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Uncoupling Effect of Fatty Acids in Halo- and Alkalotolerant Bacterium Bacillus pseudofirmus FTU
      
Special attention is paid to the features of the Na+-cycle of these bacteria and to the features determining halo- and alkalotolerant phenotype, which have been reported due to recent achievements in genomics.
      
Halo-and psychrotolerant Geomyces fungi from arctic cryopegs and marine deposits
      
In the series of halo-substituted acetates, all the stability constants decrease with a decrease in the basicity of the anion.
      
Turbidimetric Titration of Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Halo- and Aminobenzoic Acids
      
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Recently, Funke and Kornmann synthesized chloramphenicol from 4-aryl-5-halo-dioxane-1,3 which was obtained by the addition of hypobromous acid to cinnamyl alcohol and followed by cyclization with benzaldehyde. Similar compound of this type should be prepared by the addition of formaldehyde and β-halostyrene, the general formula of which may be represented as follows:■ The above reaction was studied by Beets but he failed to isolate the desired product and the starting material was almost quantitatively...

Recently, Funke and Kornmann synthesized chloramphenicol from 4-aryl-5-halo-dioxane-1,3 which was obtained by the addition of hypobromous acid to cinnamyl alcohol and followed by cyclization with benzaldehyde. Similar compound of this type should be prepared by the addition of formaldehyde and β-halostyrene, the general formula of which may be represented as follows:■ The above reaction was studied by Beets but he failed to isolate the desired product and the starting material was almost quantitatively recovered. After a careful study of his method, we found that his failure is probably due to the use of an insufficient amount of acid.Further, he carried out the reaction in heterogenous phases. Either by raising the acid concentration (50% of Sulfuric acid in contrast to 5% as used by Beet's) or by carrying out the reaction in acetic acid, a fairly good yield (60%-90%) of 4-aryl-5-halo-dioxane-1,3 was obtained. It is very interesting that we could isolated two products having the same elementary cmposition, either by running the reaction in aqueons medium or in acetic acid. Probably we are dealing with two diasteroisomers as the addition of formaldehyde to bromo or chlorostyrene may proceed either according to the cis or trans mood. The dioxanes obtained above were nitrated and the para nitrophenyl-dioxanes were isolated.The latter compounds all yield para-nitrobenzoic acid on oxidation: ■ The present authors succeded for the first time in isolating two diasteroisomers from the Prins reaction.The nature of these two isomers as well as their utilization for the synthesis of chloramphenicol and related compounds are now under investigation in this laboratory.

Beets在进行β-溴苯乙烯舆甲醛的反应时遭受到了失败,我们考虑其失败的原因在于进行反应时,应用了浓度过低的酸,而且是在多相下进行,因而影响到反应速度.在增加反应的酸度时,或将反应在均相下进行,皆以极好的产率得到了β-溴苯乙烯或氯苯乙烯奥甲醛的反应产物4-芳-5-卤-1,3-二氧六环,后者对于提供氯霉素的新合成法是一个有趣的化合物. 我们在Prins反应的产物中,第一次得到二个异构体,二者沸点不同,可以顺利的分开.我们认为这可能是两种非对映体,关于这两个异构体的性质还在研究中. 得到的高沸点或低沸点4-苯-5-卤-1,3-二氧六环,易硝化而形成相应的对位一元硝化产物,它们经过侧链氧化,都形成对位硝基苯甲酸. 作者正利用自己所合成的二种4-芳-5-卤-1,3-二氧六环的异构体,企图经四步手续变为氯霉素.

A series of α, ω-bis-(p-aminophenoxy)-alkanes were found to show schistosomicidal activity against experimental animals, but having toxic effect. Based upon the fundamental chemical skeleton, we designed the following type: to study the relationship between their chemical constitution and schistosomicidal activity. N, N'-bis-(p-substituted phenyl)-α,ω-polymethylenediamines were prepared by the condensation of the sodium salts of p-substituted p-toluenesulfonanilides with α, ω-dibromoalkanes, followed by hydrolysis...

A series of α, ω-bis-(p-aminophenoxy)-alkanes were found to show schistosomicidal activity against experimental animals, but having toxic effect. Based upon the fundamental chemical skeleton, we designed the following type: to study the relationship between their chemical constitution and schistosomicidal activity. N, N'-bis-(p-substituted phenyl)-α,ω-polymethylenediamines were prepared by the condensation of the sodium salts of p-substituted p-toluenesulfonanilides with α, ω-dibromoalkanes, followed by hydrolysis with hydrobromic acid and phenol. But the two bromo compounds were obtained by hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid, since treatment with hydrobromic acid possibly resulted in the loss of the nuclear bromine atoms. Among this series, N, N'-bis-(p-halo-phenyl)-α, ω-heptanediamine were also prepared by the direct condensation of the corresponding p-substituted anilines with α, ω- dibromoheptane in alcoholic solution.

α,ω-双-[对-氨基苯氧基]-烷类化合物对感染日本血吸虫病实驗动物有作用,但毒性較高,经改变其結构,将氨基移至苯核內侧,对位用甲基,卤素或硝基替代,成N,N′-双-(对-取代苯基)-α,ω-烷二胺类化合物,以察其化学結构和疗效的关系。 N,N′-双-(对-取代苯基)-α,ω-烷二胺类化合物由对-甲苯磺酰对-取代苯胺,氫氧化鈉和α,ω-二溴烷类在乙醇中縮合成N,N′-双-(对-甲苯磺酰)-N,N′-双-(对-取代苯基)-α,ω-烷二胺,然后用氫溴酸和苯酚进行水解而得,其中溴代化合物水解时核上溴原子可能脫落,所以用盐酸水解之。此类化合物中N,N′-双-(对-氯苯基)-α,ω-庚二胺和N,N′-双-(对-溴苯基)-α,ω-庚二胺另由相应的对-取代苯胺和-α,ω-二溴烷类及碳酸氫鈉在乙醇中縮合制备。

Nine N-substituted-3-halo-mesidines have been synthesized for the purpose of testing their activities against Schistosomiasis japonica in experimentally infected animals. They were synthesized by the condensation of 3-halo-mesidines with substituted aminoethyl chloride.The 3-halogenated mesidines were obtained from mesitylene via nuclear dinitration,partial reduction to nitro-amines,diazotization to introduce a halogen group,and reduction of the remaining itro group. The halogenated mesidines synthesized...

Nine N-substituted-3-halo-mesidines have been synthesized for the purpose of testing their activities against Schistosomiasis japonica in experimentally infected animals. They were synthesized by the condensation of 3-halo-mesidines with substituted aminoethyl chloride.The 3-halogenated mesidines were obtained from mesitylene via nuclear dinitration,partial reduction to nitro-amines,diazotization to introduce a halogen group,and reduction of the remaining itro group. The halogenated mesidines synthesized by the above route were of superior yield to those ob- tained by other methods such as monohalogenation,nitration,and reduction,or mononitration, reduction,and direct halogenation.

本文报告了9种 N-取代-3-卤代-2,4,6-三甲苯胺类化合物的合成.它们用作日本血吸虫病的动物治疗突验.这类化合物是由三甲苯用发烟硝酸行二硝基化成2,4-二硝基1,3,5-三甲苯,用硫化钠及硫还原一个硝基得3-硝基-2,4,6-三甲苯胺,重氮化接上卤素,再用铁屑还原得3-卤代-2,4,6-三甲苯胺,再与 N-取代β-氯乙基胺在硝基苯中缩合而得 N-取代-3-卤代-2,4,6-三甲苯胺类化合物.

 
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