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the head kidney
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  头肾
     The percentages of the lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes are 36.6%, 31.0% and 19.7%, respectively, of the tolal immune cells in the head kidney.
     头肾中免疫细胞丰富 ,其中淋巴细胞占 36 .6 % ,单核细胞占 31.0 % ,颗粒细胞占 19.7%。
短句来源
     The phagocytic and bactericidal activity of the blood leucocytes and the phagocytes in the head kidney, lysozyme activity in serum, the content of serum complement C3 and C4 of the test group IV (comprising 34.97% DLRM) were also depressed tendency, but no significant differences with the control group. The test groups (III, V) had no significant differences each other.
     含有34.97%普通菜籽粕的试验组(Ⅳ)的血液白细胞和头肾吞噬细胞的吞噬活性和杀菌活性、血清溶菌酶活性、补体C3、C4含量也呈下降的趋势,但是在试验过程中和对照组没有出现显著差异,试验组Ⅲ、Ⅴ之间没有出现显著差异。
短句来源
     A study on microstructure of the head kidney in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
     鲤鱼头肾显微结构研究
短句来源
     The head kidney and the spleen in Xingguo Red Carp were being compared between the fish injected with PHA and the normal group.
     PHA注射前后兴国红鲤头肾和脾脏结构基本相同。
短句来源
     The head kidney and spleen are the major hemopoietic organs in fish,and they are also important immune organs in the Lutjanus sanguineus.
     研究结果表明:红笛鲷的头肾和脾脏是硬骨鱼类机体造血的主要器官,又是鱼类重要的免疫器官.
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  “the head kidney”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Meanwhile, the immune indexes were also affected to some extent. The immune organ index of the Thymus rose gradually, the immune organ index of the Head Kidney dropped after initial rise, and the number of NBT-positive cell increased gradually.
     同时明显影响各项免疫指标,胸腺的免疫器官指数逐渐升高,头肾的免疫器官指数起初升高然后下降,血液中的NBT阳性细胞数量逐渐增加;
短句来源
     In addition, to evaluate the effects of E 2 on non specific cellular defense, we investigated the amount of reactive oxygen intermediates produced from the head kidney macrophages.
     雌二醇是重要的雌激素之一 ,本研究运用酶联吸附免疫法、酶联吸附斑点法以及微量活性氧测定法 ,主要探讨了雌二醇在体内或体外对抗体的水平、产生抗体的细胞的数目和巨噬细胞产生活性氧的水平的影响。
短句来源
     Microstructure and histochemistry of the head kidney of the carp were investigated by light microscopy.
     应用光镜对鲤鱼头肾的显微结构及其某些组织化学特性进行了研究。
短句来源
     The immune organ index of the thymus and spleen rose gradually,the immune organ index of the head kidney dropped after rose,and the number of NBT-positive cell increased gradually,plasma bactericidal activity and lysozyme activity in serum increased apparently.
     结果表明:脾脏和胸腺的免疫器官指数逐渐升高,头肾的免疫器官指数起初升高然后下降,血液中的NBT阳性细胞数量逐渐增加,血清抗菌活性与溶菌酶活性逐渐升高;
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     Hat And Head
     帽子和脑袋
短句来源
     Insulin and head injury
     胰岛素与颅脑损伤
短句来源
     There are 42000 head of sheepnow.
     全地区现有半细毛羊约4万2千只。
短句来源
     The Young Head of the Family
     年轻的一家之主
短句来源
     WAIST AND KIDNEY
     春光乍泄强腰肾
短句来源
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  the head kidney
Progesterone inhibited both the head kidney and the liver microsomal 17-hydroxyprogesterone 21-hydroxylase activity competitively.
      
GH also acts as a phagocytic-activating factor, and the presence of GH transcripts in the head kidney has been demonstrated by RT-PCR.
      
The 6β- and 16-hydroxylase activities as well as the 5α-reductase and 17 hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase activities were higher in the anterior part of the trunk kidney than in the head kidney and posterior trunk kidney.
      
Finally, in an in vivo assay, rIL-1β administered intraperitoneally increased expression levels of the IL-1β gene and activated macrophages to produce a cyclooxygenase 2 homologue (COX-2) gene in the head kidney.
      
DLIg3-immunopurified cells, from the head kidney of antigen-primed fish displayed an enhanced proliferation index when incubated with the immunization antigen.
      
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Morphological and functional aspects of the urinary system of Monopterus albus (Zuiew) are dealt with. The hollow, tubular, blind-ending structure situated on the left side of the abdominal cavity of M. albus is not a degenerate gonad, but a specialized urinary bladder. The inner surface of the bladder has plenty of villi with transitional epithelium. Due to the richness of capillaries either in the villi or at the base of the structure, the urinary bladder is considered to have its function not only for storage,...

Morphological and functional aspects of the urinary system of Monopterus albus (Zuiew) are dealt with. The hollow, tubular, blind-ending structure situated on the left side of the abdominal cavity of M. albus is not a degenerate gonad, but a specialized urinary bladder. The inner surface of the bladder has plenty of villi with transitional epithelium. Due to the richness of capillaries either in the villi or at the base of the structure, the urinary bladder is considered to have its function not only for storage, but also as an organ of reabsorption. At the connection between mesonephric canal and urinary bladder, the lumen of the bladder has a distinct longitudinal dorsal fold, which appears to be a huge villus in cross-section of the bladder. The forming of such huge villus is mainly due to the insertion of the mesonephric canal.The kidney of M. albus is long and thin, Y-shaped, and adhering to the dorsal surface of the abdominal cavity. The anterior part is the head kidney, having no nephron but hemopoietic tissue. The posterior part is the trunk kidney, possessing nephrons similar to that of mammals but fewer in number. The renal tubule consists of neck segment, primary proximal segment, secondary proximal segment, primary distal segment and secondary distal segment. Two mesonephric canals lie in the ventral inner border of the trunk kidney, with epithelium either transitional or pseudostratified ciliated columnar.The tissue interlocated between renal tubules of the fish was found containing numerous immature red blood cells, while the head kidney seems to be the tissue for storing or releasing the mature red cells. Therefore, the kidney may be the main hemopoietic organ of M. albus.

黄鳝腹腔左侧有盲端的中空管状结构,不是退化性腺,而是十分特化的长管囊膀胱。膀胱内壁具大量发达的绒毛,绒毛表面是移行上皮。在绒毛内部或基部有丰富的血管,因此该管囊膀胱不仅可贮存尿液,而且可能对水分等有重吸收作用。在中肾管与膀胱相接处,膀胱腔背侧出现一条明显的纵行皱襞,即在其横切面上观为巨绒毛。巨绒毛形成的原因,主要是中肾管移入膀胱壁所致。中肾管在巨绒毛内移行一程后才开口于膀胱。因此,黄鳝的生殖腺不是一对,而是一个,位于腹腔右侧。黄鳝肾脏细长,呈“丫”,在腹腔背侧,紧贴脊椎。前端为头肾,无肾单位,仅是造血器官。中肾有类似于哺乳类的肾小体,但数量较少,主要分布在肾脏周缘。肾小管包括颈段、初级近曲小管、次级近曲小管、初级远曲小管和次级远曲小管。两中肾管位于两肾叶腹内侧,其上皮间或是假复层柱状上皮,间或是移行上皮。前者含有许多杯状细胞,并可见到顶浆分泌的现象。中肾的肾小管间组织是大量的红细胞样组织,头肾似具有贮存或释放刚成熟的红细胞的组织结构,因此黄鳝肾脏可能是体内主要的造血器官。

Carp was immunized with horseradish peroxidase to detect the antibody-forming cells (AFC) in the carp by immunohistochemieal method. The results showed that the AFC mainly distributed in head kidney, secondly in trunk kidney and spleen, least in thymus. No AFC were found in cardiac, liver, testis and ovary. There were three types of AFC: typical plasma cells, lymphoeytes and eoslnophil like cells. Peroxidaseantiperoxidase method (PAP method) revealed that the majority lymphocytes in thymus, head kidney, trunk...

Carp was immunized with horseradish peroxidase to detect the antibody-forming cells (AFC) in the carp by immunohistochemieal method. The results showed that the AFC mainly distributed in head kidney, secondly in trunk kidney and spleen, least in thymus. No AFC were found in cardiac, liver, testis and ovary. There were three types of AFC: typical plasma cells, lymphoeytes and eoslnophil like cells. Peroxidaseantiperoxidase method (PAP method) revealed that the majority lymphocytes in thymus, head kidney, trunk kidney and spleen were surface menbrance immunoglobulin (SmIg) positive cells. It can be conjectured that the major immune organ in carp is the head kidney also the trunk kidney plays an important part in immune response, and the spleen plays little part. In view of a large number of SmIg~+ ceils but a few AFC in carp thymus, it may be mainly a culturing site of lymphocytes.

用辣根过氧化物酶免疲鲤鱼,再通过免疫组化方法显示其抗体形成细胞(AFC)。AFC在头肾中分布的数量最多,其次是体肾和胸腺,脾脏较少。心脏、肝脏、睾丸及卵巢中未发现有AFC。酶抗酶技术(PAP法)显示:胸腺、头肾、体肾及脾脏中的淋巴细胞大多呈细胞膜表面免疫球蛋白阳性(SmIg~+);细胞质免疫球蛋白阳性(CIg~+)细胞的数量以头肾最多,体肾和脾次之,胸腺较少。可以推测:头肾是鲤鱼的主要免疫反应器官,体肾次之,脾脏在免疫应答中不起主要作用。胸腺中有大量的SmIg~+细胞,而AFC却较少,表明胸腺虽可以合成抗体,但它主要是培育淋巴细胞的场所。

The marked microstructural changes were observed in the lymphomyeloid tissues of the crucian carp, Carassius auratus, from the severe contaminated water. The amounts of apoptotic body in the head kidney and spleen of the contaminated carps were 14.0±4.9and 13.9±3.7 per viewfield (125μm×125μm) respectively, while in the control carps these figures were only 4. 2±1. 9 and 7.1±2.6 per view field respectively. Because apoptotic bodies are derived from cell apoptosis, and mammalian cell apoptosis may be stimulated...

The marked microstructural changes were observed in the lymphomyeloid tissues of the crucian carp, Carassius auratus, from the severe contaminated water. The amounts of apoptotic body in the head kidney and spleen of the contaminated carps were 14.0±4.9and 13.9±3.7 per viewfield (125μm×125μm) respectively, while in the control carps these figures were only 4. 2±1. 9 and 7.1±2.6 per view field respectively. Because apoptotic bodies are derived from cell apoptosis, and mammalian cell apoptosis may be stimulated by toxic agents at low dosages which are not high enough to stimulate cell necrosis, it was suggested that the apoptotic body in teleostean lymphomyeloid tissues may be used as a biomarker for water pollution.

生活在严重污染水体的鲫鱼,其淋巴样组织出现明显的显微结构变化,头肾和脾中Apoptoticbody计数分别高达14.0±4.9和13.9±3.7个/视野(125μm×125μm),而对照鲫鱼头肾和脾中Apoptoticbody的计数仅分别为4.2±1.9和7.1±2.6个/视野.由于Apoptoticbody是细胞Apoptosis的产物,并且不足以使细胞发生坏死的低剂量毒剂的刺激可诱发哺乳动物细胞Apoptosis,作者认为鲫鱼淋巴样组织中的Apoptoticbody可以作为一种反映水污染的生物指示物

 
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