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slope
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     THE DISCUSSION OF THE WIND ON THE SLOPE
     坡地上风的讨论
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     Slope stability:methodology
     斜坡稳定:方法论
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  slope
The elevation, slope aspect, and slope degree were found to be dominant features controlling landscape pattern.
      
At different altitudinal ranges, the effects of slope aspect and slope degree on the distribution of landscape elements vary markedly in orientation and intensity.
      
Using quantification theory I, an analysis of the relation of soil water and qualitative factors, such as, slope degree, slope aspect, slope position, and soil in Wangjiagou watershed area has been done.
      
Leaf and twig litter decomposition of main species in different forests along the north slope of Changbai Mountain, northeast Ch
      
Daily changes in soil water content, transpiration, and evaporation of the Caragana intermedia woodland with different vegetation coverage, slope gradient, and slope aspect were simulated from 1971 to 2000.
      
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The absorption coefficients of β-rays from UX2 and RaE were completely studied. Two outstanding features have been found by the authors: (1) The complete logarithmic absorption curve of rays is not a really straight line but a broken one consisting of several segments of straight lines which intersected at a certain point. The slopes of the segments are greater as the absorbing screens are thicker. (2) The values of the absorp-tion coefficients are not constant but can be varied according to the surrounding...

The absorption coefficients of β-rays from UX2 and RaE were completely studied. Two outstanding features have been found by the authors: (1) The complete logarithmic absorption curve of rays is not a really straight line but a broken one consisting of several segments of straight lines which intersected at a certain point. The slopes of the segments are greater as the absorbing screens are thicker. (2) The values of the absorp-tion coefficients are not constant but can be varied according to the surrounding conditions of measurement. Among the conditions, the substance beneath the preparation Or the reflector, the substance encircles the preparation or the screen support, and the distance between the active preparation and the ionisation chamber window are the three main determinating tactors which influence the variation of the coefficient.

自UX_2及RaE放出之β射线之吸收系数经实验后得下列结果:(1)吸收图为数段直线所合成,厚吸收片者坡度较陡。(2)吸收系数随三种因素而改变,一为承受放射物之性质与厚薄,一为围绕放射物之圆管,一为放射物与游离箱之距离。

A tank experiment to study the rainfall characteristics,degree of slope and kinds of crops in relation to erosion of the Szechuan purple brown soil was carried out on the experimental farm of the University of Nanking in Chengtu during the period from 1941 to 1945 inclusive.The text consists of the results,of four years only,that of the first year being used for reference.

本试验就成都南郊金陵大学农场利用箱具装置以求降雨,坡度及作物种类对于四川紫棕土冲蚀之关系,试验自1941年须始至1945年年底为止,本报告包括1942至1945年四年记录;最初一年记录仅供参考未列入计算。试验中之箱具係木制,长1.8公尺,宽0.35公尺,深0.33公尺,共四具,分别置于5%,10%,20%及30%之四种坡度上,内盛四川红色盆地中之一种紫棕色粘土。降雨之时,每廿小时测定雨量,逕流及土壤冲矢量各一次,试验中192及1943两年行播芝蔴代表茎葉稀疏之作物,1944及1945年密播大豆代表茎菜密茂之作物。四年结果中之要点如下:(i)本试验四年中成都年降水量总平均为959.9公厘,最少年为689.9公厘而最多年为489.8公厘,本试验芝蔴年度平均降水量为734.0公厘,而大豆年度平均降水量为1185.8公厘。(ii)成都降雨烈度可暂按廿四小时内雨量,分为0—3.9m.m.,4—7.9m.m.,8—11.9m.m.,12—23.9m.m.,24—17.9m.m.,4(?)—95.6m.m.,96—191.9m.m.,等七级,四年中廿四小时内最多雨量可自84.2公厘至183.2公厘不等,此项烈雨可降于六月初...

本试验就成都南郊金陵大学农场利用箱具装置以求降雨,坡度及作物种类对于四川紫棕土冲蚀之关系,试验自1941年须始至1945年年底为止,本报告包括1942至1945年四年记录;最初一年记录仅供参考未列入计算。试验中之箱具係木制,长1.8公尺,宽0.35公尺,深0.33公尺,共四具,分别置于5%,10%,20%及30%之四种坡度上,内盛四川红色盆地中之一种紫棕色粘土。降雨之时,每廿小时测定雨量,逕流及土壤冲矢量各一次,试验中192及1943两年行播芝蔴代表茎葉稀疏之作物,1944及1945年密播大豆代表茎菜密茂之作物。四年结果中之要点如下:(i)本试验四年中成都年降水量总平均为959.9公厘,最少年为689.9公厘而最多年为489.8公厘,本试验芝蔴年度平均降水量为734.0公厘,而大豆年度平均降水量为1185.8公厘。(ii)成都降雨烈度可暂按廿四小时内雨量,分为0—3.9m.m.,4—7.9m.m.,8—11.9m.m.,12—23.9m.m.,24—17.9m.m.,4(?)—95.6m.m.,96—191.9m.m.,等七级,四年中廿四小时内最多雨量可自84.2公厘至183.2公厘不等,此项烈雨可降于六月初至八月底之间,廿四小时内大于24公厘之雨日可自七日至十七日不等。(iii)芝蔴年度年降水量虽较大豆年度为低,但逕流占年雨量百分数,依坡度顺序,则前者各为16.95%,19.23%,25.71%及27.66%而后者各为3.96%,9.06%,9.63%及10.62%。(iv)四年中逕流量之实际数值,依坡度顺序,芝蔴年度各为129.11公厘,143.79公厘,193.54公厘及216.64公厘,而后者各为53.37公厘,120.59公厘,121.60公厘及135.07公厘。逕流逐月分布隨雨量分佈而变异,惟大豆作物有使逕流分佈百分数,向各月分散之趋势。又芝蔴年度七月份或八月份之逕流量可占年逕流量70%以上。(v)逕流之大部由于廿四小时内大于24公厘之雨量所发生,各坡度上大于24公厘之烈度等级中,在芝蔴年度,其分佈百分数之和幾全人於80%,而在大豆年度,其分佈百分数之和,自约38%至90%以上不等。芝蔴年度逕流量之实际数值较大豆年度为大,但逕流量隨坡度增加之比率则芝蔴年度较大豆年度为小。(vi)土壤冲失量之实际数值,依坡度顺序,芝蔴年度各为每市亩773.91市斤,832.5市斤,2004.93市斤及2822.62市斤,而大豆年度各为每市亩270.02市斤,370.50市斤,666.53市斤及762.95市斤,大豆年度中雨量特別丰沛之年,大豆护土力在大坡度上(坡度30%)更为显盖。(vii)芝蔴年度月雨量对于土壤冲矢量之影响大于对于逕流量之影响,月雨量增多,使同月土壤冲失量增加之百分数较使同月逕流量增加之百分数为大,大豆年度则反是。芝蔴年度土壤冲失量之实际数值较大豆年度为大,目土壤冲失量隨坡度增加之比率,芝蔴年度亦较大豆年度为大。(viii)据本试验情形,某一日之前五日内如降落巨雨,则该日急雨可发生甚大量之逕流及土壤冲失,芝蔴年度此种情形甚显,但大豆年度则不显。(ix)大豆作物之护土力,由于宽阔平向之叶面及密茂之莖叶可遮蔽地面以防雨滴之打击,而落叶护土亦可使地面流水澄清而维持土壤之渗漏速率,又麦稈覆盖地面之护土效力甚宏,如于大豆莖叶向未郁閉之前用之,可防初夏急雨之冲蚀。(X)自成都向南至仁寿县一带之紫棕土斤陵地,可行玉米与大豆等高行栽之间作制,惟大豆宜密植以收护土之效,若能于生长前期,地面覆盖麦稈,则土壤冲蚀之害可大减。

A method of deflection-proportioning and slope-estimating for computing the wind stresses in multi-storied building frames is presented in this paper. No matter whether the building frame is regular or irregular, this method affords a simple solution with accurate result.

本文舉一位移比率角變估計法,以之分析多層屋架之風應力,該項屋架,不論規則與否,均可利用本法,其所採步驟,既十分簡單,其所得結果,又相當精確。本法首先利用角變位移法,考慮屋架之相對形變,亦即估計屋架各層之相對位移,以及屋架各結點之相對角變。然後利用撓矩分配法,求得柱梁二端之相對撓矩,尋求該項相對撓矩之時,可以利用第一步之結果,亦即估計柱二端之相對定端撓矩,以及結點四圍之相對傳遞撓矩,先傳遞而後分配之。最後利用疊加原理,觀察屋架各層之相對平向剪力,與共實在平向剪力,成何等之比率。如將第二步之結果,乘以該項比率,則所得之撓矩應為正確之值。

 
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