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precipitation     
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  降水(
     ③ The main amount of runoff(Qi) is origin of precipitation(Pi),the obvious one dimensional system is Pi=115.7678+2.7386Qi.
     ③径流(Qi)主要来源于降水(Pi),二者呈明显的一元线型关系:Pi=115.767 8+2.738 6Qi。
短句来源
     【Result】The soil water storage was 600 mm in the 0-200 cm soil profile of fallowing plots in the summer of 364 mm precipitation(including 82 mm of irrigation). It was 204 mm more than that before seeding,and 39 mm more than that of maize-planting plots.
     结果在降水(含灌水82mm)364mm的夏季,休闲可使0~200cm土层的贮水量达到600mm,比播种前高204mm,比种植作物高39mm。
短句来源
     The results showed that the average concentration of Al 3+ in throughfall (0.393 3 mg·L -1 ) was slightly higher than that in precipitation (0.329 mg·L -1 ). The average concentrations of Al 3+ soil solutions were much higher than in precipitation and were about 4.7 times and 3.8 times higher in soil water collected at 30 cm depth and runoff, respectively.
     30cm土壤溶液和溪水中的Al3 + 浓度分别是大气降水 (0 .32 9mg·L-1)的 4 .8和 3.7倍。
短句来源
     The water lost through sur face flow and infiltration out of the net precipitation(including throughfall and stemflow)accounted for3.0%and23.0%of the annual precipitation respectively.
     净降水(包括穿透水和树干茎流)中以地表径流、渗漏方式流失的水分分别占年总降水量的3.0%和23.0%;
短句来源
     The precipitation (cluster 1, cluster 2 and cluster 3)controlled by north flows including northeast monsoon flow and frontal system flow was strongly acidic and was caused by pollutants during long distance transportation. cluster 4, cluster 5 and cluster 6 that had a relatively high ion concentration were mainly polluted by source of close quarters.
     由东北季风气流和锋面系统控制的降水(簇1、2、3)是污染物经较长距离迁移造成的强酸性降水,簇4、簇5、簇6的降水受局地污染源影响,所含的离子浓度较高.
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  降水量(
     The regression equation of monthly litter fall (Y1) and monthly precipitation (X2, mm) was Y1=0.116 x2 + 34.381 (r=0.62 , df=14),also showing a greatly significant relation.
     月凋落物量(Y_1)与月降水量(X_2,mm)的回归公式为Y_1=0.116 x_2+34.381(r=0.62,df=14),相关极显著。
短句来源
     There is a closest relation between grass living things and soil moisture with 10~20 cm. The relative equation between grass living things and atmospheric precipitation(X_1),monthly mean temperature(X_2) and moisture of soil with 10~20 cm is as follows:Y=204.694+2.193 X_1-5.437 X_2-40.157 X_3+30.496 X_4;
     草群生物量与10~20 cm土壤水分关联度最高,与大气降水量(X1)、月平均气温(X2)和10~20 cm土壤含水量(X3)的关系方程为:Y=204.694+2.193X1-5.437X2-40.157X3+30.496X4;
短句来源
     The annual total evapotranspiration was 736.1mm, which was about 55.6% of the annual precipitation (1323.6 mm).
     全年蒸散量为736·1mm,占总降水量(1323·6mm)的55·6%。
短句来源
     The regression equation of the aboveground biomass of the Old World bluestem Rangelands (Y) between temperature (X1), precipitation (X2), and relative humidity of air (X3) is : Y= -437.76X1 + 4.99X2 + 420.53X}- 15.04 (R2= 0.7684, P<0.05) . The regrowth character of the forage on the Old World bluestem was strong.
     白羊草地上生物量与各生态因子温度(X_1)、降水量(X_2)及空气相对湿度(X_3)之间的回归方程为:Y=-437.76X_1+4.99X_2+420.53X_3-15.04 (R~2=0.7684,P<0.05)。
短句来源
     Monthly litter falling ( Y /g m -2 ) was positively correlated with monthly precipitation ( X 1/mm) and with monthly mean air temperature ( X 2/℃), ). The regression equations were Y = 0.174 X 1+64.215, r =0.63 ** and Y =7.053 X 2-58.435, r = 0.61 ** , respectively, showing a greatly significant relation.
     月凋落物量 (Y/gm-2 )与月降水量 (X1/mm)、月平均气温 (X2 /℃ )的回归公式分别为Y =0 .174X1+ 6 4.2 15 ,r=0 .6 3 和Y =7.0 5 3X2 - 5 8.435 ,r=0 .6 1 ,相关极显著 .
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  沉淀(
     The experiment results show that after precipitation(dispersion) strengthening treatment,the second-phase,carbide particles M23C6 are distributing in austenitic grains,which intensify the austenitic matrix of the steel.
     结果表明,沉淀(弥散)强化使奥氏体晶内析出了弥散颗粒状M23C6型碳化物,强化了奥氏体基体。
短句来源
     Objective To retrospectively summarize the effect of Heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL-Lp(a)-Fibrinogen precipitation (HELP) system in the treatment of refractory hyperlipemia.
     目的 分析肝素诱导体外低密度脂蛋白-载脂蛋白-a-纤维蛋白原沉淀(Heparin-induced Extracorporeal LDL-LP(a)-fibringen Precipitation,HELP),在治疗难治性高脂血症中的疗效。
短句来源
     An NADH dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase was separated from Candida parapsilosis CCTCC 203011. The enzyme gave a single band on SDS-PAGE, which was purified through ethanol precipitation(30~60%, v/v), Blue Sepharose 6 FF and DEAE Sepharose FF chromatography from cell-free extract. The molecular mass of the enzyme subunit is about 37.5kD.
     从近平滑假丝酵母(Candida parapsilosis CCTCC 203011)中分离得到了NAD(H)依赖型的(R)-苯基乙二醇次级醇脱氢酶。 粗酶经乙醇分级沉淀(30~60%)、Blue Sepharose Fast Flow 6亲和层析、DEAE Sepharose离子交换层析后在SDS-PAGE上显示为单一条带,其酶蛋白的亚基分子量为37.5kD。
短句来源
     When intragranular precipitation and grain sizes are basically the same, the impact toughness decreased drastically with the increase of the size of grain boundary precipitation (including M23C6 phase, delta phase and M3B2 phase in the tested superalloy) and its distribution density in area and morphology becoming fragiler (such as filmy and dendritic).
     而晶内沉淀和晶粒尺寸等因素基本相同时,随晶界沉淀(包括所研究合金中的M23C6、δ相和M3B2相)尺寸和面分布密度的增大、形貌的脆性化(如薄膜状、枝晶状),冲击韧性大幅度下降。
短句来源
     Experiment results show that this effect is quite obvious. After precipitation(dispersion) strengthening treatment,the carbide particles M7C3 are distributing in austenitic grains,which intensify the austenitic matrix and enhance the mechanical properties of the steel.
     试验结果表明,热处理工艺对超高锰钢组织和性能有显著影响,沉淀(弥散)强化使奥氏体晶内析出了弥散颗粒状M7C3型碳化物,强化了基体,使钢的力学性能得到提高。
短句来源
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  沉淀
     When RCP<10%,the RCP mea-(sured) with paper chromatography is not different from that with TCA precipitation((P>0.05)),whereas higher than that with HPLC(P<0.01).
     当RCP<10%时,TCA沉淀法与纸层析法测得的RCP间无明显差异(P>0.05),而要高于HPLC(P<0.01);
短句来源
     By isoelectric precipitation (pH4.28), ultrafiltration(molecular cut off 10 000) and AOT reverse micelle extraction MTGase, MTGase specific activity enhanced to 14.2 U/g from 0.16U/g, increasing by a factor of 88.75. The yield of activity is 100%.
     粗MTGase在pH值4.28经等电点沉淀除杂蛋白、经过截留分子量10000的超滤膜除小分子杂质及50m mol/L AOT/异辛烷反胶束萃取三个步骤,MTGase比活力由0.16U/g升至14.2 U/g,提高88.75倍。
短句来源
     The experiment results show that after precipitation(dispersion) strengthening treatment,the second-phase,carbide particles M23C6 are distributing in austenitic grains,which intensify the austenitic matrix of the steel.
     结果表明,沉淀(弥散)强化使奥氏体晶内析出了弥散颗粒状M23C6型碳化物,强化了奥氏体基体。
短句来源
     A phosphatase had been isolated from soybean leaves and purified 96.81 folds, to a final specific activity of 17.91 U/mg proteins, through ammonium sulfate fraction precipitation (20%~50% saturation), DEAE-cellulose chromatography and hydroxyapatite chromatography. This enzyme had high specificity for substrate of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP);
     从大豆叶片中分离磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸磷酸酯酶(phosphoeno lpyruvate phosphatase,PEPP),通过硫酸胺分部(20%~50%饱和度)沉淀、DEAE—纤维素层析、羟基磷灰石层析将酶纯化了96.81倍,酶活性达17.91 U/m g蛋白。
短句来源
     Objective To retrospectively summarize the effect of Heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL-Lp(a)-Fibrinogen precipitation (HELP) system in the treatment of refractory hyperlipemia.
     目的 分析肝素诱导体外低密度脂蛋白-载脂蛋白-a-纤维蛋白原沉淀(Heparin-induced Extracorporeal LDL-LP(a)-fibringen Precipitation,HELP),在治疗难治性高脂血症中的疗效。
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  precipitation
The water-soluble glucan was obtained from Pleurotus florida fruit bodies by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, DEAE cellulose dialysis and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration.
      
Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ZnO by direct precipitation method
      
Nanocrystalline ZnO was prepared with ZnCl2·2H2O and (NH4)2CO3 as raw materials by direct precipitation method.
      
The ion-exchanger LiAlTiO4 of spinel type was prepared by the common precipitation/hydrothermal crystallization method, and was acid-modified.
      
The precursors of Fe2O3-SiO2 mixed oxides prepared through co-precipitation method were modified by microwave hydrothermal treatment for the first time.
      
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Von Knorre first suggested the use of benzidine and o-tolidine for the determination of tungsten. With the latter reagent, he succeeded also in separat- ing tungstate from phosphate. Later on, o-dianisidine and vanillylidene benzidine have been proposed as precipitants for tungstate. The optimum pH ranges for the quantitative precipitation of tungstate by means of these precipitants and tetraminodiphenyl, which have not yet been found in the literature, are: benzidine pH: 2.0-5.5 o-tolidine 2.9-4.7 ...

Von Knorre first suggested the use of benzidine and o-tolidine for the determination of tungsten. With the latter reagent, he succeeded also in separat- ing tungstate from phosphate. Later on, o-dianisidine and vanillylidene benzidine have been proposed as precipitants for tungstate. The optimum pH ranges for the quantitative precipitation of tungstate by means of these precipitants and tetraminodiphenyl, which have not yet been found in the literature, are: benzidine pH: 2.0-5.5 o-tolidine 2.9-4.7 o-dianisidine 2.0-4.1 vanillylidene benzidine 1.7-3.9 tetraminodiphenyl 1.7-4.8 The effect of introducing various groups into the benzidine molecule upon the tungsten precipitating property is not profound. The relation between quantitative precipitation of tungstate with benzidine and the product of concentrations of both constituents before precipitation Was studied. It is found that quantitative precipitation of tungstate ions Can be realized only when the product of concentrations of reactants before precipitation is equal to or greater than 0.8 × 10~(-5), and the moles of benzidine added must be at least equal to that of tungstate. The gravimetlic determination of tungsten by means of o-tolidine may be applied to samples containing as low as 10 mg of rungsten trioxide in 200 ml solution, if an absolute error of 0. 5 mg can be tolelxted. For larger quantities of tungsten present in sample, the absolute errors amount to only 0.1-0.2 mg. Tetraminodiphenyl may be used as a tungsten precipitant, but no advantage over benzidine Wan found in our present studies.

1.用二胺聯苯及其數種衍生物沉澱鎢酸根時,其適宜的pH範圍如下:[4,4′]二胺聯苯 pH:2.0-5.5[3,3′]二甲基[4,4′]二胺聯苯 2.9-4.7[3,3′]二甲氧基[4,4′]二胺聯苯 2.0-4.1[4]對胺聯苯氮甲烯[2]甲苯酚 1.7-3.9[3,4,3′,4′]四胺聯苯 1.7-4.8 2.用[4,4′]二胺聯苯作沉澱劑時,二胺聯苯和鎢酸根在沉澱前的濃度之乘積與後者沉澱完全與否的關係,曾加研究。 3.用[3,3′]二甲基[4,4′]二胺聯苯作沉澱劑時,能测定低至10毫克的三氧化鎢。

This communication reports the results of a study of the gravimetric deter- mination of lead as normal phosphate, known as Vortmann and Bader method, which has been recently examined by Hubicki and Rys. According to our findings, tartaric acid should be added only when antimony is present. With the addition of tarearic acid unusual large excess of precipitant as suggested by Vortinann and Bader is required for complete precipitation. The suitable pH range for the precipitation of tertiary lead phosphate...

This communication reports the results of a study of the gravimetric deter- mination of lead as normal phosphate, known as Vortmann and Bader method, which has been recently examined by Hubicki and Rys. According to our findings, tartaric acid should be added only when antimony is present. With the addition of tarearic acid unusual large excess of precipitant as suggested by Vortinann and Bader is required for complete precipitation. The suitable pH range for the precipitation of tertiary lead phosphate is 6.5 to 10. Below pH 6.5, the precipitation will be incomplete, owing apparently to the formation of acid phosphate(s). Beyond pH 10, no experiment has been made, because no advantage is gained by working in such alkaline media. The concentration of the precipitant in sdlution after reaction should be within 0.00085-0.0033 molar in order to obtain good results. The precipitates may be ignited at any temperature from 650℃ up to at least 900℃. The practice of drying the pre- cipitates at 130℃ to constant weight suggested by Hubicki and Rys should be discarded, since the precipitates still contain noticeable amounts of water after drying to constant weight at that temperature. It is preferred to use the method of precipitation from homogeneous solution. With this technique in practice dense, crystalline and easily filterable precipitates are obtained; and small quantity of lead, as low as 5 mg, may be determined satisfactorily. The effect of presence of some alkali and ammonium salts has also-been studied.

本文報告用磷酸根測定鉛重量法的各種適宜條件。溶液的pH值應在6.5至10之間。過剩沉澱劑在溶液中的濃度應為0.00085——0.0033M。沉澱應在650℃-900℃間灼燒之;如在130℃乾燥,則沉澱內的水份不能完全驅盡。均勻沉澱可改善沉澱的性質,並可测定少至5毫克的鉛。如溶液中無銻,則不必加酒石酸。

The effects of copper and zinc ionsupon the precipitation of barium sul-phate have been noted for a long time.However,the results published wereeither not systematic(3,4b,5,6)or obtained under conditions apart fromusual analytical practice(7,8).Thus,it seems necessary to investigate thissubject in more detail by the usual methods of determination.The presentcommunication reports(a)the effect of various amounts of cupric and zincions and(b)the influence of different acidities during precipitation...

The effects of copper and zinc ionsupon the precipitation of barium sul-phate have been noted for a long time.However,the results published wereeither not systematic(3,4b,5,6)or obtained under conditions apart fromusual analytical practice(7,8).Thus,it seems necessary to investigate thissubject in more detail by the usual methods of determination.The presentcommunication reports(a)the effect of various amounts of cupric and zincions and(b)the influence of different acidities during precipitation in thepresence and absence of zinc ions.It is found that the interference of copper in the determination of sulphuras barium sulphate up to a ratio of 20:1 for Cu:S is negligible.The deviationsof the results obtained from theoretical values are all within ±2‰(see Table1),and do not show any regularity with the amount of copper added.The presence of zinc ions alone gives satisfactory results(slightly lowerthan theoretical values).As the amount of zinc ions in solution increases,thedeviations become somewhat wider(Table 2).The low results are presumedto be due to(1)the formation of soluble zinc-sulphate complex,which holdsa part of sulphate in solution,and/or(2)diverse ion effect.In the presenceof zinc ions,introducing hydrochloric acid up to 0.1 N before precipitationcauses essentially the same errors as if hydrochloric acid were absent(cf.Tables2 and 3),while at and beyond 0.2 N positive errors are obtained.A spectrographic examination of the precipitates reveals that zinc doescoprecipitate with barium sulphate,though only to a slight extent.The amountof zinc coprecipitated decreases with the increase of the acidity of the solutionfrom which the precipitate is thrown down.

本文报告铜及锌离子对于硫酸钡定硫的影响,找出了铜的影响几近于零,锌的影响亦微。锌离子能与硫酸钡共同沉淀。

 
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