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     MY HUMBLE OPINION ON THE UTILIZATION OF THE COMMON POLYESTER FILAMENT IN PRODUCING SILKLIKE FABRIC
     利用普通聚酯长丝生产仿丝织物之管见
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     The Application of Microcomputer and Digital Display in the Common Machine Tool
     微机与数显在普通车床上的应用
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     ORIGIN,EVOLUTION AND GENETIC RESOURCES OF THE COMMON BEAN
     普通菜豆的起源、进化和遗传资源
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     Memory Port of the Common Oscp Controlled by 8098 SCP
     8098单片机控制的普通示波器存储接口
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     ②Installation time of percutaneous compressing intramedullary interlocking nails was 43% of that of the common lockpin.
     ②经皮加压带锁肱骨髓内钉安装固定时间是普通带锁髓内钉的43%。
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     Observation on the Hibernation of the Common Mosquitoes in Shanghai
     上海地区几种常见蚊虫越冬情况的观察
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     THE BREEDING HABITS OF THE COMMON FLIES IN SHANGHAI DISTRICT
     上海地区常见蝇类的滋生习性
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     Roentgenological Diagnosis of the Common Diseases in the lleocecal Area——Analysis of 60 Cases
     迴盲部常见疾病的X线诊断(附60例分析)
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     DIAGNOSIS AND ELIMINATION OF THE COMMON HITCHS IN MX-1502 SATELLITE RECEIVER
     MX-1502卫星接收机常见故障的诊断和排除
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     Analysis and Elimination of the Common Faults in the Electroplating of Ni-Fe Alloy
     电镀镍铁合金常见故障分析排除
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     The Common Compatibility of Electrolyte with Both Positive and Negative Electrode Materials in Lithium Ion Secondary Batteries
     锂离子二次电池中电解液与正、负电极材料的兼容性
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     The Political System of China During the Common Outline Period(1949-1954)
     1949-1954年的中国政治体制
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     HISTORY OF DOMESTICATION AND FACTORS OF VARIETAL FORMATION OF THE COMMON GOLDFISH, CARASSIUS AURATUS.
     金鱼家化史与品種形成的因素
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     New Materials on the Species of the Common Catfish (Parasilurus)
     鲶鱼(Parasilurus)种的新资料
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     The Common Diseases as Chief Cause of Death among the Inhabitants in Macheng County,Hubei Province(1969-1978)
     湖北省麻城县1969—1978年居民主要疾病死亡分析
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The common techniques, such as high performance chromatography and SDS-PAGE, can only carry out qualitative analysis.
      
The ion-exchanger LiAlTiO4 of spinel type was prepared by the common precipitation/hydrothermal crystallization method, and was acid-modified.
      
Its intermediate design solution and the constraint relations between input and output are generated to fill the common blackboard.
      
The program for the PRS-XY style hybrid machining tool in accordance with the program manner for the common numerical control (NC) machine tool was made.
      
However, there are great differences between the common fluorescence imaging techniques, i.e., wide-field, confocal one-photon and two-photon microscopy, as far as their applicability in diverse bioscientific research areas is concerned.
      
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The natural vegetation of Shantung Province, in the north temperate zone, is of the aestisilvae type. As the natural conditions vary in different parts of this province, the vegetation may be divided into the following four regions: 1. Alluvial plain of the Yellow River: This region is located at the northern part of this province. The saline soil is unfavorable for the growth of most plants. The following plants are characteristic: Tamarax chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Suaeda salsa, S. glauca, Artemisin capillaris,...

The natural vegetation of Shantung Province, in the north temperate zone, is of the aestisilvae type. As the natural conditions vary in different parts of this province, the vegetation may be divided into the following four regions: 1. Alluvial plain of the Yellow River: This region is located at the northern part of this province. The saline soil is unfavorable for the growth of most plants. The following plants are characteristic: Tamarax chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Suaeda salsa, S. glauca, Artemisin capillaris, Aeluropus littoralis, Miscanthus sinensis, Phragmites karka, Carex sp. etc.. 2.Western Shantung plain: This region is located at the western part of the province. Most of the land is under cultivation and the soil is rich in calcium. There is no forest. The common trees are Populus tomentosa, P. alba P. davidiana, Ulmus spp. etc., and the herbaceous plants are Cynodon dactilon, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa colonum, Imperata cylindrica, Chenopodium album, Convolvulus chinensis,Xanthium japonicum, Crypi saculeata, Scirpus maritimus etc.. Plants which grow in the lake district largely belong to Phragmites communis, Scirpus maritimus, Zizania latifolia, Euryale ferox, Trapa bispinosa etc.. 3.Central South hilly region: This region has mostly been transformed into farms for a long time. On the hilly region there are still some remnant forests. The important trees are Pinus tabulaeformis, Biota orientalis. Quercus acutissima, Q. variabilis, Betula chinensis, Tilia mongolica etc.. On account of calcareous soil in this region, Biota orientalis is found most extensively. Gramineae leads all other herbaceous plants in abundance. The following species such as Arundinella amomala, Bothriochloa ischaemum, Setaria viridis, Pennisitum flaccidum etc. have a wide distribution. 4. Shantung Peninsula: The common native plants in this region are Pinus densiflora, Quercus dentata, Q. acutissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer mono etc.. Pious densiflora is a native plant which grows all over the hilly region. Herbaceous plants are mostly Thymus serpyllum, Setaria viridis, S. lutescens etc.. Due to the oceanic climate with higher precipitation and humidity, plants enjoy a more vigorous growth than those in other regions. There develops a richer flora, some even with warm temperate elements.

山东省之位置属于温带,植物分布为落葉闊葉林區,但在鲁中南及膠東區爲丘陵地带,落葉闊葉樹乃與針葉樹成混交林澑鶕∧谥匀粭l件,可将植物分布情况列為四區: 1.黃河冲積平原區:位於北部,為黄河三角州地帶,土壤含鹽分甚重,不宜於植物之生長。樹木只有檉柳、茶棵子等;草本以黄鬚菜、鹼蓬、茵陳蒿,獐毛、芒、蘆葦、黑三稜草等最為砇姟?2.魯西平原區:為西部之黄河冲積平原,多為農田,土壤含鈣甚多。區內無森林,常見之樹木有毛白楊、白楊、山楊、榆等?荼居泄费栏ⅠR唐、芒稷、白茅、藜、旋花、蒼耳、隱花草、荆三稜等。湖泊區域多蘆葦、荆三稜、蒲姜草、芡、菱等。3.魯中南區:為丘陵地區,平緩部分已闢為農田。山區有殘留森林,主要樹種為油松、侧柏、麻櫟、栓皮櫟、堅樺、椴等;土壤石灰質,側柏之繁盛為共特點。草本以禾本科為最多,常見的如野古草、白羊草、狗尾草、白草等,此外如細葉莎草、雞眼草、蚊子草等亦為砇姟?4.膠東區:在山東半島部份,主要樹種為赤松、洋槐、麻櫟、五角楓等,赤松自山麓至山上均有分佈,且為其鄉土,此乃本區之特徵;草本以蚊子草、狗尾草、金狗尾草為最多。在海灘地上少有高大樹木,常見樹種如洋槐、旱柳等均為栽培者,野生木本植物有酸棗...

山东省之位置属于温带,植物分布为落葉闊葉林區,但在鲁中南及膠東區爲丘陵地带,落葉闊葉樹乃與針葉樹成混交林澑鶕∧谥匀粭l件,可将植物分布情况列為四區: 1.黃河冲積平原區:位於北部,為黄河三角州地帶,土壤含鹽分甚重,不宜於植物之生長。樹木只有檉柳、茶棵子等;草本以黄鬚菜、鹼蓬、茵陳蒿,獐毛、芒、蘆葦、黑三稜草等最為砇姟?2.魯西平原區:為西部之黄河冲積平原,多為農田,土壤含鈣甚多。區內無森林,常見之樹木有毛白楊、白楊、山楊、榆等?荼居泄费栏ⅠR唐、芒稷、白茅、藜、旋花、蒼耳、隱花草、荆三稜等。湖泊區域多蘆葦、荆三稜、蒲姜草、芡、菱等。3.魯中南區:為丘陵地區,平緩部分已闢為農田。山區有殘留森林,主要樹種為油松、侧柏、麻櫟、栓皮櫟、堅樺、椴等;土壤石灰質,側柏之繁盛為共特點。草本以禾本科為最多,常見的如野古草、白羊草、狗尾草、白草等,此外如細葉莎草、雞眼草、蚊子草等亦為砇姟?4.膠東區:在山東半島部份,主要樹種為赤松、洋槐、麻櫟、五角楓等,赤松自山麓至山上均有分佈,且為其鄉土,此乃本區之特徵;草本以蚊子草、狗尾草、金狗尾草為最多。在海灘地上少有高大樹木,常見樹種如洋槐、旱柳等均為栽培者,野生木本植物有酸棗、舖地胡枝子等;草本植物多蘆葦、狗尾草等。此區氣候由於受篞笳{節,雨量與溼度亦較高,故植物生長較其他三區繁盛,種類亦較多,亞熱带植物之分布亦多於他處,尤以海邊低地為甚。在自然地理上,秦嶺、淮河一線是中國南北氣候和土壤的重要分界線,也是植物的重要分界線。但是從山東的植物分布上,可以知道這條線並不能絕然的将植物分為南北二部分,因為山東仍是一个過渡的地帶,許多南方植物在魯南及膠東沿海都有分佈,如黄檀、山胡椒、烏桖、厚朴、王蘭、木犀、黄楊、谜葉樹等多种。在另一方面,北方植物分佈至山東為其最南界限者如糠椴、遼珍珠梅、遼磯松、榛等;而赤松、蒙古機、蒙椴等則南达苏北之雲台山。由此可加,山東之植物分佈上,仍在秦嶺、淮河一線之範圍内,如以淮河來作為植物之南北分界線,则并不能完全符合實際情况,尤以膠東沿海低地,南方植物種類繁多,可與淮河流域相此。因此,此一分界线之東端似有北移之必要。山東植物之分佈乃由環境条件综合影響之結果,但在不同地区,各種因素之作用並不一致,由於地形、土壤、温度和水分等之区别而使植物分布不同。本文所举植物種类和分布地點都是從各項资料所得到,作者将其分為四區,並初步提出了這種分区的理由和形成不同分布的原因。但限於材料的不够完全和水平的淺薄,因此本文的內容很不充實, 只能作为令後进一步研究山东植物地理的基础,希望大家提出补充和指出不正确的地方,而使这一项工作能够顺利的完成。

The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter...

The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter α_c defined as logγc/N_Fe~2 with reference to graphite as the standard state is plotted against N_c for both austenite and Fe-C melt in order to facilitate the evaluation of α_(Fe) by graphical integration. Smith's data~([1]) on equilibrium between austenite and gaseous mixtures (CO_2/CO, CH_4/H_2) are re-treated to yield α_c~γ-N_c~γ curves for 800° and 1000℃ as shown in Fig. 1. On the assumption that L_c~γ the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in austenite, does not chan preciably with temperature, the α_c~γ-V_c~γ curve for 1153℃, the iron-graphite eutectic temperature, is obtained by extrapolation and found to lie above the graphite saturation point. This fact seems to indicate that the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model is reached somewhere around N_c~γ=0.0661 (1.50%) and a point of inflection should occur at this concentration. The above-mentioned assumption has been semi-quantitatively proved in this paper and will be discussed further in another paper of this series.In a similar manner, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for liquid Fe-C alloys are drawn through the experimental points of Richardson and Dennis on equilibrium between CO_2/CO mixed gases and dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron at 1560° and 1660℃ as shown in Fig. 1. The curves are extended up to N_c~1=0.15 on the basis of Darken and Smith's model using 3600 cals. as the energy of interaction at 1560℃ between carbon atoms in the neighbouring interstitial sites as recommended by Richardson and Dens. Then, a suitable curve is drawn between N_c~l=0.15 and the graphite saturation point for 1560℃ to meet certain requirements, and a corresponding curve for 1660℃ is obtained by extrapolation, assuming that L_c~l, the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in liquid iron, does not change appreciably with temperature. Thus, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 1560° and 1660℃ are completed from low carbon concentrations up to saturation. The activities of carbon in Fe-C melts at 1600℃ with reference to graphite as the standard state are readily obtained at different carbon concentrations by interpolation, from which the reversible electromotive forces of a concentration cell of the type Fe,C|slag, C_2~2|Fe,C(sat.) have been calculated and found to agree fairly well with the experimental values obtained by and as shown in Fig. 2. This agreement may be taken as partial confirmation of the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model to liquid Fe-C alloys.From α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 160°and 1660℃, L_c~l is easily calculated to be 3930 cals., and by combining this value with certain other data, the following equation is obtained:C(gr.)=C[%]; AF°=3930-9.21 T,which differs considerably from Chipman's equation AF°=8900-12.10T given in the 1951 edition of the "Basic Open Hearth Steelmaking". It is believed that the present author's equation is more reliable than Chipman's in view of the uncertainties involved in the derivation of the latter especially regarding the evaluation of the enthalpy of solution of graphite in liquid iron.By graphical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation, the activities of iron in Fe-C melts with pure liquid iron as the standard state are obtained at different carbon concentrations and plotted against N_c~l in Fig. 3. The α_(Fe)~l-N_c~l curve thus obtained is independent of temperature. With the aid of Fig. 3 and certain other data, the activities of iron in an Fe-C melt and austenite both saturated with graphite at the eutectic temperature are evaluated with pure γ iron as the common standard state and found to be practically equal as required by the eutectic equilibrium. This fact renders additional support to the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the inflection point of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves.The shape of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves is briefly discussed from a structural viewpoint.

作者在本文中综合分析了关於液态铁碳合金中碳活度测定的諸家研究结果並比较其优劣. 然后根据Richardson与Dennis用CO_2/CO平衡法的实验数据,用Darken与Smith的统计模型与最少假定,导出了液态鉄碳合金中α′_c与N′_c的关系(α′_c=logγ′_c,/(N_Fe′)~2,标准状态为石墨),并温度对此关系的影响.计算结果符合於(i)鉄液内石墨溶解度的实验数据;(ii)与用电动势法测定液态铁碳合金中碳活度的实验数据;及(iii)奥氏体、铁液、石墨共晶平衡的要求. 根据本文所导出的α′_c-N′_c曲綫,作者算得石墨在鉄液内的溶解热为3930卡;然后依此及其他必需数据,导出下列关系:C(石墨)=C[%],△F°=3930-9.21T. 最后作者从液态铁碳合金结构的观点讨论了图1中α′_c-N′_c曲綫的形状.

The horsefly, Tabanus griseus Krober, is one of the commonest species ofTabanids found in Peking. It is widely distributed in north-eastern, north andeast parts of China. This paper reports the result of a study on its life history andhabits conducted in Peking during 1951-54. Our observations show that this Tabanid begins to appear in early June,becomes abundant during latter part of June and throughout July. Here after thenumber decreases and after the middle of September it is rarely found in thefield....

The horsefly, Tabanus griseus Krober, is one of the commonest species ofTabanids found in Peking. It is widely distributed in north-eastern, north andeast parts of China. This paper reports the result of a study on its life history andhabits conducted in Peking during 1951-54. Our observations show that this Tabanid begins to appear in early June,becomes abundant during latter part of June and throughout July. Here after thenumber decreases and after the middle of September it is rarely found in thefield. The seasonal activity therefore covers a period of about three and halfmonths. Six egg masses from which the issuing larvae were counted produced 456-842or in average 564 individuals. Under laboratory conditions, in the month of June andJuly, the average incubation period of the egg was found to be 4.5 days. Thelarvae molt within a few hours after hatching, and both the number and theduration of the larval stages are subject to a considerable variation. They normallypass through 7 or 8 larval stages but 6-10 larval stages also occurred. Under insec-tary conditions, the larval period for 52 individuals varied from 49 to 396 days.Those producing flies in the same year varied from 49-71 or in average 61.3 days,while those producing flies in the next year varied from 335 to 396 or in average 359 days. The average pupal duration for 52 individuals was 10.6 days. This Taba-nid is normally one generation per year. On a few occasions eggs daposited in Junecompleted their life histories in producing flies in early September. After feedingthese flies may deposit eggs and thus it is possible to have two generations a year. In the field, egg masses and larvae were found most frequently in rice fieldswhich seem to be the most suitable breeding place. Larvae have also been takenat the water edge of ponds with bulrush or other grasses growing, but on no occa-sion were larvae found near the sides of running water such as a river, a streamor a brook. This Tabanid passes winter in the larval stages, of which full-grownlarvae being the most common. In the field over-wintering larvae were usuallyfound in frozen soils 22-25 cm. below the surface on the edges of the rice fields. An egg-parasite, Telenomus sp., was found as a natural enemy. It is most com-mon in July and the parasiting rates of the egg masses of the Tabanid as found in1951 and 1953 were 34% and 23% respectively. Descriptions of immature and adult stages of Tabanus griseus are given; maleadult and the immature stages are described for first time. Measures for controling T. griseus are briefly suggested.

1.土灰虻是北京附近地区虻类的主要种类之一。它分布在东北、华北及华东等地。成虫为害牛、驴、骡等家畜。本文是1951—54年在北京进行生活史研究的一个报告。 2.土灰虻的成虫自6月上旬开始出现,6月下旬至7月下旬发生最多,9月中旬以后,则极少发现。全年的活动时间约为3(1/2)月。 3.本种虻的卵期平均为4.5日,每一卵块孵出的幼虫平均为564个。幼虫期在当年羽化的幼虫,平均为61.3日;在翌年羽化的幼虫,平均为359日。蛹期平均为10.6日。本种虻主要一年发生1代,仅有少数的个体当年可以发生第2代。 4.本种虻的孳生地主要在水稻田,在芦苇塘和长有窄长叶杂草的水塘亦常有孳生,但在河、溪等流动的水源则未有发现。本种以幼虫越冬,其中以成熟幼虫占极多数。越冬的处所多在堤岸下22—25厘米深的冻结土中。 5.本种虻有一种卵寄生蜂——黄胸黑卵蜂,寄生率达23—34%。这种卵寄生峰在7月间发生最多。 6.关于本种虻各虫期的形态,本文均有描述;其中雄虻及各幼期的形态,尚系初次记述。 7.根据生活史与习性的研究,对本种虻的防治问题,提出了几点意见;铲除田埂,清理池塘和积水洼地,利用天敌以及适当期间进行药治等。

 
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