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tropical africa
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  热带非洲
    Meliaceae is a pantropical family comprising about 51 genera and 550-600 species mainly distributed in tropical Old World. Tropical Asia and Tropical Africa are the two present distribution centres of the family.
    楝科为泛热带分布科,全世界有51属,约550—600种,分布于旧世界热带地区有46属,热带美洲有8属.热带亚洲和热带非洲为楝科两大现代分布中心.中国楝科共15属,61种,占世界属总数的29%,种总数的10%。
短句来源
    3.Tropical Asia and Tropical Australasia(2 genera),4.Tropical Asia to Tropical Africa(1 genus);
    3,热带亚洲至热带大洋洲分布(2属); 4.热带亚洲至热带非洲分布(1属);
短句来源
    (3) Tropical Asia with 26 genera, including 5 subtypes, (4) Tropical Africa with 13 genera, including 5 Subtypes;
    (3)热带亚洲分布型,含5个亚型和26属; (4)热带非洲分布型合5个亚型和13属;
短句来源
    In the floristic composition, 16 species belong to Sine-Japan component, 21 species are endemic species of China, 5 species belong to temperate Asia component, 4 species belong to Europe-Asia component, 3 species belong to north temperate zone component, 3 species belong to tropical Asia component. Tropical Asia and tropical Africa, east Asia-north America, west Asiaeast Asia component and Sine-Himalayan component comprise 1 species respectively.
    在区系成分中,中国-日本成分16种,中国特有种21种,温带亚洲成分5种,欧亚成分4种,北温带成分3种,热带亚洲成分3种,热带亚洲和热带非洲成分1种,东亚-北美成分1种,西亚至东亚成分1种,中国-喜马拉雅成分1种。
短句来源
    The primary center of the distribution and differentiation of the family ispossibly tropical Asia(esp.the Yun-Gui plateau and Hengduan Mountain region). Tropi-cal America and tropical Africa may be two secondary centers of distribution and differentia-tion.
    热带亚洲(尤其云贵高原-横断山一带)很可能是该科的原始分布与分化中心,热带美洲及热带非洲则可能是2个次生分布与分化中心。
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  tropical africa
65 species of annual and perennial herbs and sub-shrubs that are native to southern and tropical Africa.
      
The present study is a step towards preparing a systematic inventory of grass phytoliths in western tropical Africa.
      
Diversity of lobate phytoliths in grass leaves from the Sahel region, West Tropical Africa: Tribe Paniceae
      
The latter section possibly originated from southern South American ancestors, diversified in tropical America after the uplift of the Andes and reached the Holarctics and tropical Africa by long range dispersal of diaspores.
      
The pollen grains ofSesamothamnus lugardiiStapf (Pedaliaceae of subdesert regions of SE tropical Africa) are associated in acalymmate tetrads (cross wall cohesion), with a tectate and perforate exine and 8-12 colpi.
      
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The family Araceac with. 105 genera and approximately 2500 species is almost world-wide in distribution, it inhabits most major ecological zones. In this paper the areas of genera are classified into 12 distribution patterns and 29 subpatterns, namely. 1. Cosmopolitan; 2. Pantropic with 8 genera, including 3 subpatterns; 3. Old World Tropics with 7 genera, including 3 subpatterns; 4. Tropical Asia with 27 genera, including 5 subpatterns; 5. Tropical Africa with 13 genera, including 5 subpatterns;...

The family Araceac with. 105 genera and approximately 2500 species is almost world-wide in distribution, it inhabits most major ecological zones. In this paper the areas of genera are classified into 12 distribution patterns and 29 subpatterns, namely. 1. Cosmopolitan; 2. Pantropic with 8 genera, including 3 subpatterns; 3. Old World Tropics with 7 genera, including 3 subpatterns; 4. Tropical Asia with 27 genera, including 5 subpatterns; 5. Tropical Africa with 13 genera, including 5 subpatterns; 6. Tropical Australia with 1 genus; 7. Neotropic with 32 genera, including 5 subpatterns; 8. North Temperate with 6 genera, including 4 subpatterns; 9. Meditteraneae with 7 genera, including 3 subpatterns; 10. Central Asia with a few species, without endemic genus; 11. Eastern Asia with one genus; 12. South Africa with 3 genera. The discussion on ecology of genera is proceeded along distribution patterns.

本文将天南星科105个属的分布区归纳为12个分布类型和29个亚型,对每一类型的属进行生态地理分析。本科计有88个热带属,占全科的83.8%,是一个热带科。全科有两大分化中心:热带亚洲为属的多样化中心,热带美洲是种的分化中心。根据天南星科各属的生态地理研究,结合到科的系统发育程序,作者得出结论说:天南星科的原始类群在晚白垩纪时起源于亚洲大陆南缘,即欧亚古陆的亚洲南缘地带的水域生态环境。

Mt. Dabie is situated in the area where the boundaries of three provinces (Anhui, Hubei, Henan)meet. Its summit of the highest peak(31~044'N, 106~022'E, Alt. 1774m)lies in Anhui. The northern part of Mr. Dabie in Anhui is the main part of the whole mountain and encompasses Jinzhai County, Huoshan County, and part of Shucheng County.Since this region is located at the transitional area between subtropic zone and warm temperate zone and at the confluence of three floristic provinces(E. China, C. China, N. China),...

Mt. Dabie is situated in the area where the boundaries of three provinces (Anhui, Hubei, Henan)meet. Its summit of the highest peak(31~044'N, 106~022'E, Alt. 1774m)lies in Anhui. The northern part of Mr. Dabie in Anhui is the main part of the whole mountain and encompasses Jinzhai County, Huoshan County, and part of Shucheng County.Since this region is located at the transitional area between subtropic zone and warm temperate zone and at the confluence of three floristic provinces(E. China, C. China, N. China), the flora of this region is comparatively rich and varied in species. According to the preliminary statistics, the vascular flora comprises 1477 spp. (incl. ssp. and var. ) in 648 genera and 173 families. Of these, there are about 1380 species of seed plants, belonging to 595 gen. and 146 fam. In the 595 genera, there are 28 world monotypic genera, 77 oligotypic genera and 16 endemic Chinese genera. Most of them are phylogenetically ancient or primitive.The basic floristic features of this region are briefly summarized as follows: 1) The floristic elements are comparatively rich; 2) There are many ancient and relic elements in this region; 3)There are less endemics in this region; 4)The flora shows more obvious transition.The geographical distribution of seed plants of this region can be divided into 15 types., as follows Cosmopolitan (62 genera); Pantropical(97); Discontinuous between tropical America and tropical Asia(8); Old-world's tropical(20); Tropical Asia to tropical Oceania(17); Tropical Asia to tropical Africa(13);Tropical Asia (22); North temperate(131); Discontinuos between E. Asia and N. America (54); Eurasia temperate(46); Temperate Asia(11); Mediterranean, W. Asia to C. Asia (2); C. Asia (1); E. Asia(95); Endemic to China (16). Based on the geographical elements of this region, the genera of temperate and subtropic distributional patterns make up 66.8%, and the genera of tropics 33.2%.

安徽大别山北坡是亚热带与暖温带的过渡地带和华东、华中、华北三大植物区系的交汇区,植物种类比较丰富。据初步统计,该区有维管植物173科648属1477种,其中种子植物有146科595属1380种。该区植物区系具有下列基本特点:1)区系成分比较丰富;2)古老和孑遗成分繁多;3)特有成分较少;4)区系成分过渡性明显。该区种子植物可区分为15种地理成分(分布区类型),其中热带分布的属占33.2%,温带和亚热带分布的属占66.8%。

This paper deals with the distribution and origin of Flacourtiaccae. 84 genera are classified into 11 area patterns and 27 subpatterns. Based on the analysis on the area patterns above, floristic characteristics of this family have been found as follow: 1. Flacourtiaceae is a tropical family. There are 72 genera, 85.7% of the total for the family, occuring in both the old world and new world tropics, and only 12 genera in the temperate region. 2. Island floristic element is rich. 14 island endemic genera,...

This paper deals with the distribution and origin of Flacourtiaccae. 84 genera are classified into 11 area patterns and 27 subpatterns. Based on the analysis on the area patterns above, floristic characteristics of this family have been found as follow: 1. Flacourtiaceae is a tropical family. There are 72 genera, 85.7% of the total for the family, occuring in both the old world and new world tropics, and only 12 genera in the temperate region. 2. Island floristic element is rich. 14 island endemic genera, 16.7% of the total, occur in some islands, such as Madagascar, Rounion, Philippines, Srilanka, Maleysia etc.. Some other genera in different continents also occur in some islands such as west Indies, Juan Fermandez, Madagascar, Malaysia etc..3. Old world tropics, especially tropical Africa is a distributional centre of this family. There are 58 genera in the old world, 21 genera in the new world, and 28 genera in tropical Africa, 14 genera in tropical Asia, and 1 genus, in Australia. 4. Area patterns are various (11 area patterns and 27 subpatterns), and widely connected with those of the adjoining areas. This family might be originated in antique southern continent, especially in tropical Africa. Antique northern continent has not any old and primitive endemic elements from Flacourtiaceae, and antique southern continent has many primitive genera such as Berberidopsis, Lindackeria, Erythrospermum etc., and tropical Africa has 28 endemic genera, many of which. such as Camptostylla, Dasylepis, Scottelia, Buchnerodendron, Caloncoba, Gra- ndidera, etc. are very old and primitive. The originated time might be early Tertiary or late Cretaceous. The genera such as Berberidopsis occuring in tropical southern America and Australia, Erythrospermum in tropical Asia and tropical Africa (Madagascar), Lindacheria in tropical America and tro- pical Africa etc. might serve as an indication that Flacourtiaceae is dispersed to different continents from antique southern continent before Tertiary period or late Cretaceous. These views are supported by Pollin fossil evidence.

本文以属为单位,将大风子科84个属划分为27个分布亚型,隶属于11个分布类型。在此基础上对本科植物的地理分布进行了分析,认为大风子科是一个典型的热带性质的且富于岛屿区系成分和与各地区联系广泛的类群;其现代分布中心在旧世界热带地区,特别是热带非洲。根据其地理分布分析,结合板块及大陆漂移学说理论,可推断大风子科起源于古南大陆,特别是热带非洲地区;其起源时间至少不迟于白垩纪末期或第三纪初期,这一点已得到了古植物学资料的证实。

 
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