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     Rural distance education can transport information technology and digital resources to countryside,improve the quality of rural foundational education,expand the scale of rural professional education and adult education,and bring a good opportunity for the construction of study countryside.
     农村远程教育将信息技术、数字资源送进农村,有利于提高农村基础教育质量,扩大农村职成教育规模,实现农村终身教育体系构建,为学习型农村的建设带来契机。
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     After the of study of the apriori algorithm in classical association rules,a date mining algorithm like spriori is proposed to analyse the pages frequently accessed by students,as it could provide useful information for the network course designers and teachers to solve the information confusion problems among students in network learning.
     在研究了经典的关联规则算法Apriori之后,提出了类Spriori的数据挖掘算法分析学生频繁访问的页面路径,用以提供有用的信息给网络课程设计者以及授课老师,来解决学生在网络学习过程中产生的“信息迷航”问题。
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     [Results]76.9% of the students were depressed by the failure of the exam,47.5% and 46.8% were affected by the disturbances from the environment and overburden of study.
     [结果]调查结果显示约有76.9%的大学生认为考试失败或成绩不理想对生活困扰的影响很大,而47.5%和46.8%的大学生认为学习和生活环境中干扰大以及学习负担过重也对生活困扰的产生较大影响。
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     The autonomous learning ability can effectively improve the quality,level,efficiency and innovation ability of study.
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     Practice teaching is an important tache which the students engage from the school of study on theory to soccal discipline field.
     实践教学是学生从学校理论学习走向社会专业领域的重要环节。
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At the same time, precipitation is the focus of study in meteorology and climatology, ecological environmental assessment, non-point source pollution and so on.
      
HbA1c levels and drugs contributing to 2HPG at the end of study had statistical cross-action (P >amp;lt; 0.01).
      
With seven major river basins in China as an object of study, this paper is designed to perform a diagnosis of major problems about the transjurisdictional water pollution management in China from three aspects, i.e.
      
The fourth part of this review deals with a method of study of protein expression during the cell cycle by means of immunoblotting of synchronized cell fractions.
      
The processes of surface vaporization under the influence of an intense heat flux, artificial gas injection and surface combustion [4] are all worthy of study.
      
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During 1955 and 1956 the pine barkbeetle, Myelophilus Piniperda L., seriously injured pine trees on the hills near by Kiang-Kan section at Hangchow, where the pine logs (firewoods)were piled for a considerable time before selling out. Most of the logs came down from Chien Teh (建德) and Zueng-An (淳安) along the Tsiang Tang River and were infested with immense number of the barkbeetle larvae. Results of study by the writers indicated that the serious infestation of pine shoots was due to spread of the beetles...

During 1955 and 1956 the pine barkbeetle, Myelophilus Piniperda L., seriously injured pine trees on the hills near by Kiang-Kan section at Hangchow, where the pine logs (firewoods)were piled for a considerable time before selling out. Most of the logs came down from Chien Teh (建德) and Zueng-An (淳安) along the Tsiang Tang River and were infested with immense number of the barkbeetle larvae. Results of study by the writers indicated that the serious infestation of pine shoots was due to spread of the beetles emerged from the piles of log. The pine barkbeetle at Hangchow gave one brood a year, overwintering in pine shoots; up to late March and April they came down to the logs and dead woods in the forest, and made parent galleries between the bark and sapwood. The barkbeetle would take about a month to complete its life cycle. The results of trials and recommendations on control of the pest are given in the following: 1. Separate applications of 25% DDT emulsion, 50% wettable DDT and 6% wettable 666 on the pine logs at a rate of 1:100 dilution still gave 68%, 82% and 66% mortalities respectively on the 20th day. Therefore it was suggested that spraying any one of the above mentioned chemicals three times at 20-day intervals from late April to end of June would kill the emerged beetles. 2. To control the beetles in the pine shoots with 1: 60—1: 100 dilution of 6% wettable 666 was quite promising. 3. Flaming the pine logs or dead woods in April or May (the breeding period of the barkbeetles) for 2 minutes gave 100% mortality. Putting trap trunks in the forest and removering barks before transportation at Chien Teh and Zueng An were suggested.

1.松小蠹虫在杭州地区猖獗成災,主要是由于从錢塘江上游远來的松柴,攜带了大量的松小蠹虫幼虫而造成的;因此若能在松柴產地剝掉樹皮后,再行运輸是最有效的防治措施。2.根据初步观察此虫在杭州一年發生一代,新成虫在5月下旬到9月間为害当年生松梢;越冬成虫从3月下旬起离开越冬松梢,蛀進二年生松梢的梢端取食,并蛀入半枯死樹和衰老樹樹干或柴堆樹皮下產卵。3.为歼滅杭州地区松小蠹虫,根据試驗結果我們認为可采取下列几个措施:(1)自錢塘江上游运來的松柴在成虫未羽化前,進行噴藥,用1:100的25%DDT乳剂、50%可湿性DDT或6%可湿性666,每隔20天噴藥1次,以殺死羽化的成虫。(2)冬季1,2月间砍伐衰老松樹,在山区設置餌木誘集成虫產卵,然后集中处理,進行噴藥或燒灼。(3)新成虫的羽化盛期开始时,在松樹上噴射60—100倍的可湿性666液,毒殺为害枝梢的成虫以保护松樹生長。

Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on...

Cotton seeds collected from plants infected by Verticillium ablo-atrum were used for the purpose of studying seed transmission of the pathogen. Although verticilliate conidiophores had been observed occasionally under low-power microscope on the surface of the seeds plated on PDA in 1955, yet isolations of the organism failed due to the interference of several contaminants. Seeds were delinted in order to diminish the possibility of interference from lint-born contaminants. The materials were plated on different culture media such as PDA, acidified PDA, cotton meal agar and rice agar. All these plates failed to show verticillium colonies. Among the fungi obtained in these plates, Fusarium, Alternaria and Colletotrichum were the most frequent. Since both Verticillium albo-atrum and other fungi were harbored within the same seed, the difference of growth rates might be considered as an important factor involved in the difficulty of the isolations: Cultures of V. albo-atrum and Fusarium sp. were transferred simutaneously to PDA plates to test their growth rates. The diameter of their colonies were measured after incubation for 12 days under 22±1℃. Those of V. albo-atrum measured 2.8 cm., while the average of the latter was 9,3 cm. Interference of the fast-growers might render a slow-grower such as V. albo-atrum to be masked in the observations and to be depressed in the isolations. A method was developed to avoid the interference. The fundamental procedures of the method are outlined as follows. 1. Plating and observation. (1) Cotton seeds being delinted with commercial surphuric acid in order to avoid the interference from lint-born contaminants. (2) Delinted seeds being washed in a flask covered with wire gauze for 24 hours under running tap water in order to get rid of bacteria. Absorption of sufficient water during washing activates the hibernating mycelium. (3) Seeds being plated on 1.7% water agar instead of nutrient agar in order to diminish the growth of the fast-growers such as Fusaria and Alternaria. The plates being incubated under 22±1℃. for 15 days. (4) The plates being uncovered and observed directly under low-power microscope in order to observe the fungi undisturbed. 2. Isolation and preservation of the Verticillium cultures. (1) Verticilliate conidiophores being located under low-power microscope. (2) The tip of a flamed needle moistened with sterile agar being introduced within the microscopic field in order to fish the spores under focus. (3) Spore suspension being made by washing the needle in a 5 cc sterile water blank. (4) Dilution plates being made by placing 1 cc of the spore suspension in a petri dish and diluting with 10 cc of cotton stem agar. (5) The plates being observed under low-power microscope after incubation for 5—7 days at 22±1℃. (6) Verticillium colonies being locatad and a bit of the margin of a colony being transferred to PDA slant. (7) The slant cultures being flooded with sterile liquid paraffin after incubation for 7—15 days at 22±1℃. The cultures preserved with liquid paraffin were able to keep alived for 2 years. Seeds collected from the infected plants in 1955, 1956 and 1957 were studied. The percentages of seeds carrying Verticillium observed in these years were 39.8, 5.92 and 9.5% respectively. One of the representative single spore colonies obtained was identified as V. albo—atrum. Inoculation and reisolation tests showed positive results. Inspection of cotton seed samples collected from eight co-op farms in Shensi Province in 1958 showing that the percentages of seeds infected by verticillium ranged 3 to 23% with an average of 12.3%.

(1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉籽內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉籽本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉籽內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉籽所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉籽吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉籽所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种籽带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉籽带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉籽解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉籽外部的短絨內,并且也存在于籽壳及籽仁上。(6) 从棉籽上分离到的轮枝菌特8号...

(1) 在陝西关中所采的黄萎病病株棉籽內部,常带有一些真菌和細菌,虽經用浓硫酸脫絨,这些菌类仍能从棉籽本身的組織內向培养基伸展惺庇玫捅剁R直接检查虽亦能見到輪枝菌从棉籽內露出,但由于其他菌类的生长速度較快,以致輪枝菌常被干扰,无从在洋菜上发展,故用一般方法很难分离和检查到棉籽所带的輪枝菌。(2) 用不含养分的水洋菜作为培养基时,杂菌的生长減弱,轮枝菌才能在基物上发展为菌落。又用流水冲洗法代替表面消毒,使棉籽吸收水分,同时也促使潛伏菌絲继續发展,并可冲去細菌。經試驗用上述两个步驟可以使棉籽所带的輪枝菌在水洋菜上形成菌落。結合低倍鏡直接检查法,可以較为方便地检查种籽带菌率。(3) 經初步拟定了一套检查方法和单孢子菌种分离法。惟应用时尚觉不够簡便,尚有待于进一步提高,特提出以供交流經驗。(4) 在1955—1957年的多次检查中,查得黄萎病病株棉籽带輪枝菌率为39.8%、5.9%及23.7%。在1958年初对大田种子进行检查,查得华阴等四县8个样品中带菌率为3%至23%,平均为12.3%。(5) 根据棉籽解剖培养結果,轮枝菌不仅存在于棉籽外部的短絨內,并且也存在于籽壳及籽仁上。(6) 从棉籽上分离到的轮枝菌特8号經初步鉴定系Verticillium albo-atrum Reinkeet Berth。(7) 特8号菌种經过接种試驗,确定其具有一定的致病力,并从再分离中获得該菌。(8) 棉籽是否能够传播黄萎病,似系一个检查方法問題。还希各方面进行测定,通过多次的检查和接种試驗始能充分确定。(9) 在分离的菌种中,除特8号菌种具有較深的菌落色泽外,还有一些菌种的顏色較淡,未須鑑定。棉籽所带的轮枝菌类型不一,还有进一步研究的必要。此外,棉籽內的輪枝菌和其他一些菌类究竟如何进入籽內,也有研究的价值。

This paper deals with the results of studies on a collection of biting midges in Hai-kow,Hing-lung, Feng-mu, Hainan Island, during 1953--1954. The collection contains four speciesof the genus Culicoides. Morphological descriptions and brief ecological notes are given. Of the fourspecies in this collection one species is recorded for the first time in China. 1. Culicoides anophelis Edwards, 1922 (Pl. I:1, 5,6) More than one hundred females collected from Hai-kow, Hing-lung and Feng-mu inNovember, December,...

This paper deals with the results of studies on a collection of biting midges in Hai-kow,Hing-lung, Feng-mu, Hainan Island, during 1953--1954. The collection contains four speciesof the genus Culicoides. Morphological descriptions and brief ecological notes are given. Of the fourspecies in this collection one species is recorded for the first time in China. 1. Culicoides anophelis Edwards, 1922 (Pl. I:1, 5,6) More than one hundred females collected from Hai-kow, Hing-lung and Feng-mu inNovember, December, 1953 and January, February, June, August, October, 1954. It was one ofthe most common species, usually found parasitic on the abdomen of mosquitoes. The eight speciesof mosquitoes have been found attached to the Culicoides. They are: Anopheles vagus, A. hyrcanussinensis, Armigeres obturbans, Aedes vaxans, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, C. tritaeniorhynchus, C. fati-gans, C. whitmorei. 2. Culicoides sumatrae Macfie, 1934 (Figs. 1--6; Pl. I: 2) 6 males, 11 females collected from Hing-lung in March, 1954. Recorded by Macfie fromMalaya and Sumatra in 1934, this being the first record in China. 3. Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer, 1910 (Pl. I: 3) 2 males, 4 females were collected from Hing-lung in 1953--1954. It was one of the mostcommon blood-sucking midges found in the adjacent to the cowsheds. 4. Culicoides peregrinus Kieffer, 1910 (Pl. I: 4) 1 male, 4 females collected from Hai-kow and Hing-lung in November, December, 1953 andAugust, 1954.

(1)本文记录了作者于1953—1954年在海南岛进行蚊类调查时所采获的蠓类标本,共获有嗜蚊库蠓(Culicoides anophelis Edw., 1922)、苏门答腊库蠓(Culicoides sumatraeMacfie,1934)、尖喙库蠓(Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer,1910)及异域库蠓(Culicoidesperegrinus Kieffer,1910)等四种库蠓,均为海南岛的新记录,其中苏门答腊库蠓(Culicoidessumatrae Macfie,1934)并为我国初次记载。 (2)本文记录了四种库蠓的采集地点、采集季节、采集场所等资料,并对苏门答腊库蠓(Culicoides sumatrae Macfie,1934)的形态作了描述。

 
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