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  防止
     FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND THE APPROACH TO PREVENT CHAIN-FAULT
     故障诊断和防止连锁性故障的途径
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     To prevent recurrence of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with electrocauterization of the pedicle
     电灼根蒂防止鼻咽纤维血管瘤复发点滴体会
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     THE RELIABILITY DESIGN TO PREVENT METEORS FROM PENETRATING SPACECRAFT BULKHEAD
     防止微流星击穿航天器舱壁的可靠性设计
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     Safety Evaluation to Prevent Brittle Failure of Reactor Support Skirts
     反应堆支撑裙防止脆性破坏的安全评定
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     The Range of pH value in Adding Polyphosphate to Prevent Scale Forming in Circulating Water
     投加聚磷酸盐防止循环水结垢应控制的pH值范围
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  预防
     Study on Effects of Genistein to Prevent Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats and Its Mechanism
     染料木黄酮预防大鼠骨质疏松的作用及其机制的研究
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     Studies and Application of the Technology to Prevent Danger of Concrete Structure Subjected to Alkaline Saline Corrosions
     预防盐碱环境中混凝土结构耐久性病害的研究及应用
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     The Study on the Blockade of CD28/B7 and ICOS Costimulatory Pathway to Prevent Acute Rejection in Rat Liver Transplantation
     联合阻断CD28/B7和ICOS共刺激通路对预防大鼠肝移植后急性排斥反应的实验研究
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     781 SURFACE ACTIVE AGENT USET AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR GASOLINE IN CLEANING AIR CRAFT ENGINE TO PREVENT GASOLINE INTOXICATION
     781表面活性剂代替汽油清洗飞机发动机预防汽油中毒的研究
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     LIDOCAINE TO PREVENT VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION
     利多卡因预防心室纤颤
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     Research on Making γ-Linolenic Acid (GLA) by Animalcule Zymotechnics and Using GLA to Prevent and Treat Cardiovascular & Cerebrovascular Diseases
     微生物发酵法制取γ-亚麻酸(GLA)和用于防治心脑血管疾病的研究
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     Study on Developing Vaccines Against Saliva Binding Region of the Surface Protein Antigen from Streptococcus Mutans Aiming to Prevent Dental Caries
     抗变形链球菌表面蛋白抗原唾液结合区段防龋疫苗实验研究
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     Nuclear Factor-Kappa B in Coordination with CTLA4-Ig to Prevent Acute Rejection after Liver Transplantation in Rat
     核因子-κB圈套协同CTLA4-Ig抗大鼠肝移植急性排斥反应的研究
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     Subarachnoid Cytokines Injection to Prevent Spinal Cord Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
     蛛网膜下腔细胞因子转入防治脊髓缺血再灌注损伤的实验研究
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     The Clinical and Experimental Study of JZYYP to Prevent and Cure the Injury of Gastrointestinal Tract by NSAIDs
     健中愈疡片防治非甾体抗炎药胃肠道损伤的临床与实验研究
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  to prevent
Inhibitors of AR thus seem to have the potential to prevent or treat diabetic complications.
      
Aldose reductase inhibitors have been found to prevent sorbitol accumulation in tissues.
      
The decomposition of NH4Cl made a pressure of NH3 at 30.5 kPa to prevent the hydrolysis of ammonium carnallite.
      
Increased vegetation cover and change in farming techniques were suggested to prevent and control wind erosion of sand and soil.
      
Based on the result and extensive risk communications, combined with the management experience of the Beijing Forest Protection Station, the authors proposed some effective control measures to prevent the invasion of the three pests into Beijing.
      
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The investigation of the properties of loess constitutes a highly specialized branch of soil engineering. The design and construction of foundations and earthwork in this soil involve many uncertainties that have not been solved. Among all uncertainties the following are considered the most important items:(1) the changes of bearing capacities caused by variations in the strength of the cohesive bond due to changes in its moisture content, and(2) the methods of ascertaining the amount of its settlement under...

The investigation of the properties of loess constitutes a highly specialized branch of soil engineering. The design and construction of foundations and earthwork in this soil involve many uncertainties that have not been solved. Among all uncertainties the following are considered the most important items:(1) the changes of bearing capacities caused by variations in the strength of the cohesive bond due to changes in its moisture content, and(2) the methods of ascertaining the amount of its settlement under the combined action of foundation loads and of percolating water.In order to prevent foundations against settlement the "Provisional Code for the Design of Natural Foundations" gives a set of rules of precautions for designers to observe, which include the prevention of water from getting into the foundations, artificial strengthening of the soil and the designing of superstructures in such a way that they will adjust themselves to settlement. Before the adoption of any of such precautions could be decided, the accuracy in evaluating the amount of possible settlement of the soil is a problem of prime importance, which unfortunately cannot be satisfactorily obtained.This paper attempts to give some predominent characteristics of loess, the points of contradiction between the assumptions made in the old designing code and the results derived from actual work, a comparison of the salient features of the old code with the new code of ordinance of the U. S. S. R., 1955, and some suggestions regarding further developments of this branch of soil engineering. Several cases of actual construction work in loess in recent years are also cited which, owing to our incomplete knowledge of the soils, nature, have inevitably either caused unnecessary expenses to the works, or brought about results detrimental to the stability of structures.In this branch of soil engineering have, therefore, many difficulties yet to be contended with. It is hoped that this paper could be of some reference value to research engineers in this line and the knowledge of loess be further developed in view of the increasing pressure of necessity in our present construction work.

黄土工程特性的研究,是目前土壤力学一个重要部門。有关黄土区的地基与土工工作、我們經常根据“天然地基設計暫行規范”上条文来設計,但对於基土沉陷量的估計,往往不易准确,而造成工程上的困难与事故。这是現时没有得到解决的問題。本文闡述黄土的若干特性,旧規范条文上的缺点,苏联1955年批准的“建筑法規”内改善黄土部分条文的意义,以及目前国内研究与發展的方向。其中主要說明黄土由於荷載及含水量兩項的綜合影响对其沉陷性能上所發生的变化,以及估計这項变化较合理的方法,以期在研究工作上作进一步的認識。

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the...

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the water-soaked appearance and then extend upwardly,and eventually become blackenedand rotted.As a rule,ths leaves of the infected plants show an abnormal coloror pale yellow,and drooping appearance.In the meantime,the root tips of theadventitious roots of the vines lose their cortex and begin to lot.Wilting followsquite rapidly and finally the entire plant dies.If the disease infects the plantafter the potatoes beginning to form,it may extend throughout the vine and in-to the roots,causing the enlarged roots to show brown streaks and finally blackenedand rotted with pungent odor. The cause of the disease may appropriately be considered as due to bacteriaand Fusarium spp.Four types of bacteria,i.e.white smooth type,yellow smoothtype,white rough type and yellow rough type,are able to cause the disease.Atleast four kinds of Fusarium,i.e.white aerial mycelium type,white mycelium withred of a purple tint substratum type,pink mycelium with red of a purple tint sub-stratum type and without aerial mycelium type are responsible for the disease.Which is the main cause of the disease? Either bacteria or Fusarium alone or theboth in combination is able to cause the disease,further tests should be madebefore a definite conclusion may be drawn. The dissemination of the wilt organisms may appropriately be considered inthree ways,namely,(1) by infested roots and vines,(2) by sick-soil,and (3) byinsects,as the sweet-potato weevil (Gycas formicarius Fabr.).The former twoways of dissemination are more definite than the latter,however,further testsand observations should be made. According to the results of 2-years field experiments in Tsen-shi and Peh-liustations,it shows that different varieties of sweet-potato possess different resis-tance to the disease.Among several varieties tested,it is found that Tai-nung No.3being a promising one,because it yields very high and is highly resistant to thedisease and to the drought.Although it is occasionally found to be susceptibleto the disease in the experiment field of Tsen-shi and is more commonly foundin the experiment field of Lin-kwei.The second variety is Tai-nung No.46 dueto its high degree of disease resistance. The results of preliminary tests indicate that the method of reproduction byold vines would decrease both in disease resistance and in yield within the samevariety. From tests conducted in two different fields,i.e.one at dry land and the ??other in the rice field,it shows that the discrepancies were found in the occur-rence of the disease and also in the relation of the method of manuring to thepercent of infection. Dipping cuttings in different disinfectants did not show any significant results.There are discrepancies in both plowed and sunned field test and two methodsof setting the vines test.These may be due to methods of treatment,landand varieties used for experiment being different. According to the results of date of planting tests in Peh-liu,it indicates thatthe occurrence and the development of the disease are closely related to the highhumidity and the high temperature.These climatic factors affect the health ofthe early growth of the plant which in turn would increase the disease resistance.It is suggested that the most suitable date for planting sweet-potato in Peh-liu isin the first decade of August. In comparing the weather records of the three districts—Lin-kwei,Peh-liu andTsen-shi—in relation to the date of early and last occurrences of the disease,itshows that an average air temperature of 23.4-28.4℃ is most suitable for the oc-currence of the disease,and an average relative humidity of 80 per cent is alsoneeded for the infection of the disease.Based on these facts,we may say thatsweet-potatoes in Lin-kwei are capable to be easily infected by the wilt organisms.except the last date of the infection would be preceded 10-20 clays.Any otherregions with similar climatic factors,it is also very possible to be infected. According to the results of 2-years experiments and facts from surveys,sug-gestive control measures are proposed: (1) excluding the disease by regulationthrough the use of quarantines enforced by an inspection station empowered torestrict or eradicate diseased roots and vines to prevent them from becomingsources of infection in disease-free districts; (2) selection of disease resistant varie-ties in combination with cultural practices such as the use of more ash,suitableamount of lime and manure,and suitable date of planting to enable plants toescape or resist the disease.For the present time,we suggest that the use of Tai-nung No.3 in Tsen-shi and Peh-liu may meet the requirement,and promotingthe method of root reproduction in place of an old method of reproduction byrepeating vine cuttings from old vines can prevent the degeneration of the plantand decrease the infection of the disease.

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試...

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試驗田也会發生过多次。老藤繁殖会降低同一品种的抗病性和产量,值得我們注意。在旱地和水田不同試驗地上所得結果,可初步说明發病情况很不一致,追肥与不追肥处理的發病率也不一致。藥剂处理种苗效应不显著,翻晒土壤及二种种植法試驗结果不一致,想与試驗方法、試驗地不同和供試品种不同有密切关系。薯瘟的發生与發展和高温潮湿有密切关系,而这些气候因素对于植株的早期生??長壮健及增强抗病性也有关系。初步建議,在北流地区以立秋(8月上旬)种植較为适当。从临桂雁山、北流和岑溪三处的气候記录,和薯瘟开始發生与最后發生日期的記录看来,可以初步說平均气温23.4—28.4℃最适于薯瘟的發生。相对湿度平均在80%以上亦适于本病的發生。由此可見,在临桂雁山地区,薯瘟可能是容易發生的,不过停止發病日期会提早10—20天。其他地区如有相似气温与湿度情况,那也是会發生薯瘟的。根据二年試驗結果和調查所得情况,初步提出防治薯瘟的办法如次:(1)应采取种薯和种苗的檢疫措施,禁止病区的种薯运往無病地区,以防蔓延;(2)选育抗病品种为主,結合先进的栽培管理法;多施草木灰,适当施用石灰,根外追肥,适期种植等,以增强植株的抗病性,避免病害的侵染,保証丰产。目前在岑溪及北流地区,可先推广种植“台农三号”品种,并提倡以薯塊育苗,切勿采用老藤繁殖,以避免植株的衰退,减少薯瘟的發生。

Ginsberg et al. reported the failure of obtaining the p-nitrophenylvinylketone (II_a)from the corresponding Mannich base by usual degradation means. In the present, communication, a modified method of degradation of Mannich bases to compounds of vinylketone type has been devised. With the aid of a vacuum distillation apparatus similar to the vacuum sublimation type (Fig. 1) to prevent the product from polymerization by condensing the vapor as soon as it begins to distill over, we were able to decompose...

Ginsberg et al. reported the failure of obtaining the p-nitrophenylvinylketone (II_a)from the corresponding Mannich base by usual degradation means. In the present, communication, a modified method of degradation of Mannich bases to compounds of vinylketone type has been devised. With the aid of a vacuum distillation apparatus similar to the vacuum sublimation type (Fig. 1) to prevent the product from polymerization by condensing the vapor as soon as it begins to distill over, we were able to decompose the Mannich base, β-dimethyl (or ethyl) amino-p-(or o-, or m-)-nitropropiophenone, to p-(or o-, or m-) nitrophenylvinylketone (II_a. R= p-NO_2, m. p. 92—93°; II_b, R=o-NO_2, b. p. 124—126°/1—2mm; II_c,R=m-NO_2, m. p. 102—103°) in a moderate yield. The corresponding dibromide, α, β-dibromonitropropiophenone (III_a, R=p—NO_2, m. p. 90—92°; III_b, R=o—NO_2, m. p. 52—54°; III_c, R=m—NO_2, m. p. 58—59°) could be prepared by treating II_a, II_b, II_c with bromine respectively.The authors ve also reported a new method of synthesizing the compounds of the type IV, 1-methoxy-p-(or o-, or m-) nitropropiophenone (IV_a R=p—NO_2, m. p. 67—69°; IV_b, R=o-NO_2, b. p. 142—144°/2—3mm, Oxime, m. p. 160— 162°; IV_C, R=m-NO_2, b. p. 158—161°/2—3mm), by direct treatment of the corresponding bases with methyl alcohol containing a trace of hydrochloric acid in bomb tube at the temperature of little below the melting point of the Mannich bases. This is a simpler method in comparison with the usual 2 or 3-step synthesis starting from Mannich base; that is, to treat the nitrophenylvinylketone with methyl alcohol in the presence of hydrochloric acid or sodium alcoholate, or the dibromide of nitrophenylvinylketone with potassium iodide and methyl alcohol.β-Dimethylamino-o-nitropropiophenone shows weak anti B. smegmatis action, 500γ/ml.

(1)从Mannich碱β-二甲(或二乙)氨基-对(间或隣)-苯丙酮经过改良的真空降解法获得了对(或间或隣)-硝基苯乙烯酮。 (2)对(或间或隣)-硝基苯乙烯酮与溴作用均生成其相应的双溴化合物。 (3)直接从Mannich硷,β-二甲氨基-硝基-(对,间,隣)苯丙酮,与甲醇及微量盐酸在封管中加热,可以获得β-甲氧基-(对,间,隣)苯丙酮,此法此文献上记载的一般方法为简便。

 
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