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surface and inner
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  表面和内部
     SEM analysis showed that the free carbon black existing in the surface and inner of P(CR/SRF) particles was the main reason for the contact-pollution.
     SEM分析表明,P(CR/SRF)粒子表面和内部尚存在部分未被包覆的游离炭黑粒子是造成接触污染性的主要原因。
短句来源
     Quality inspection of castings showed that their dimensions accuracy, mechanical properties, surface and inner quality have met China national specification GB 9437-1988.
     铸件质量检查结果表明,尺寸精度、力学性能、表面和内部质量均达到国家标准GB9437-1988。
短句来源
     The paper recommends the design and study of the crystallizing structure of the crystallizer and the development of oil,air and water system as well as the industrial test which shows that the cast can be speed up with air-cushion continuous casting and the surface and inner structure quality of the billet improved notably.
     对结晶器结晶结构进行设计,研究和开发油、气、水系统,并进行相应的工艺试验,结果表明,气滑铸造能够提高铸造速度,明显改善铸锭表面和内部组织质量。
短句来源
     Carbon fibre is known as a brittle material. Its surface and inner defects can be directly observed by SEM.
     碳纤维属于脆性材料,用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)可以直接观察到它的表面和内部缺陷。
短句来源
     PS microspheres with loose surface and inner structure were prepared whenthe PS concentration was low or toluene added as porogenic agent.
     降低PS浓度或采用甲苯作为致孔剂可以制备出表面和内部疏松的PS微球;
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  “surface and inner”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The XPS has showed that a lot of element C and O have been existed on surface and inner membrane of alloy for 10-4Pa in the vacuum spatter room, and element Ti is mainly existed by TiO2 on surface, by mixture of Ti、TiO、Ti2O、Ti2O3 and TiC inner.
     刻蚀样品表面的Ti2p峰主要由TiC、Ti、TiO、Ti2O3等的Ti2p峰组成,相互干扰,因而不能由其XPS图谱检测出薄膜状态的合金中合金元素V、D对Ti2p峰的影响。
短句来源
     Results The disinfection results on surface and inner cavity as well as the mean colony counting in two groups have no significant difference ( t=1.73, P>0.05).
     结果两种消毒方法对内窥镜表面和镜腔的消毒效果无差异,两组内窥镜表面平均菌落数无差异(t=1·73,P>0·05)。
短句来源
     Additionally,damping at wall,damping at contaminated free surface and inner damping are compared,and how they change with characteristic parameter is studied.
     此外还分析了壁面阻尼,受污染的自由液面阻尼以及液体的内部阻尼这几部分晃动阻尼的相对关系,以及它们随各个特征参量的变化情况。
短句来源
     Results The disinfection results on surface and inner cavity,as well as the mean colony counting in two groups,have no significant difference(χ2=0.72,P>0.05 and χ2= 0.01,P>0.05).
     结果2种消毒方法对内窥镜外表面和镜内腔的消毒效果无差异(P>0.05)。
短句来源
     The method has the advantages of fast speed, high accuracy, good timeliness and various faults on inner surface and inner diameter of a steel tube can be effectively inspected.
     该方法速度快,精度高,实时性好,可以有效地检测钢管内表面的各种缺陷及钢管内直径。
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  相似匹配句对
     5% near the inner surface
     铝热 -离心法制备的铁镍基合金铝含量较高 ,在内衬层内表面附近铝含量约为 5 %。
短句来源
     On Inner Surface Rifling Image Recognition of Canons
     线膛炮内膛图像膛线识别研究
短句来源
     Study on Precision Measurement and Grinding for Radome Inner Surface
     天线罩内廓形精密测量与修磨工艺技术研究
短句来源
     Because of the drying stress, the outer and inner surface is smooth.
     由于干燥应力的作用,内外表面光滑。
短句来源
     Investigation and Application of Plasma Generator for Inner Surface Quenching
     等离子束淬火专用发生器的优化设计
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  surface and inner
It is found that the fracture mode of DS superalloy DZ17G is transgranular, and it is controlled by the propagation rate of creep cracks initiated at both surface and inner microstructure discontinuities.
      
By adjusting the α : β SiC phase ratios in the individual starting powders, a layered SiC consisting of surface and inner layers with distinctively different microstructures are produced by hot-pressing and subsequent annealing.
      
It was shown that rigorous conditions of fabrication of cotton cellulose cause destruction and loosening of the surface and inner layers of the fibre.
      
Today we have a better knowledge of the materials which are stored in comet nuclei and new generations of theoretical models are able to give good representations of the surface and inner structure of these bodies.
      
Whereas different strains of Azospirillum were isolated from the root surface and inner tissues of roots and stolons of the cultivar Camarosa, we have not obtained Azospirillum isolates from the cultivar Pájaro.
      
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In the 1976,a tibiotarsus of fossil bird was obtained by a field party of theInstitute from Xichaun district,Honan Province.This is the first time that fossil birddiscovered from the Lower Eocene of China.Materials was found from the bed of Yu-Huang-Ding Series.Described in this paper represent 1 genus and 1 specis:Zhongyuanus xichuanensis gen.et sp.nov.Diagnosis:The outer articular condyle extends beyond the line of the outer sideof tibiotarsus;outer articular condyle forms a “V” angle with that of the inner...

In the 1976,a tibiotarsus of fossil bird was obtained by a field party of theInstitute from Xichaun district,Honan Province.This is the first time that fossil birddiscovered from the Lower Eocene of China.Materials was found from the bed of Yu-Huang-Ding Series.Described in this paper represent 1 genus and 1 specis:Zhongyuanus xichuanensis gen.et sp.nov.Diagnosis:The outer articular condyle extends beyond the line of the outer sideof tibiotarsus;outer articular condyle forms a “V” angle with that of the inner one;inner surface and inner condyle forms a “T” tuberosity;upper margin of osseoussupratendinal bridge projecting outwards,Lower margin of bridge projecting inwards;osseaus supratendinal bridge was situated towards inner side of tibiotarsus.

河南淅川这一新原鸟类化石,根据如下特征:胫跗骨外关节髁的外边缘超过胫跗骨的外边缘、内外两髁间成一“V”字形沟、内关节髁的内面具一近似“T”字形隆凸,骨质腱桥上边缘外斜、下边缘内斜,腱桥靠近胫跗骨内缘等,订一新属种:淅川中原鸟。中原鸟的时代为早始新世,它代表到目前为止我国时代最早和巨型鸟类——不飞鸟目的唯一材料。

This article explored crystal structre of the shell of oyster with x-ray diffraction analyses. We don't find the aragonite structure and the pearl layer in the shell of oyster. The shell of oyster divided three layers all consist of CaCO_3 and have different structure. The surface and inner layers belong to calcite structure of trigonal system. Their lattice spacings are a=4.98? and C=17.03?. The middle layer appeared loose forms belogs to calcite-Ⅲ structure of orthorhomic system principally. Their lattice...

This article explored crystal structre of the shell of oyster with x-ray diffraction analyses. We don't find the aragonite structure and the pearl layer in the shell of oyster. The shell of oyster divided three layers all consist of CaCO_3 and have different structure. The surface and inner layers belong to calcite structure of trigonal system. Their lattice spacings are a=4.98? and C=17.03?. The middle layer appeared loose forms belogs to calcite-Ⅲ structure of orthorhomic system principally. Their lattice spacings are a=8.65?, b=8.44? and C=7.40?. For this reason, structure of the shell of oyster shorild not be named the pearl layer, the prismatic layer and the periostracum layer. It may be more appropriate to name them the substantial layer the loose layer.

近年来,产于深圳湾的牡蛎,肉质丰腴的白肉牡蛎逐渐减少,而较瘦瘠的红肉牡蛎逐步增加,这是个值得研究的问题.本文先从它们的晶体结构进行探讨.结果发现:牡蛎壳不存在文石层结构,故不存在珍珠层,这就说明了在牡蛎中难于形成晶莹皎洁的珍珠.牡蛎珠可能不是文石珍珠而是方解石珠珠,故价值不高,对牡蛎进行人工插核养殖珍珠没有意义.牡蛎的里层和表层都是同一种结构,CaCO_?,三方晶系,方解石结构,牡蛎壳的中层呈松散状部分的结构系由CaCO_?,正交晶系,方解石-III结构和CaCO_?,三方晶系,方解石结构所组成.其中方解石-III结构在一般地质学、结晶学和贝类学的书籍上很难查到,这是个新问题.牡蛎壳的结构否定了贝类学纲要认为贝壳一般分成珍珠层,棱柱层和角质层的结论.

The present work shows that the nonuniform thickness of solidified skin of slab created by the nonuniform cooling rate of the skin in the crystallizer is main cause for slab surface cracking.The nonuniform distribution of the melted protective slag layer between the slab and the crystallizer generated heat conduction difference at the slab surface, then cooling rate in the slab surface became different. When a part of skin surface separates first from the mold, the difference of cooling rate in slab surface...

The present work shows that the nonuniform thickness of solidified skin of slab created by the nonuniform cooling rate of the skin in the crystallizer is main cause for slab surface cracking.The nonuniform distribution of the melted protective slag layer between the slab and the crystallizer generated heat conduction difference at the slab surface, then cooling rate in the slab surface became different. When a part of skin surface separates first from the mold, the difference of cooling rate in slab surface was enlarged. If this separated part of skin can keep close back to the mold as soon as possible, the difference of cooling rate in slab surface may be reduced, then no crack appears. Control of the primary cooling water can make the slow cooling zone small and also the tensile strain small, hence the cracking may be avoided.The stress required for producing internal crack decreases since there are loci of cracks in the slab caused by the surface crack, so the longitudinal cracks from inner to surface form easily. The extremely large temperature difference between the skin surface and inner layer caused by direct secondary cooling water generates very severe thermal stress, in tnis case the internal cracks form more ceasily. This thermal stress in the thinner part of skin appears more severe, therefore increasing the atomization covering area of the nozzle is an effective measure for avoiding internal cracks.

试验结果得知,坯壳在结晶器内冷却不均,使坯壳凝固层厚薄不同,是铸坯产生表面裂纹的主要原因。结晶器内,熔融的保护渣层分布不均,使铸坯表面热传导有所差异,而引起铸坯表面冷却不均,使局部坯壳首先脱离结晶器壁。结果更扩大了铸坯表面冷却速度差异的程度。坯壳局部区域脱离结晶器壁后,若能及时复贴结晶器壁,可改善铸坯表面冷却不均的现象,从而避免裂纹的出现。控制—冷区用水量以达到缓冷,使凝固缓慢区变小,拉伸应变也随之而小,亦可避免裂纹产生。由于铸坯表面裂纹形成的裂纹灶,降低了产生内裂所需要的应力值,易于形成内、外相连的纵裂。同时二次冷却水对刚出结晶器的铸坯进行直接冷却,坯壳表面温度急速下降,致使坯壳内层遭受到很大的热应力,易于引起坯壳产生内裂。这种热应力在坯壳较薄处更为明显。因而增加喷嘴雾化复盖面;对减少内裂是有效的措施。

 
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