The main types of the errors were:the wrong methods of data analyzing for 61.76%,diagram error for 14.71%,non-statistical dealing for 8.82%,the mixture of rate and ratio for 8.82%,and the other error for 5.88%.

and the sum of intensity ratio of ten peaks and TiO_2 y, are as follows, respectively, X_B=17.41Y_B+2.14 X_P=14.43Y_p+15.69 both of which are highly significant at the level of x=0.01 and the errors from which are less than 5%.

The results of investigation show that the errors of the TWPTs are dependent on the different combinations of one λ/2 and two λ/4, and according to the accuracy of TWPTs, λ/4+λ/2+λ/4 is the best, λ/2+λ/4+λ/4 is better and λ/4+λ/4+λ/2 is good.

The errors estimation of the Chebyshev spectral-difference method for two-dimensional vorticity equation

We vigorously analyse the errors produced by initial errors and boundary value errors.

To assume that the errors have the finite moment of order 2 only.

The errors of the model are quite close to the experimental errors.

Here, the random surface error is defined as the error of the standard reflector in its normal direction and the errors in a small zone of the reflector are considered as equal.

In this paper the logical structure of contactless telemechanical system for distributed objects is discussed. A simple method of variable system structure for transmitting and receiving telemechanical information is adopted. The idea is that the information oc-curred in every controlled point (station) and the information of some of those objects,which frequently change their states, are transmitted continually and cyclically, while for other objects their information is transmitted only after any change in...

In this paper the logical structure of contactless telemechanical system for distributed objects is discussed. A simple method of variable system structure for transmitting and receiving telemechanical information is adopted. The idea is that the information oc-curred in every controlled point (station) and the information of some of those objects,which frequently change their states, are transmitted continually and cyclically, while for other objects their information is transmitted only after any change in their states. Thus,the speed of operation will be increased, and also the error probability of system syn-chronization will be decreased. For the realization of the variable logical system struc-ture, several blocks are used repetitively. For example, two commutators and one sim-ple logical unit are used to construct a simple automatic sequential encoder, and at the same time, the two commutators are used also to operate as a matrix commutator for receiving telesignalling information etc. Therefore the system is comparatively simplified and attains a higher degree of "minimization".

A new method is proposed in this paper for the evaluation of the following three important kinds of three-center and four-center integrals needed in molecular quantum mechanics: (1) (2) (3) Obviously, integral (2) is a special case of integral (3), so we need only to evaluate the first and the third. The following equations have been obtained for the evaluation of the above-mentioned two kinds of integrals (4) (5) where (6) (7) (8) (9) R_0 in equation (4) is the distance of point a apart from the origin located...

A new method is proposed in this paper for the evaluation of the following three important kinds of three-center and four-center integrals needed in molecular quantum mechanics: (1) (2) (3) Obviously, integral (2) is a special case of integral (3), so we need only to evaluate the first and the third. The following equations have been obtained for the evaluation of the above-mentioned two kinds of integrals (4) (5) where (6) (7) (8) (9) R_0 in equation (4) is the distance of point a apart from the origin located in bc line, while that in equation (5) is the distance between the two chosen origins separately located in ab and cd lines. θ_0 is the angle made byand, and θ_(10), θ_(20) and θ_(12) are respectively the angles made by and,and,and, The fourth term of equation (5) is, in general, negligible except in the case of R_0, which is less than two Bohr units. We propose two methods for the evaluation of and : the first one is to choose the origin at the end-point of the bond and evaluate the integral strictly inside and outside the sphere of radius, while the second one is to choose the origin at the mid-point of the bond and evaluate its value inside and outside the ellipsoid passing through the end-point of. The calculation involved in the second method is quite simple and, of course, a small error is introduced in changing the region of integration from the sphere to the ellipsoid, but it is quite negligible in comparison with the result of our first method. Equation (4) is exact in all cases, while equation (5) is exact in many cases but also involves certain errors in some other cases. From our actual calculations, we draw the conclusion that equation (5) is almost exact in the evaluation of integrals L_(aa, bc) and L_(ab, cd) and that certain error is involved in the evaluation of integral L_(ab, bc), but the error introduced does not exceed ten per cent.

In order to determine flood discharges in rivers without any previous hydrometric record, estimation according to its trace is the only approximation method that is comparatively reliable. The method requires only to find the flood trace, measure its slope and section of flow, estimate the channel roughness, and then substitute these data into hydraulic formulas to calculate the velocity and discharge. Although the results thus obtained may not be accurate, and it is impossible to ascertain the probability of...

In order to determine flood discharges in rivers without any previous hydrometric record, estimation according to its trace is the only approximation method that is comparatively reliable. The method requires only to find the flood trace, measure its slope and section of flow, estimate the channel roughness, and then substitute these data into hydraulic formulas to calculate the velocity and discharge. Although the results thus obtained may not be accurate, and it is impossible to ascertain the probability of occurrence corresponding to the flood, nevertheless, the data based upon are direct, and so the errors are low in comparison with those of indirect methods, such as the hydro-meteorological and the analogical, which might even yield radically unreliable results. Besides, in the statistical method of estimating flood flows, this method has been used to supplement those extraordinary flood data not recorded in history and yet valuable for statistics.The current method of estimating flood discharges from its trace assumes the state of steady flow and its velocity formula, from which it is impossible to obtain the maximum discharge that actually happens in the state of unsteady flow, and is only possible to calculate the discharge at maximum water level smaller than the peak discharge. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of the current method and suggests another means of estimating by taking average of the upper and lower limits of the maximum discharge. The error of estimation in the new method will not be over 17% by analysis, which, as compared with the standard of allowable error in hydrometrical survey, is not considerable.