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    On PWM Modulating Pattern
    关于PWM调制模式
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    PWM Alternating Dimmers
    PWM(脉宽调制)交流调光器
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Recently,the dynamic changesof cytostatic and cytocidal effect ofspleen cells of tumor-bearing mice ontarget tumor cells were studied withthe technigue of ~(125)IUdR assay,Lym-phocyte transformation of similarspleens by Con A and PWM wasalso studied.In most experiments,Ehrlich ascitic tumor cells were usedand each C57BL mouse was inocula-ted intramuscularly with 5×10~6 viabletumor cells in the right thight as atumor bearer.In other experiments,Sarcoma 180 ascitic cells in C57BLmice and Hepatoma acitic...

Recently,the dynamic changesof cytostatic and cytocidal effect ofspleen cells of tumor-bearing mice ontarget tumor cells were studied withthe technigue of ~(125)IUdR assay,Lym-phocyte transformation of similarspleens by Con A and PWM wasalso studied.In most experiments,Ehrlich ascitic tumor cells were usedand each C57BL mouse was inocula-ted intramuscularly with 5×10~6 viabletumor cells in the right thight as atumor bearer.In other experiments,Sarcoma 180 ascitic cells in C57BLmice and Hepatoma acitic cells inTienjing No 1 albino mice were alsoemployed.Results of our experiments indic- ated that spleen cells of tumor-bearingmice inhibited strongly DNA syn-thesis of tumor cells in vitro.Suchcytostatic effect was already quitemanifested at the 7th day after tumorinoculation and increased henceforthin parallel with the growth of tumorand an enlargement of spleen.Afterthe surgical removal of tumor,cytost-atic effect decreased rapidly and couldno longer be detected on the 21thday after amputation and consequen-tly the spleen returned almost to itsnormal size.Moreover,we have alsoinoculated ascitic tumor cells intothymectomized,X-irrdiated,bone-marrow-reconstituted mice,and theirspleen cells were also shown to bestrongly cytostatic to tumor cells.On the other hand,our datapointed out that the spleen cells ofmice bearing large Ehrlich tumor couldnot kill in vitro ~(125)IUdR labelledEhrlich tumor cells as determined by~(125)IUdR release assay.Furthermore,these spleen cells were also found tobe suppressed with respect to theirresponse to lymphocyte mitogens ConA and PWM.In fact,spleen cells from micebearing Ehrlich tumor inhibited the~(125)IUdR uptake of Sarcoma 180cells and Hepatoma ascitic cells to asimilar extent.Similarly,the spleencells from mice bearing solid Hep-atoma and Sarcoma 180 also inhibitedstrongly the ~(125)IUdR uptake ofEhrlich tumor cells.Thus,cytostaticeffect of spleen cells of tumor-bearingmice against tumor cells in vitro isa kind of non-specific inhibition.Histopathologic studies showedthat the increase in the amount ofreticulum cells and macrophages inthe spleen of tumor-bearing mice hada good correlation with its increasein cytostatic effect on tumor cells.At the same time,there was a conco-mitant decrease in the number ofsmall lymphocytes and an incrase inthe number of immature haematopoie-tic cells.This latter fact might ex-plain the general absence of cytocidaleffect of spleen cells on tumor cellsas well as the deficient response ofspleen cells to lymphocyte mitogenslike ConA and PWM in the tumor-bearing mice.Taken together all the above re-sults,we tentatively suggest that theeffector cells of cytostatic effect intumor-bearing mouse spleen are notT、B lymphocytes.The exact natureof these suppsessor cells as well astheir possible mechanisms of actionare now under investigation.

应用5-~(125)碘-2’-脱氧尿嘧啶核苷(~(125)IUdR)参入抑制试验,证明带Ehrlich实体瘤的C57BL 小鼠脾脏细胞可在体外对同一移植肿瘤细胞的DNA 合成产生显著的抑制。随着肿瘤的增长,带瘤小鼠的脾脏进行性增大,脾细胞对肿瘤细胞的抑制效应也随之增强。这种对肿瘤细胞DNA合成的抑制作用是非特异的。肿瘤切除后,抑制效应也随之下降,到术后21天,细胞静止效应已不能测得。本文还应用~(125)IUdR技术同时测定了带瘤小鼠脾脏的T 杀伤细胞,脾脏淋巴细胞对致分裂原Con A 与PWM 的转化反应的动态变化,实验表明带瘤小鼠脾脏T、B 淋巴细胞的功能是受抑制的。组织病理学观察提示,带瘤动物脾脏的网织细胞和巨噬细胞的增多可能与细胞静止效应的增强有关。

In this paper some important topics concerning pulse width modulated (PWM)DC motor speed control systems are discussed and the conclusions confirmed by test.An engineering method for designing such systems is proposed and it can be used also as a design reference for similar systems'.

本文讨论脉宽调制式(PWM式)直流调速系统运行中的几个重要问题,并在此基础上提出了系统设计的工程处理方法.所得结论均经过实验验证,可供设计同类系统时参考.

In the resonant transformerless switching-mode power supplies (TLSMPS), the method of switchoff in the duration of zero current is applied. Consequently, as compared with chopper (PWM) type TLSMPS, it is possible to avoid the second breakdown, reduce the switching dissipation and radio frequency interference in the resonant TLSMPS.The operation of the power circuit of resonant TLSMPS is analyzed mathematically and the features of control are discussed in this paper. For solving the problem of stabilization...

In the resonant transformerless switching-mode power supplies (TLSMPS), the method of switchoff in the duration of zero current is applied. Consequently, as compared with chopper (PWM) type TLSMPS, it is possible to avoid the second breakdown, reduce the switching dissipation and radio frequency interference in the resonant TLSMPS.The operation of the power circuit of resonant TLSMPS is analyzed mathematically and the features of control are discussed in this paper. For solving the problem of stabilization in the control system of resonant TLSMPS, the technique of "forward" ripple feedback is proposed. Also, the existence of minor carrier storage effect in switching transistor of resonant loop is illustrated, and the impact of this effect is reduced.

本文完整地分析了谐振式开关电源主回路工作的各个电性过程,阐明了它们的控制特点,指出采用纹波“提前”反馈技术可以解决控制的稳定性问题,揭示了开关管少数载流子存储效应在谐振回路中的表现形式及解决办法。实验线路获得了良好的技术指标。和同功率串联稳压电源相比,效率大为提高,体积重量大为减小。

 
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