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organization of
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     The Research of Operation and Management Mode of Real Estate Intermediary Organization of China
     中国房地产中介组织运营与管理模式研究
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     From Spatial Division of Labour to Spatial Organization of Metropolitan Regions
     从劳动空间分工到大都市区空间组织
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     A Study on Organization of Vegetable Industry in Shandong
     山东蔬菜产业的组织研究
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     Study on Insurance Industrial Organization of China
     中国保险产业组织研究
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     Study on the Dynamic Models and the Modes of the Virtual R&D Organization of Medium and Small Technological Enterprises
     科技型中小企业虚拟研发组织的动态模型及模式研究
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     A Study on the Risk Management for Preservation Organization of Cultural Collections
     文物典藏机构危险管理的研究
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     Structural Organization of Human Nuclear Receptor hb1f(nr5a2) Gene and Its Transcriptional Regulation
     人核受体hb1f(nr5a2)的基因结构及其转录调控
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     Analysis on Genomic Organization of Dendrolimus Punctus Densovirus and Study on Function of Non-Structural Protein NS1
     马尾松毛虫浓核病毒基因组结构分析及其非结构蛋白NS1功能研究
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     Study on Intermediary Service Organization of Science & Technology and Technology Diffusion in Difference Region
     基于科技中介服务机构的产业密集区技术扩散研究
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     INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF JOURNALISTS
     国际新闻工作者协会
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     Organization
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     Organization and Innovation
     组织与创新
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     The organization of discourse
     话语的结构(上)
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     On the Classification of Teaching Organization
     教学组织形式的分类问题
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The distribution and genomic organization of rDNA in the three genera were also discussed.
      
Structure-, concentration-, and time-dependent effects of xenobiotics on the ultrastructural organization of cells are analyzed.
      
Organization of metabolic pathways and molecular-genetic mechanisms of xenobiotic degradation in microorganisms: A review
      
These problems are solved through a combination of market mechanisms and goal-oriented management, including those that are based on self-organization (of economic factors) and creative techniques.
      
To program arbitrary lattice elements as backups, a model and rules of self-organization of multimicrocontrollers were determined.
      
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This paper aims at a discussion on problems of labor organization of weavers in accordance with an article written by Soviet author E. A. Sterin issued on "Textile Industries of U.S.S.R." No. 1, 1956. Certain data acquired through a detailed time-study before and after the rearrangement of labor organization are included with analytical comments. The main part of this paper deals with the following problems: 1. Analysis and evaluation of data acquired from the time-study regarding the utilization...

This paper aims at a discussion on problems of labor organization of weavers in accordance with an article written by Soviet author E. A. Sterin issued on "Textile Industries of U.S.S.R." No. 1, 1956. Certain data acquired through a detailed time-study before and after the rearrangement of labor organization are included with analytical comments. The main part of this paper deals with the following problems: 1. Analysis and evaluation of data acquired from the time-study regarding the utilization of working hours and the factors affecting the workers' efficiency; 2. Theoretical survey on the changes in production rates of looms in the light of a comparison with actual production situation; 3. Discussions on improving quality of products, effective management in work lots, harmonious operations during a shift, better utilizing of working hours, etc.; 4. Suggestions.

本文系根据苏联紡織工业杂志1956年第一期E.A.斯切尔林所提出的論点进行了試驗研究。文中叙述了劳动組織調整前后进行詳細的測定,并根据測定的資料加以分析論証。本文主要論述了以下几方面的問題。从测定資料来分析工人工时利用情况以及工人劳动生产率提高的因素,并进行了評述。对織机的产量定額变动情况进行了理論性的論証并引用了实际产量情况作了比較。关于提高产品品質問題,提高工区有效領导問題,工人在工作班时間內均匀的看护机台和合理的利用工时等問題均作了論述,同时对存在的問題亦提出了一定的看法和作了分析。

Working areas are the principal production plants as well as the basic units of organized production of a mine.Magnitude of production capacity of a working area merely reflects the production result accomplished, and does not necessarily reflect the working conditions of that area. Hence, it appears to be of great importance to work out a set of standard indices which can more fully reflect the activities of production organization of a working area.This article treats of the following points in regard...

Working areas are the principal production plants as well as the basic units of organized production of a mine.Magnitude of production capacity of a working area merely reflects the production result accomplished, and does not necessarily reflect the working conditions of that area. Hence, it appears to be of great importance to work out a set of standard indices which can more fully reflect the activities of production organization of a working area.This article treats of the following points in regard to the above-mentioned question:(1)a correct understanding about "production capacity of a working area"; (2)analysis of various factors that influence "production capacity of a working area"; (3) how to choose a rational"production capacity of a working area"; (4) recommending a set of standard indices that can more fully reflect the activities of production organization of a working area i.e.,a set of indices showing degree of production concentration of a working area.

采区是矿井的主要生产车间,也是矿井组织生产的基本单位.采区生产能力的大小,仅仅反映了采区的产品完成效果如何,而不能反映该采区的条件如何.因此制定一套比较全面反映采区生产组织活动的统一指标,就显得非常需要. 本文即准备针对上述问题就如下几方面加以探讨:一、对“采区生产能力”的正确理解;二:影响各种不同“采区生产能力”的因素分析;三、怎样选择合理的“采区生产能力”;四、推荐一套比较全面反映采区生产组织活动的统一指标——采区生产集中程度指标.

With regard to the relation between the eye cup formation from primary optic vesicle and the presumptive lens ectoderm, the viewpoints were not consistent among investigators. One view held that while the early development of the eye cup was independent of the lens, its further growth was deeply influenced by it (Spemann; '38, P. 56). Another view held that the specificty of the distal wall (the presumptive retina area) of the primary optic vesicle became fixed only when it came in contact with the presumptive...

With regard to the relation between the eye cup formation from primary optic vesicle and the presumptive lens ectoderm, the viewpoints were not consistent among investigators. One view held that while the early development of the eye cup was independent of the lens, its further growth was deeply influenced by it (Spemann; '38, P. 56). Another view held that the specificty of the distal wall (the presumptive retina area) of the primary optic vesicle became fixed only when it came in contact with the presumptive lens ectoderm (Dragomirow, '35). The question whether the transformation of the eye cup from the primary optic vesicle is independent of the lens, or whether the fixation of the retina of the eye cup is dependent upon its contact with the presumptive lens ectoderm remains to be proved. It is stated in literatures that the isolated parts of the eye vesicle after transplantation might differentiate into braintissues (Dragomirow, '33; '60), and the isolated eye vesicles under cultivation in salt solut- ion might differentiate into eyetissues as well as braintissues ('46). Thus there arises the question, does the primary optic vesicle possess dual potency both for the eye formation and the braintissue differentiation? In order to solve the problem, two sets of experiments viz. the transplantation and the extirpation experiments are adopted. In the transplantation experiments the primary optic vesicles of embryos at stage 16 of Rana nigromaculata and R. japonica is divided into distal-middle and proximal-thirds, each respectively is transplanted into the head and belly of another embryo of the same stage. In the extirpation experiments one third or two thirds of the material of the primary optic vesicles of embryos at stage 16 or 17 of R. nigromaculata and R. limnocharis are removed, and let the remnant to develop further with the presumptive lens ectoderm intact or without the presumptive lens ectoderm. The results of the grafting experiments (cf. Table 1) clearly demonstrate that the distal-thirds of the primary optic vesicles show the highest frequency in the regulation of eye cup formation (60.7%), but lowest in brain tissue differentiation (7.1%), while the proximal-thirds exhibit the highest frequency in brain tissue differentiation (76.9%), but lowest in the regulation of eye cup formation (11.5%). The middle-thirds show a mean ratio of both eye cup formation (29.6%) and brain tissue differentiation (18.5%) between the two extremes. It seems that there appear two opposite gradients, one for eye cup formation with the apical point at the distal-thirds gradually weakened dawn towards the proximal part, aud the other for brain tissue differentiation with the apical point at the proximal-thirds weakened down towards the distal part. This agrees with the view of ('60, P. 115), who suggested that the brain could develop from the apical part of the material of an early eye cup, but its morphogenetic potency and size could be strengthened progressively towards its basal part. Based on the results of our experiments as well as on literatures that the material of eye rudiments from the stages of open medullary plate up to that of early eye cup can differentiate into brain tissues (Alderman. '35; Dragomirow, '33; Лопашов, '46, Vennecof, '47, a, b,), it has been shown that the eye rudiment possesses dual potency of morphogenesis both for eye formation and brain tissue differentiation. The results of the experiments of extirpation are as follows (cf. table 2). When the distal-thirds together with the middle-thirds of the primary optic vesicles from embryo at stage 16 are excised, or when the proximal-thirds together with the middle-thirds of the vesicles from embryo at stage 17 are excised, provided the presumptive lens ectoderm is intact, the remnants are either the proximal-thirds in the first case, or the distal-thirds in the second case, they always regulate to form well-organized eye cups. However, when both the distal-and the middle-thirds of the vesicles from embryo at stage 17 are excised, provided the presumptive lens ectoderm is also extirpated, no eye cup is formed from the surviving proximal-thirds. The results of the above experiments showy that the presumptive lens ectoderm exerts a definite influence upon the eye cup formation from the substances of the primary optic vesicles. It also agrees with the fact that a secondary eye cup can be produced from the tapetum of the primary eye cup through the inducing action of the presumptive lens ectoderm (Dragomtrow, '39) If only the distal-thirds of the eye vesicles are excised, the substances of the remaining two-thirds, inspire of the absence of the lens anlage, can regulate to form wellorganized eye cups. This shows that the regulation of eye. cups from fragments of eye vesicles depends upon the quantity of the eye-forming substances, and not upon the influence of the lens anlage, though the latter exerts influence upon the eye vesicles to promote eye cup formation. If the eye-forming material is not sufficient to regulate to form an eye, there will be no way to form an eye cup. This is exactly the view of Dragomirow ('33). Basing on the above account, we come to the conclusion that in any way the presumptive lens ectoderm certainly can exert influence upon the eye vesicles in promoting the formation of eye cups, especially when the material is insufficient, and the regulation of eye cups from fragments of vesicles is dependent upon the presence of sufficient material, but not upon the lens anlage. The conclusion follows that either after the distal-thirds together with the middle-thirds or after the middle-thirds together with the proximal-thirds of the primary optic vesicles are excised, the brain wall together with the remaining material under the stimulation of the presumptive lens ectoderm forms an eye cup. This proves that the presumptive lens ectoderm not only excites the eye-forming material to promote the eye cup formation, but also invokes the embryonic brain walls to take part in the organization of the eye. Thus on the one hand the eye-forming material can differentiate into brain tissues, on the other hand the embryonic brain tissues can also form eyes, they both have the potency for eye formation and brain formation.

通过移植和切除的试验结果,证明蛙胚眼泡的远、中、近三部分都有调整成眼杯和分化为脑组织的可能,因而确定眼泡是一个具有双重发生潛能的原基。试验並发现眼泡的这种发生潛能表现出两端不同的极性,呈现出方向相反的两个级度,成眼最高点在远端而成脑最高点在近端。试验又证明预定水晶体外胚层的接触诱导确有促进眼泡材料转变眼杯的作用。但另一方面亦表明在成眼材料足够时,卽使没有预定水晶体存在亦有可能调整成眼杯。(不过在后一情形仍须考虑到由四周生拢弥合的外胚层在接触眼泡材料后,有转变为次生预定水晶体的可能,因而或许仍可由它发生影响。)从试验中发见预定水晶体外胚层又能激发蛙胚间脑产生出眼。最后根据眼泡能分化脑和间脑能产生眼的事实,表明眼泡与间脑对於发生眼与脑都没有到最后决定而是在可变性决定阶段。

 
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