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independent
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     independent learning
     三、大学生英语自主学习策略培训的构建
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     independent judgers.
     法官独立。
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     for all e E E2. t(~) are independent;
     (3)对所有与Y轴平行的边e,t(e)具有相同的分布F_2;
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     (3) The independent of the structure.
     (3) 结构的独立性 结构的独立性指在新闻报导中,引号和引述动词可以使我们一眼就把引语从语篇中分离出来。
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  independent
The least upper bound for the degrees of elements in a system of generators turns out to be independent of the number of vector variables.
      
The essential dimension is a numerical invariant of the group; it is often equal to the minimal number of independent parameters required to describe all algebraic objects of a certain type.
      
The constants obtained are independent of the dimension n and depend only on k,p, and the number of different eigenvalues of the matrix B.
      
Therefore, it should be an important step in developing a system for automated perspective-independent object recognition.
      
The low-frequency terms in the expansion involve an independent fractional Brownian motion evaluated at discrete times or, alternatively, partial sums of a stationary fractional ARIMA time series.
      
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The dielectrie constants of toluene, carbon bisulphide, normal pentane, normal hexane, ethyl ether and iso-amyl alcohol were measured by a capacity bridge using a specially constructed liquid condenser at both 30° and 75℃ (22.4℃ only for the last liquid), for frequencies of 600,1000 and 2000 cycles per sec. and under pressures from 1 up to 12,000 kg/cm2. For the first four liquids, the dielectric constant is practically independent of the frequencies

作者用一电容桥及一特制之液体蓄电器以量甲苯,二硫化碳,正戊烷,正己烷,乙醚,及异戊醇之比电容。所用温度为摄氏三十及七十五度(异戊醇之温度仅为二十二度四),频率为每秒六百,一千及二千周,压力自一气压高至一万二千气压。前四液之比电容几与所用频率无关。(ε-1)/(ε+2)·1/d,(ε-1)/d及(ε~(1/2))-1/d三式中以第一式最近一常数,然压力渐增第一式之值恒随之而渐减,至一万二千气压时(在甲苯为九千五百气压),其减少约数在甲苯及二硫化碳为百分之三,在乙醚为百分之八,在异戊醇为百分之十九,显随电矩之增加而增加,至其原因篇中亦略加说明。 篇中图表惠蒙同事朱福炘先生代为抄绘,附誌谢忱。

The dependence of the entropy of a homogeneous system on the composition is investigated with the help of a reversible adiabatic process which allows the change of composition by means of a semipermeable wall. The conditions of equilibrinm for phase transition and for homogeneous chemical reaction are derived in a new way. Next the criterion of minimum energy for constant entropy and volume is derived from the principle of increase of entropy. This criterion is then applied to obtain the conditions of equilibrium...

The dependence of the entropy of a homogeneous system on the composition is investigated with the help of a reversible adiabatic process which allows the change of composition by means of a semipermeable wall. The conditions of equilibrinm for phase transition and for homogeneous chemical reaction are derived in a new way. Next the criterion of minimum energy for constant entropy and volume is derived from the principle of increase of entropy. This criterion is then applied to obtain the conditions of equilibrium and stability with the help of Lagrange's multipliers. The conditions of stability are expressed in several alternative forms. Next the equilibrium properties of a binary system arc considered, and some types of phase diagram are explained by means of equations. The theory is extended to the general heterogeneous equilibrium of a system consisting of any number of independent components. A system of equations for the change of temperature, pressure, and composition are obtained and are solved by means of determinants. Next Planck's theory of a binary solution is extended to a solution consisting of several solnte components, with the same conclusion regarding the lowering of freezing point as for a binary solution. Finally Planck's theory on the number of coexisting phases for aone-component system is extended to a system consisting of k components with the result that a state with, σ coexisting phases is more stable than one with σ-1 phases: where σ is an integer not greater than k + 2.

本文首述如何应用一半渗透之壁使一物体所包含各种分子之数改变,因之决定此物体之熵与其各种分子数之关系,由此关系极易推出一物体在改变其形态时,如汽化凝结等,所应适合之平衡条件。且若形态不变,而发生内部化学作用时,其平衡条件亦易推得。 次述如何由熵之增加原理推出能量最小之法则,然後应用此法则,辅以拉革兰氏之不定乘子,以求得一物体之普遍平衡与稳定之条件。其稳定之条件且以各种不同之形式表示之。 继讨论二元物体在平衡时之性质,随之以多元物体之性质,求得一组方程式以决定当此物体之性质改变时,其温度压力及各种分子之数如何改变。曾特别注意及溶液之性质,对於融点之降低与沸点之升高有一普遍之证明。 最後推广卜朗克氏关於并存形态之理论於多元物体,得与卜氏相似之结论。

Once the configuration of a rigid frame (including the lengths, crosssections, supporting connections, etc. of all its bars) has been laid out, there exists one set of frame constants, which expresses the elastic characteristics of the frame, and, therefore, is independent of its loading condition. By employing these frame constants, not only the computations of the end moments of all the bars under any one loading condition are greatly simplified, but also, when the frame is to be analyzed under several...

Once the configuration of a rigid frame (including the lengths, crosssections, supporting connections, etc. of all its bars) has been laid out, there exists one set of frame constants, which expresses the elastic characteristics of the frame, and, therefore, is independent of its loading condition. By employing these frame constants, not only the computations of the end moments of all the bars under any one loading condition are greatly simplified, but also, when the frame is to be analyzed under several loading conditions, the computations related and not related to loading are distinctly separated, and, therefore, the repeated portion of computations for each loading condition, unavoidable otherwise, is entirely eliminated. As most of the rigid frames encountered in practice have to be analyzed always under many loading conditions, the practical superiority of the methods employing frame constants over other methods is thus obvious.

任一刚構之形式(包括共中各桿之長度,截面,及支承等情形)既經擬定之後,該剛構即有一套表示共彈性特質而與其荷載無關之刚構常數存在。採用此項剛構常數,不但其在任一荷載情形之下桿端力矩計算,大大簡化,而且在多種荷載情形下進行分析時,可將其与荷載無關及有關之二部份計算完全分开,因此省去他種分析法在每一種荷載情形下所必須重複之部份計算。實用之剛構,既常須在多種荷載情形下進行分析,故採用剛構常数分析法在實用中之優越性,至為顯明。採用剛構常数之分析法太約以立特(Wilhelm Ritter)教授之定點法為最早,而於表示剛構常數之各種方式中,亦以定點位置最為簡明,最為基本。本文首先指出:於任一剛構中,每桿之左右兩端各有一個而且祇有一个有獨立性之基本剛構常數,其計算係二個各向左右進行不相牽涉之步驟,但為計算剛構常數本身及桿端力矩之便利计,常須於每桿之左右二端,各另加計算一個無獨立性之輔助剛構常數,惟此外並不需要任何其他第三個剛構常数。恰於廿年以前,我國林同棪教授在國內外發表其力矩一次分配法(林氏原稱其法為“直接力矩分配法”,似欠妥),採用桿端之“約束剛度係數”(restraining rigidity factor),“修正傳...

任一刚構之形式(包括共中各桿之長度,截面,及支承等情形)既經擬定之後,該剛構即有一套表示共彈性特質而與其荷載無關之刚構常數存在。採用此項剛構常數,不但其在任一荷載情形之下桿端力矩計算,大大簡化,而且在多種荷載情形下進行分析時,可將其与荷載無關及有關之二部份計算完全分开,因此省去他種分析法在每一種荷載情形下所必須重複之部份計算。實用之剛構,既常須在多種荷載情形下進行分析,故採用剛構常数分析法在實用中之優越性,至為顯明。採用剛構常数之分析法太約以立特(Wilhelm Ritter)教授之定點法為最早,而於表示剛構常數之各種方式中,亦以定點位置最為簡明,最為基本。本文首先指出:於任一剛構中,每桿之左右兩端各有一個而且祇有一个有獨立性之基本剛構常數,其計算係二個各向左右進行不相牽涉之步驟,但為計算剛構常數本身及桿端力矩之便利计,常須於每桿之左右二端,各另加計算一個無獨立性之輔助剛構常數,惟此外並不需要任何其他第三個剛構常数。恰於廿年以前,我國林同棪教授在國內外發表其力矩一次分配法(林氏原稱其法為“直接力矩分配法”,似欠妥),採用桿端之“約束剛度係數”(restraining rigidity factor),“修正傳遞係數”(modified carry-over factor),及“修正勁度”(modified stiffness)為

 
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