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upstream component
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  上游成分
     Recent studies reveals that IKKα can itself move into the nucleus where it regulates the expression of NF-κB-responsive genes rapidly via phosphorylating histone 3 on serine 10. It is the first discovery that IKKα being the upstream component of signaling pathway moves into the nucleus directly and regulates the expression of target genes, which open up a new avenue of research into the NF-κB signaling pathway.
     IKKα是首次发现的信号转导途径中直接进入细胞核内调节基因表达的上游成分,为NF-κB信号转导途径的研究开辟了新的道路。
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  “upstream component”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Taken together, these results suggest that H2O2 could probably act as upstream component of NO signaling and NO negatively regulate H2O2 generation in ABA-induced stomatal closure in guard cells.
     这些结果表明,在ABA通过诱导H_2O_2和NO产生从而促进气孔关闭的过程中,H_2O_2可能在NO的上游起作用并受NO的负反馈调节。
短句来源
     Taken together, these results suggest that H2O2 could probably act as upstream component of NO signaling and NO negatively regulate H2O2 generation during ABA-induced stomatal closure in guard cells.
     这些结果表明,在ABA诱导气孔关闭过程中, H2O2可能在NO的上游起作用并受NO的负反馈调节。
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  相似匹配句对
     Component Update
     元器件快览
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     NET component, .
     如.NET组件开发技术,.
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     Flow Upstream of Intake
     进水口前的水流运动
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     support upstream interaction;
     支持上行交互;
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  upstream component
PMA induced the activation of the ERK pathway as assessed by determining the phosphorylation state of ERK and the upstream component MEK1/2.
      
The most upstream component of the pathway, Ire1p, is a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase with three functional domains.
      
The upstream component of the three-step-ERK 1/2 module is Raf-1.
      
The upstream component of the three-step ERK1/2 module is Raf-1.
      
The upstream component is composed of two basic residues while the downstream component requires that at least 3 out of 5 amino acids be basic.
      
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The effects on engine volumetric efficiency profile of various intake system components are analyzed in this paper, based on the understanding of the relationship between pressure wave actions and the general volumetric efficiency profile presented in a previous paper . The effects result from either the change of the natural pressure wave period (length effect) or the amplitude of pressure waves (diameter effect). It was found that the general volumetric efficiency profile in the low to mid speed...

The effects on engine volumetric efficiency profile of various intake system components are analyzed in this paper, based on the understanding of the relationship between pressure wave actions and the general volumetric efficiency profile presented in a previous paper . The effects result from either the change of the natural pressure wave period (length effect) or the amplitude of pressure waves (diameter effect). It was found that the general volumetric efficiency profile in the low to mid speed range is dominated by the total intake system length, while in the high speed range it is governed by primary pipe dimensions alone. The change of the total intake system length, in any part of the system from port to the air entry, shifts the volumetric efficiency profile along the engine speed axis, while the change of diameter has the influence only in a narrower range. The type of plenum, plenum spacing and the diameter profile of upstream components are only minor factors. Based on those the design guidelines are presented.

本文建立在作者的前一篇文章[1]中对进气系统压力波动与发动机充气效率的关系研究的基础上,系统分析了进气系统各部件的设计参数对充气效率的影响。从压力波动机理上看,这些影响或源于压力波谐振周期(管长参数),或源于压力波幅值(管径参数)。试验结果表明:在中、低速区域,充气效率曲线形态取决于进气系统的总长度,各部件之间的管长分布影响较小;而在高速区域则只与进气岐管参数有关。因而,任一部件长度参数的变化,如果改变了系统总长度,将导致充气效率曲线在转速轴上的平移,而管径参数则只在一相对狭窄的区域内对充气效率施以影响。在同一系统总长度前提下,进气歧管的交汇方式,在交汇处的间距,上游部件的形状等等,对发动机充气效率的影响甚微。基于上述结论,本文对进气系统的参数设计提出了几点指南。

It is usually suggested that either H2O2 or NO function as a signal molecule in mediating the ABA-induced stomatal closure of guard cells, but there has been no report on the relationship between H2O2 and NO in ABA signal transduction pathway. Here, using stomatal analysis and laser scanning cofocal microscope techniques, we show firstly that NO functions as a downstream intermediate of H2O2 signaling to mediate ABA-induced stomatal closure in Vicia faba L. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) and H2O2 can...

It is usually suggested that either H2O2 or NO function as a signal molecule in mediating the ABA-induced stomatal closure of guard cells, but there has been no report on the relationship between H2O2 and NO in ABA signal transduction pathway. Here, using stomatal analysis and laser scanning cofocal microscope techniques, we show firstly that NO functions as a downstream intermediate of H2O2 signaling to mediate ABA-induced stomatal closure in Vicia faba L. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor) and H2O2 can mimic the effects of ABA on stomatal closure. Carboxy-PTIO (c-PTIO, a specific scavenger of NO) partly reverse the stomatal closure induced by ABA or H2O2 (Fig.2), while catalase (CAT), a H2O2 scavenger, failed to reverse the NO-induced aperture reduction in Vicia faba guard cells (Fig.3). Monitoring the changes in both NO and H2O2 generation in guard cells by using fluorescent probe of NO or H2O2, DAF-2DA or H2DCFDA, respectively, we found that the generating rate of H2O2 in guard cells was faster than that of NO after being treated with ABA 10 μmol/L (Figs.4, 5). CAT almost completely inhibited the increase in DAF fluorescence induced by ABA (Fig.4). Similar to ABA, exogenous H2O2 provoked the production of NO (Fig.6). c-PTIO slightly enhanced the fluorescent intensity of DCF stimulated by ABA (Fig. 4), while exogenous SNP did not increase DCF fluorescence in guard cells (Fig.6). Taken together, these results suggest that H2O2 could probably act as upstream component of NO signaling and NO negatively regulate H2O2 generation during ABA-induced stomatal closure in guard cells.

ABA、H2O2和硝普钠(SNP)均能诱导蚕豆气孔 关闭。NO的清除剂c-PTIO可以减轻由ABA或H2O2所 诱导的蚕豆气孔关闭的程度,而过氧化氢酶(CAT)则不 能减轻NO诱导的气孔关闭程度。激光共聚焦显微检测 结果显示,10 μmol/L的ABA处理后,胞内H2O2的产 生速率明显高于NO的产生速率;CAT几乎可完全抑 制ABA所诱导的DAF的荧光增加;外源H2O2能显著 诱导胞内DAF的荧光增加;c-PTIO对ABA诱导的DCF 荧光略有促进作用,但外源SNP不能诱导胞内DCF荧 光增加。这些结果表明,在ABA诱导气孔关闭过程中, H2O2可能在NO的上游起作用并受NO的负反馈调节。

IκB kinase or IKK complex, which is one important component of NF-κB signaling pathway, consists of three subunit: IKKα, IKKβ as catalytic subunits and IKKγ as modulator subunit. NF-κB proteins are dimmers, comprising a DNA-binding subunit (such as p50 or p52) and a transcription-activating subunit (such as p65 or RelB). In cells that have not received appropriate external cues, NF-κB are kept inactive either by a member of the IκB family in the classical pathway, or by an inactive precursor (such as p100) in...

IκB kinase or IKK complex, which is one important component of NF-κB signaling pathway, consists of three subunit: IKKα, IKKβ as catalytic subunits and IKKγ as modulator subunit. NF-κB proteins are dimmers, comprising a DNA-binding subunit (such as p50 or p52) and a transcription-activating subunit (such as p65 or RelB). In cells that have not received appropriate external cues, NF-κB are kept inactive either by a member of the IκB family in the classical pathway, or by an inactive precursor (such as p100) in the alternative pathway. When stimulated by proteins such as TNF-α or lymphotoxin β, the IKK complex is activated. It phosphorylates IκB and /or p100, leading to degradation of IκB and the processing of p100 into a smaller, p52 form. NF-κB is then free to move into the nucleus and activates target genes. Recent studies reveals that IKKα can itself move into the nucleus where it regulates the expression of NF-κB-responsive genes rapidly via phosphorylating histone 3 on serine 10. It is the first discovery that IKKα being the upstream component of signaling pathway moves into the nucleus directly and regulates the expression of target genes, which open up a new avenue of research into the NF-κB signaling pathway.

IκB激酶(IKK复合体)是NF-κB信号转导途径成员之一,包括3个亚基:催化亚基IKKα、IKKβ和调节亚基IKKγ。无刺激时,NF-κB与抑制蛋白IκB家族的一个成员结合,或者与无活性前体(如p100)结合而以无活性形式存在。在外界信号如TNF-α或淋巴毒素β等刺激下,经过复杂的信号转导,IKK复合体被激活,导致IκB和(或)p100发生磷酸化,结果NF-κB被释放出来,进入细胞核内激活靶基因。最新研究发现在TNF-α刺激下,IKKα可直接进入细胞核内,通过催化组蛋白H3磷酸化进而激活特定NF-κB应答基因的表达。IKKα是首次发现的信号转导途径中直接进入细胞核内调节基因表达的上游成分,为NF-κB信号转导途径的研究开辟了新的道路。

 
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