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projects
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  156项工程
     The 156 Projects and the Development of Industrial Cities in New China (1949-1957)
     156项工程与新中国工业城市发展(1949~1957年)
短句来源
     During the 1950s ,as building its "156 projects" ,China has imported from the Soviet Union and some other eastern European socialist countries a large number of equipments and technology, and engaged many foreign experts, which has produced Unprecedented achievements, and also has an enormous and profound influence to the socialist construction of China.
     20世纪50—60年代,中国在建设“156项工程”过程中,引进苏联和东欧等社会主义国家的成套设备和技术资料数量、聘请外国专家数量和所取得的结果也许堪称是史无前例的,对中国社会主义建设产生了巨大和深远的影响。
短句来源
     In the First Five-year Plan period, with the 156 projects as the pivot New China started all-round socialist industrial construction.
     “一五”时期,以156项工程为契机,新中国开始了全面的社会主义工业化建设。
短句来源
  “156 projects”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The Iron and Steel Base in Baotou is one of"156 projects",which were constructed
     文章从选择厂址、厂区工程地质勘察、扬水试验、矿山勘探、矿石试验、炼焦试验、初步设计和施工基地工程建设等诸方面,综述苏联在包头钢铁基地筹建和初步设计时期所起的作用,展示其冶金技术向中国转移的过程。
短句来源
     Changing from material struggle to economic construction, the Chinese Communist Party led the whole party and all the people of the country to set off an upsurge of construction centering on the 156 projects in the First Five - Year Plan.
     中国共产党在国内国际复杂的背景下,适时从军事斗争转入经济建设战场,领导全党和全国人民掀起了以156项大工程为重点的"一五"经济建设高潮。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     Projects Introduction
     项目推介
短句来源
     Principal Projects
     其他重要项目
短句来源
     The Iron and Steel Base in Baotou is one of"156 projects",which were constructed
     文章从选择厂址、厂区工程地质勘察、扬水试验、矿山勘探、矿石试验、炼焦试验、初步设计和施工基地工程建设等诸方面,综述苏联在包头钢铁基地筹建和初步设计时期所起的作用,展示其冶金技术向中国转移的过程。
短句来源
     The 156 Projects and the Development of Industrial Cities in New China (1949-1957)
     156项工程与新中国工业城市发展(1949~1957年)
短句来源
     156 references arecited.
     本综述共引用文献 156篇。
短句来源
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  projects
At least 156 projects in 68 countries since 1993 and 26 projects since 2001 have included incineration, according to documents on WBG websites.
      


A project for studying the seasonal variation of the planktonic organisms in the near-shore water of Tsingtao was started in March of 1953. Both quali- tative and quantitative samples have been collected since then at weekly inter- vals as regularly as possible. The present paper is a preliminary report of the results obtained for the first three years (March 1953 to February 1956). Spe- cial attention was paid to the seasonal variation in composition and number of planktonic diatoms. It was found that...

A project for studying the seasonal variation of the planktonic organisms in the near-shore water of Tsingtao was started in March of 1953. Both quali- tative and quantitative samples have been collected since then at weekly inter- vals as regularly as possible. The present paper is a preliminary report of the results obtained for the first three years (March 1953 to February 1956). Spe- cial attention was paid to the seasonal variation in composition and number of planktonic diatoms. It was found that the most dominant species of the planktonic diatoms in our collections belong to the genera Rhizosolenia, Coscinodiscus, Thalassionema, Leptocylindrus, Chaetoceros, Skeletonema, Melosira, Eueampia, Asterionella, Nitzschia, Thalassiothrix, Ceratulina and Thalassiosira. The monthly occurrence of the different species was noted and compared with that reported for Amoy by professor Chin (1955) . Enumerartion of the diatoms in the quantatitive samples was made and the results were presented in tables and graphs, showing that the average number of cells was highest in September and lowest in April and May. Seasonal variation of environmental conditions was reviewed and correlated to the seasonal variation the planktonic diatoms. A new method for the study of seasonal variation of planktonic diatoms was suggested, emphasizing the physiological stats of different diatoms at the time of collection and their adaptive response to the environmental conditions. The result of a few experiments reported in the present paper showed that the new mgthod deserves further attention.

本文系作者根据1953年3月至1956年9月在青岛所采的海洋浮游生物的定性和定量标本而作的青岛近海浮游矽藻季节变化的初步报告。全文包括四个主要内容。第一部分为青岛海洋浮游矽藻种类记录补遗。一共列出青岛以前未有报告的种或变种共23个,其中有七个为我国沿海首次记录。第二部分为青岛各月近海浮游矽藻的主要组成。文中首先指出,青岛近海浮游矽藻中,以个体数目来看,最多有Rhizosolenia,Coscinodiscus,Thalassionema,Leptocylin-drus,Chaetoceros,Skeletonema,Melosira,Eucampia,Asterionella,Nitzschia,Thalassiothrix,Ceratulina,Thalassiosira等属。其次将各属矽藻的主要种类和出现月份加以敍述,最後并与厦门港的海洋矽藻组成做了比较。第三部分为青岛近海浮游矽藻数量的季节变化。结果示明,青岛近海浮游矽藻数以9月最多,4、5月最少。6、7月数量上升,8月稍挫,9月高峰後,显著下降。12月至2月间有一次增加。文中并将青岛一般海洋环境的季节变化和食植浮游动物及双鞭毛虫的数量变化做了分析和对照...

本文系作者根据1953年3月至1956年9月在青岛所采的海洋浮游生物的定性和定量标本而作的青岛近海浮游矽藻季节变化的初步报告。全文包括四个主要内容。第一部分为青岛海洋浮游矽藻种类记录补遗。一共列出青岛以前未有报告的种或变种共23个,其中有七个为我国沿海首次记录。第二部分为青岛各月近海浮游矽藻的主要组成。文中首先指出,青岛近海浮游矽藻中,以个体数目来看,最多有Rhizosolenia,Coscinodiscus,Thalassionema,Leptocylin-drus,Chaetoceros,Skeletonema,Melosira,Eucampia,Asterionella,Nitzschia,Thalassiothrix,Ceratulina,Thalassiosira等属。其次将各属矽藻的主要种类和出现月份加以敍述,最後并与厦门港的海洋矽藻组成做了比较。第三部分为青岛近海浮游矽藻数量的季节变化。结果示明,青岛近海浮游矽藻数以9月最多,4、5月最少。6、7月数量上升,8月稍挫,9月高峰後,显著下降。12月至2月间有一次增加。文中并将青岛一般海洋环境的季节变化和食植浮游动物及双鞭毛虫的数量变化做了分析和对照,又将青岛和厦门港两地海洋浮游矽藻数量变化做了比较。第四部分为矽藻数量季节变化研究方法的一个新建议。文中略述了矽藻数量季节双化研究中的主要问题,并建议加强关於矽藻对於生活条件改变的适应回答的研究,以期能更好地揭露矽藻数量变动的规律。最後,文中介绍了作者所进行的测定矽藻质量的实验初步的结果。

Recently, attention has been directed to the effect of chelation upon thephysiological action of certain chemical compounds. A number of investiga-tors, especially Albert and his coworkers have demonstrated the importantrole played by the chelation structure of 8-hydroxyquinoline in producingfungicidal action. Our preliminary tests on p-nitrobenzaldehyde (ⅩⅩⅪ) ascompared with o-hydroxy-p-nitrobenzaldehyde (ⅩⅩⅩ) and on o-methoxy-p-nitroacetophenone (ⅩⅢ) as compared with o-hydroxy-p-nitroacetophenone(Ⅻ) confirmed...

Recently, attention has been directed to the effect of chelation upon thephysiological action of certain chemical compounds. A number of investiga-tors, especially Albert and his coworkers have demonstrated the importantrole played by the chelation structure of 8-hydroxyquinoline in producingfungicidal action. Our preliminary tests on p-nitrobenzaldehyde (ⅩⅩⅪ) ascompared with o-hydroxy-p-nitrobenzaldehyde (ⅩⅩⅩ) and on o-methoxy-p-nitroacetophenone (ⅩⅢ) as compared with o-hydroxy-p-nitroacetophenone(Ⅻ) confirmed this view. The two compounds with chelation structures areinvariably more active than the corresponding compounds where this kindof structure is no more possible (see Table 1). This result encourages us toextend the examination on the so-called dehydrochloramphenicol (Ⅱ), ananalogue of chloramphenicol (Ⅰ) but devoid of the antibiotic activities of thelatter, except those against M. tuberculosis and fungi. Our project is to introduce a hydroxyl group to the position ortho to thecarbon side-chain in (Ⅱ), producing α-dichloroacetamido-β-hydroxy-o-hydroxy-p-nitropropiophenone (Ⅲ), a compound in which chelation will be possible, andto compare its antibiotic activities with those of (Ⅱ) in which there is nochelation. To make sure that any enhancement of activity is not due to substitutionat the ortho position, the hydroxyl group of Ⅲ was methylated so as to makechelation impossible in the resulting compound, α-dichloroacetamido-β-hydroxy-o-methoxy-p-nitropropiophenone (Ⅳ). Furthermore, compounds with simplerstructure, (ⅩⅩ), (ⅩⅪ), (ⅩⅤⅢ), and (ⅩⅩⅨ), in which the hydroxymethylgroup is lacking and consequently does not contain any asymmetric carbonatom, are also examined. In all these cases, compounds able to form chelationring invariably showed higher antibiotic activities than the correspondingcompounds unable to do so (see Table 1). The function of the nitro group in these molecules has also been considered.When this group in (Ⅲ) or (Ⅳ) is changed to an amino group, there is suchmarked decrease of activity in the resulting compounds (Ⅴ) or (Ⅳ) thatneither of them showed any activity below a concentration of 400 γ/ml. As compared with chloramphenicol, compound Ⅲ is almost as effectiveagainst Gram-positive bacteria, especially St. Aureus, but is much less effectiveagainst Gram-positive bacteria. The present authors are of the opinion thatthe mechanisms of antibiotic action of the two compounds must be different. Compound ⅩⅢ was obtained from o-methoxy-p-nitroethylbenzene (Ⅹ) byoxidation with potassium permanganate buffered with manganese nitrate.Compound Ⅹ was in turn prepared from o-amino-p-nitroethylbenzene (Ⅶ)through diazotization, hydrolysis, and methylation with dimethylsulfate.Methylation of Ⅻ also gave ⅩⅢ. As to compound Ⅻ, it was obtained in two ways: (1) Demethylation ofcompound ⅩⅢ with hydrobromic acid or anhydrous aluminum bromide incarbon disulfide, the latter procedure giving better results, (2) oxidation of themethoxymethyl ether (Ⅸ) of compound Ⅷ with potassium permanganate toyield compound Ⅺ followed by hydrolysis with dilute hydrochloric acid. Ourproduct did not depress the melting point of a sample prepared fromm-nitrophenol through Fries rearrangement according to Gerecs et al.Derivatives of Ⅻ have been prepared, they are: the acetate (Ⅻa) and itsα-bromo-derivative (ⅩⅠⅤa), the benzoate (Ⅻb)and its α-bromo-derivative(ⅩⅠⅤb). Compounds Ⅻ and ⅩⅢ were then separately subjected to the five-stepsynthesis recorded in the literature [8, 11--13] for the preparation of dehydrochlo-ramphenicol, namely: (1) bromination to give ⅩⅠⅤ and ⅩⅤ, (2)treatmentwith urotropine to give ⅩⅠⅤ and ⅩⅠⅡ, (3) hydrolysis to give ⅩⅤⅢ and ⅩⅠⅩ,(4) dichloroacetylation to give ⅩⅩ and ⅩⅪ or acetylation to give ⅩⅩⅡ andⅩⅩⅢ, and (5)condensation with formaldehyde in the presence of sodiumhydroxide (for Ⅲ and ⅩⅩⅣ) or sodium bicarbonate (for Ⅳ and ⅩⅩⅤ)(see scheme). When compound ⅩⅩⅤ was subjected to hydrolysis by hydrochloric acid, acompound was obtained, which is believed to be a diketene (ⅩⅩⅥ). When compound ⅩⅩⅢ was treated with acetyl chloride, a compoundC_(11)H_(10)O_4N_2 was obtained. This formula corresponds to 2-methyl-5-(o-methoxy-p-nitrophenyl)-oxazoline (ⅩⅩⅦ). The amino-compounds Ⅴ, Ⅵ, ⅩⅩⅤⅢ and ⅩⅩⅨ were obtained from thecorresponding nitro-compounds by reduction with sodium hydrosulphite.

1.本文叙述自邻氨基-对硝基乙苯开始分别经过九步或八步反应,合成α-二氯乙酰胺基-β-羟基-邻羟基对硝基苯丙酮(Ⅲ)和α-二氯乙酰胺基-β-羟基-邻甲氧基对硝基苯丙酮(Ⅳ),以及一些有关的化合物。 2.硝基化合物Ⅲ及Ⅳ均可以低亚硫酸钠还原成相应的氨基化合物,α-二氯乙酰胺基-β-羟基-邻羟基-对氨基苯丙酮(Ⅴ)和α-二氯乙酰胺基-β-羟基-邻甲氧基-对氨基苯丙酮(Ⅵ)。 3.曾试验邻羟基-对硝基苯甲醛与对硝基苯甲醛,及邻羟基-对硝基苯乙酮与邻甲氧基对硝基苯乙酮等两对化合物的抗菌效力。结果凡有氢键钳合结构的化合物均有较强的抗菌作用。 4.曾试验化合物Ⅲ,Ⅳ,Ⅴ,Ⅵ及其相应的去羟甲基化合物ⅩⅩ,ⅩⅪ,ⅩⅩⅧ和ⅩⅩⅨ对金色葡萄球菌,枯草杆菌,大肠杆菌和副伤寒菌B型的抑制作用。在此等化合物中(除去Ⅴ),凡有酚基与羰基形成钳合结构的化合物均有比较强的抗菌作用。化合物Ⅲ对金色葡萄球菌的抑制效力接近于氯霉素,但对革兰氏阴性菌的效力低于氯霉素;这种不一致的现象可能是Ⅲ的抗菌作用机理与氯霉素不同。

Various bisquaternary ammonium salts such as hoxamethonium and ctecametnonium are pharmacologically active substances.Recent reports showed that compounds possessing rigid molecular structure might exhibit more specific pharmaco-logical behavior.For instance,phenylhexane-p,ω-bis(triethylammonium)salt had high neuromuscular blocking activity and resembled d-tubocurarine in mode of action.As a part of the project in searching for new medicinal agents,a series of bisquaternary ammonium salts derived from...

Various bisquaternary ammonium salts such as hoxamethonium and ctecametnonium are pharmacologically active substances.Recent reports showed that compounds possessing rigid molecular structure might exhibit more specific pharmaco-logical behavior.For instance,phenylhexane-p,ω-bis(triethylammonium)salt had high neuromuscular blocking activity and resembled d-tubocurarine in mode of action.As a part of the project in searching for new medicinal agents,a series of bisquaternary ammonium salts derived from bistoloxyalkanes(Ⅴ)has been synthesized.Treatment of cresols with α,ω-dibromoalkanes in the predence of potassium hydroxide or sodium ethoxide readily gave bistoloxyalkanes(Ⅲ).Many of such compounds were briefly described in literature.Arnhold mentioned the preparation of throe methylene derivatives(Ⅲa,Ⅲf and Ⅲh)by the reaction of the corre sponding cresols and methylene chloride at 120—130°.In the present work methylenebromide was employed and the reaction temperature was much lowered.The products were obtained by refluxing the reaction mixtures in ethanolic solutions.Bromination of the bistoloxyalkanes(Ⅲ)by means of N-bromosuccinimide in carbon tetrachloride medium afforded the expected bromomethyl derivatives(Ⅳ).If the reactions were carried out in chloroform solutions,however,nuclear-brominated products were isolated.Bis-m-toloxyethane(Ⅲg)gave bis-(4-bromo-m-toloxy)ethane(Ⅶ)even the bromination was conducted in carbon tetrachloride solution.The structure of all the nuclear-brominated products was proved by unequivocal method of syntheses from the corresponding bromocresols.Condensation of the bromomethylphenoxyalkanes(Ⅳ)with trimethyl amine in boiling ethanolic solution readily gave the corresponding bisquaternary ammonium bromides(V).Many of such salts had neuromuscular blocking activity.Competards of the o-series resembled d-tubocurarine in mode of action,whilst the pand the m-substituted compounds resembled decamethonium.The ethane derivative(Vi)was among the most potent ones in the o series.

鄰、间及对甲苯酚分别以氢氧化钾或乙醇钠中和后,再与α,ω-二溴烷烃作用,生成各种相应双(甲苯氧基)烷烃(Ⅲ)。后者在四氯化碳溶液中用 N-溴代丁二酰亚胺溴化,变为双(溴甲基苯氧基)烷烃(Ⅳ)。这些溴甲基取代物与三甲胺在乙醇中缩合,生成二溴化双(甲苯氧基)烷烃双三甲基季铵(Ⅴ)。药理试验找到这些制成的季铵盐具有强弱不等的神经肌阻断作用,其中二溴化双(鄰甲苯氧基)乙烷双三甲基季铵(Vi)具有南美防己碱样的作用,尤其值得注意。双(对甲苯氧基)乙烷及双(对甲苯氧基)丁烷在氯仿中用 N-溴代丁二酰亚胺溴化时,产生苯核上溴化的产物。双(鄰甲苯氧基)乙烷虽在四氯化碳中溴化,也产生苯核溴代化合物。这些核代产物也经用相应溴代苯酚与二卥代烷烃缩合制成,以证明其结构。

 
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