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     Based on the morpho-functional analysis of D.
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     Structure-color Characteristic of Morpho Butterfly
     Morpho蝴蝶结构显色特性研究
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Morpho-physiological and biochemical parameters were determined in Scorpion fish Scorpaena porcus L.
      
The clypeus of Bombyliidae is subdivided into five morpho-functional parts: median centroclypeus, two lateral "membranes," and two sclerotized zones.
      
The term "type of parasitism" designates a set of convergently arising morpho-physiological and ecological adaptations (adaptive complexes), demonstrated by different arthropod taxa.
      
Activity of digestive enzymes of three morpho-ecological forms of Altai osman (Oreoleuciscus potanini) from the Nogon-Nur Lake (
      
Changes in morpho-physiological indices of immune-competent organs in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as influenced by the stress
      
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Through the study of genitalia and proventriculus, as well as the external morpho-logy of the genus Scolytus Geoffr. which is the only genus of the family Scolytidae(s. str.) now found in China, we suggest the revised classification with keys to subgeneraand species-groups as follows: Key to subgenera of Scolytus Geoffr.1(4) Penis without seminal valve ("Rinne", Nusslin), terminal opening of the penis body not ventrad, pro- ventricular plate narrower, teeth of the plate smaller.2(3) Dividing line between...

Through the study of genitalia and proventriculus, as well as the external morpho-logy of the genus Scolytus Geoffr. which is the only genus of the family Scolytidae(s. str.) now found in China, we suggest the revised classification with keys to subgeneraand species-groups as follows: Key to subgenera of Scolytus Geoffr.1(4) Penis without seminal valve ("Rinne", Nusslin), terminal opening of the penis body not ventrad, pro- ventricular plate narrower, teeth of the plate smaller.2(3) Dividing line between first and second abdominal segment prominent and somewhat elevated at the side. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Scolytus s.str.3(2) Dividing line between 1st & 2nd abdominal segment indistinct at the side. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Confusoscolytus Tsai et Hwang, n. subgen.4(1) Penis with seminal valve, terminal opening ventrad, proventricular plate broader, with larger and pointer teeth. The dividing line between 1st & 2nd abdominal segment indistinct. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rugulosocolytus Butov. Key to species-groups of Scolytus Geoffr. I. Subgen. Scolytus s. str.1(4) Penis without end plate, terminal opening dorsad, with a plug process at the base or middle of the 2nd abdominal segment, rarely wanting (e. g.: S. butovitschi Stark ? & S. pygmaeus F.)2(3) Strial punctures similar to the interstrial punctures of the elytra, penis body slender symmetrically, without special process near the end, apical orifice sometimes heart-shaped, Hind margin of 8th ster- nite (?) with hairs. . . . . . . . . .Archaeoscolytus(Butov.) Tsai n. comb. (=Archaeoscolytus Butov.+ Spinuloscolytus Butov.)3(2) Strial punctures differ from the interstrial punctures. Penis body twisted asymmetrically, apex en- larged, capitate. Hind margin of the 8th sternite (?) without hairs. . . .Pygmaeoscolytus Butov.4(1) Penis with end plate, terminal opening not dorsad, 2nd abdominal segment without process.5(6) Lateral punctures of pronotum rougher than the dorsal, sometimes to come into contact with each other, strial punctures of elytra similar to interstrial punctures. Penis body closed dorsally, tubiform. Spicule ("Stengel", Lindemann) without lateral barb ("Seitenzahn", Butov.). . . .Tubuloscolytus Butov.6(5) Lateral punctures of pronotum fine, separately, strial punctures of elytra are larger than those of interspaces. Penis body opened dorsally, furrow shaped, lateral edges dilated at the middle, sometimes triangular in form. Spicule with a lateral barb. . . . . . . . . .Scolytus s. str. Ⅱ. Subgen. Confusoscolytus Tsai et Hwang1(1) Penis without end plate, nor seminal valve, Penis body opened dorsally, furrow shaped, apex conical.Frontal surface longitudinally aciculated. Size small (1.5-2 mm.) . ..Confusoscolytus s.str. Ⅲ. Subgen. Ruguloscolytus Butov.1(4) Seminal valve connected with seminal rod ("Rinnenstabchen", Butov.) sensory clasper ("Geschlechts- taster", Butov.) obsolete, penis body with lateral hairs or setaceus papillules.2(3) Frontal surface granulated, Host: conifers. . . . . . . . .Pinetoscolytus Butov.3(2) Frontal surface longitudinally aciculated, Host: conifers or broadleaf trees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pinetoruguloscolytus Tsai et Hwang, n. sp. gr.4(1) Seminal valve separated with the rod, sensory clasper developed, penis body without lateral hairs nor papillules, Frontal surface longitudinally aciculated, Host: broad-leaf trees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Raguloscolytus s. str. Scolytus (Rugaloscolytus) sinopiceus Tsai, n. sp. (P1 Ⅰ:12; Ⅱ:11; Ⅲ:12; Ⅳ:3, 7-8;Ⅴ:4-6) Length: 3.7-4.9mm., grayish black, shining; head, pronotum, scutellum, ventralside of thorax and abdomen black. Elytra dark ferruginous, with black margins anddarker apices; antennae and tarsi grayish brown; hind margin of abdominal segmentslight pale. Body with long hairs, hairs of head and thorax grayish black, those of elytraand abdomen pale yellow; tibial hairs grayish. Male frons concave, extending near the hind margin of the head, s

根据我国产小蠹科目前所知唯一的属:小蠹属 Scolytus Geoffr.的外生殖器,前胃及外部形态研究结果,把该属分设三亚属:Scolytus.s. str.;Confusoscolytus (新亚属)及Ruguloscolytus Butov.和八个种团:Archaeoscolytus(新租合);Pygmaeoscolytus Butov.;Tubuloscolytus Butov.;Scolytuss.str.;Confusoscolytus s. str.(新种团);Pinetoscolytus Butov.;Pinetoruguloscolytus(新种团);及 Ruguloscolytus s.str.Butov.。 详细研究了我国产小蠹属14种以后,发现两新种:云杉小蠹 Scolytus sinopiceus和栒子木小蠹Sco-lytus abaensis 均产于川西阿坝藏族自治州米亚罗林区,在分类系统上与日本小蠹 Scolytus. japonicus合成一个新种团:Pinetoruguloscolytus。形成东方产特有的类群。此外对于若干种类在分类系统上作了更正,例如 S.schevyre...

根据我国产小蠹科目前所知唯一的属:小蠹属 Scolytus Geoffr.的外生殖器,前胃及外部形态研究结果,把该属分设三亚属:Scolytus.s. str.;Confusoscolytus (新亚属)及Ruguloscolytus Butov.和八个种团:Archaeoscolytus(新租合);Pygmaeoscolytus Butov.;Tubuloscolytus Butov.;Scolytuss.str.;Confusoscolytus s. str.(新种团);Pinetoscolytus Butov.;Pinetoruguloscolytus(新种团);及 Ruguloscolytus s.str.Butov.。 详细研究了我国产小蠹属14种以后,发现两新种:云杉小蠹 Scolytus sinopiceus和栒子木小蠹Sco-lytus abaensis 均产于川西阿坝藏族自治州米亚罗林区,在分类系统上与日本小蠹 Scolytus. japonicus合成一个新种团:Pinetoruguloscolytus。形成东方产特有的类群。此外对于若干种类在分类系统上作了更正,例如 S.schevyrewi Sem.,S.dahuricus Chap.,S.japonicus Chap.及 S.confusus Egg.等均有了新的系统地位。对于若干种类学名的误订和有同物异名者,亦一一作了修正,详见本文国产种类纪要一节。

In the present work, the author found that the most reliable characteristics for the classification of Litchi varieties was the morphology of the pericarp and its accessory parts. These characters were observed to be hereditarily stable usually. For this reason, the morpho-logical characteristics of the pericarp and its accessory parts were chosen as toxonomic char-acters of the first order in the classification of Litchi varieties. The form of the fruit was considered a taxonomic characters second to...

In the present work, the author found that the most reliable characteristics for the classification of Litchi varieties was the morphology of the pericarp and its accessory parts. These characters were observed to be hereditarily stable usually. For this reason, the morpho-logical characteristics of the pericarp and its accessory parts were chosen as toxonomic char-acters of the first order in the classification of Litchi varieties. The form of the fruit was considered a taxonomic characters second to that of the pericarp, while the leaf, the flower and the stem characteristics were named third in the order of importance as reliable char-acters for use in the classification of Litchi varieties.

本文对荔枝几种主要性状在分类标准的划分上作了论证,并从进化观点阐明果皮特征在分类标准上的重要地位,指出其他特征在分类应用上的主次关系,并提出分类方案,将荔枝品种分为三个型和七个品种组。

The purpose of this paper is to ascer-tain the cellular transformation in limbswith still fewer kinds of tissues thanthose in the experiments of Weiss (1925)and Thornton (1938a) by observing theregeneration of nerveless limb after exar-ticulation of the humerus. The nerveless larvae obtained by themathod as described by Chuang andWang (1956) were cultured in Holtfretersolution at a temperature of 20±1℃ for24 days, then the forelimb was amputatedand the humerus completely removed.Daily observation was made on...

The purpose of this paper is to ascer-tain the cellular transformation in limbswith still fewer kinds of tissues thanthose in the experiments of Weiss (1925)and Thornton (1938a) by observing theregeneration of nerveless limb after exar-ticulation of the humerus. The nerveless larvae obtained by themathod as described by Chuang andWang (1956) were cultured in Holtfretersolution at a temperature of 20±1℃ for24 days, then the forelimb was amputatedand the humerus completely removed.Daily observation was made on the ex-ternal changes and specimens were fixedat various stages for histological study. The external observation has shownthat most of the nerveless limb rege-nerated normally after the removal ofthe humerus, except a few number inwhich the upperarm remained very shortor even absent. The rate of morpho-genesis of these two types of regeneratewas the same as those of the normallarvae at the same age (see Fig. 1). For histological examination specialattention was paid to the changes duringthe early phase of regeneration. It re-vealed that, on the first day after ampu-tation the wound area became coveredby an epithelial thickening formed bythe migration of the sorrounding epi-thelial cells. There was no basementmembrane under the thickening whichwas in intimate contact with the innertissues (Plate I, 1.2). Dedifferentiation hadnot yet begun. On the second day astriking demarcation was formed betweenthe epithelial thickening and inner tis-sues. The former could easily be dis- tinguished from its surrounding, beinglightly stained with cells containingmore cytoplasm and nearly sphericalnuclei with dispersed chromatin granules(Plate I, 3.4). The dedifferentiation ofthe muscle into muscle elements hadbegun. They became dissociated fromthe region near the cut end, transformedinto mononucleated mesenchymal cells,the blastema cells, and aggregated underthe epithelium. On the third day theepithelial thickening was no longer visible,instead, an epithelium with the charac-teristics of the embryonic limb budcovered the cut surface. The dediffe-rentiation of the muscle of the upperarmwas almost completed and muscles of theshoulder girdle also became dissociatedto participate in the blastema formation(Plate I, 5. 6). During the time between4-6 days the dedifferentiation of the innertissues proceeded further and the numberof blastema cells increased rapidly.Simultaneously, mitosis, another way toincrease the number of blastema cells,occured. Cells resulted from both pro-cesses accumulated at the tip of thestump and formed the regenerationblastema (Plate Ⅰ, 7. 8). The further de-velopment of the blastema was histo-logically the same as those in the caseof normal larvae (Plate Ⅱ, 1, 2, 3).Finallya forelimb was formed in the most caseswith the cartilaginous parts in normalproportion (Plate Ⅱ, 5). Only in thoseexperiments in which the upperarmremained very short the humerus repre-sented by a small piece of cartilage(Plate Ⅱ, 4) or even absent. The dedifferentiation of muscle cellswas clearly shown in the present study.Although mesenchyme cells were alsopresent in the stump besides the musclecells and their possible participation inthe blastema formation could not beruled out, yet quantitatively, it is clearthat the main source of blastema cellswere derived from the muscle cells.Since the cartilage was absent in thestump, blastema cells from the abovementioned origin should be responsiblefor the redifferentiation of this structure.This provided a clear evidence that theblastema cells are multipotent and thatthe cellular transformation betweenvarious tissues is possible. Finally, the changes of the epithelialcells are worthy to be mentioned.Although they are essentially the sameas those described by Rose (1948) andThornton (1954, 1960) yet in theirexperiments the epithelium was inner-vated and the formation of the epithelialthickening has been ascribed to thestimulatory influence of the nerve bythe latter author. According to thepresent study, it can be said, at leastin the larval stage, the dedifferentiationof the epithelial cells at the early phaseof regeneration is independent of nervesupply.

1.年青的无神经幼虫前肢,切断并摘除肱骨后可以再生,除去在少数例子肱骨的再生不完全外,大多数的再生都是典型的。再生体形态建成速度也和同年龄的正常幼虫相近。2.再生芽基细胞起源于残肢中仅有的肌肉和结缔组织,其中肌肉在数量上比结缔组织多,去分化过程也非常明显,因此,作为早期再生芽基细胞的来源,肌肉组织可能比结缔组织更为重要。3.由肌肉和结缔组织去分化而来的芽基细胞,不仅能够分化为肌肉和结缔组织,而且能分化出典型的软骨。这表明芽基细胞的多潜能性,由某种组织去分化而来的细胞可以分化为另一种组织。4.表皮细胞在再生初期表现出形态去分化特征,它和内部组织之间有密切的连系,但是没有看到表皮细胞直接参入内部。

 
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