is not the general nutritional status of plants, i.e., the abundance or deficiency of fertilizer, that determines sexuality,The present investigation has clearly demonstrated the possibility that different environmental factors which showed their effect on sex expression may have performed their functions through the same or similar mechanism.The effects of some respiratory inhibitors, including NaN3, malonate, fluoride, etc. are being examined. Investgations are also being undertaken to elucidate the possibility of treatment of seeds with various substances to change the sex ratio of the flowers in the cucumber plants.

在自然界中不少植物是雌雄异株或雌雄同株而异花的。不同性别的植株或花的经济价值不同,因此,定向改变植物性别的问题就不仅仅具有理论上的意义,而且也有着实践上的意义。很早就有人观察到植物性别可随环境而发生改变的事实;但是这些事实没有受到足够的重视,因为它们与性别决定的染色体学说是不相容的。米丘林生物学者认为植物性别的形成和发展也是植物有机体在一定环境条件下所表现的发育特性之一,是决定于植物体内的新陈代谢的。因此,我们深信,通过环境条件的改变,改变植物体内的新陈代谢过程,从而定向地控制植物的性别是完全可能的。 曾详尽而全面地介绍了定向改变植物性别方面的文献。本文目的在于进一步探讨环境条件对于黄瓜雌雄花出现的规律性的影响以及这些影响的生理实质。 在黄瓜幼苗期间用CO(浓度为1%,0.5%,0.3%)处理植株161小时显著地改变了雌、雄花出现的顺序,增加了雌花的数目,降低了雄花的数目。提高了果实的产量。在外部形态方面亦发生了显著的改变。在生理方面,遭受气体处理的植物在处理结束后呼吸强度降低50—70%,过氧化氢酶的活性也有相应的改变。 在植株三叶期、现蕾期、雌花开放期均施以充足的磷肥,这种处理选择性地增加了雌花的数目,而...

在自然界中不少植物是雌雄异株或雌雄同株而异花的。不同性别的植株或花的经济价值不同,因此,定向改变植物性别的问题就不仅仅具有理论上的意义,而且也有着实践上的意义。很早就有人观察到植物性别可随环境而发生改变的事实;但是这些事实没有受到足够的重视,因为它们与性别决定的染色体学说是不相容的。米丘林生物学者认为植物性别的形成和发展也是植物有机体在一定环境条件下所表现的发育特性之一,是决定于植物体内的新陈代谢的。因此,我们深信,通过环境条件的改变,改变植物体内的新陈代谢过程,从而定向地控制植物的性别是完全可能的。 曾详尽而全面地介绍了定向改变植物性别方面的文献。本文目的在于进一步探讨环境条件对于黄瓜雌雄花出现的规律性的影响以及这些影响的生理实质。 在黄瓜幼苗期间用CO(浓度为1%,0.5%,0.3%)处理植株161小时显著地改变了雌、雄花出现的顺序,增加了雌花的数目,降低了雄花的数目。提高了果实的产量。在外部形态方面亦发生了显著的改变。在生理方面,遭受气体处理的植物在处理结束后呼吸强度降低50—70%,过氧化氢酶的活性也有相应的改变。 在植株三叶期、现蕾期、雌花开放期均施以充足的磷肥,这种处理选择性地增加了雌花的数目,而对雄花的数目无影响。受到这种处理的植物

 
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