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collision
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     Collision and Reconciliation
     冲突与和解
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     Collision and Integration
     冲撞与整合
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  collision
Collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentations of these phthalides have been investigated and elucidated.
      
A new two-dimensional approach to quantitative prediction for collision cross-section of more than 110 singly protonated peptide
      
Besides, other low-power techniques are also adopted for the special baseband-processor which implements complex functions, such as encoding/coding, anti-collision and authorization scheme, and reading/writing operation to EEPROM.
      
When the density function is high in the center and decreasing with the radius, the collapse process will be described, and in this case, the singularity will only come out in the center because of collision.
      
Pump and probe shadow imaging and interferometric fringe imaging have been used to determine plasma density, relaxation time, and electron collision time in the conduction band.
      
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The wave eguation for the motion of an electron in the static field of lithium atom is solved by numerical method for electron energy up to 340 volts. The wave functions found in this papor are required in the calculation of collision probabilities. The zero, first and second order phases of the wave functions are plotted against the k values for the incident electrons, the distortions are much greater in the field of the lithium atom than in the field of helium atom. The first and second order phases,...

The wave eguation for the motion of an electron in the static field of lithium atom is solved by numerical method for electron energy up to 340 volts. The wave functions found in this papor are required in the calculation of collision probabilities. The zero, first and second order phases of the wave functions are plotted against the k values for the incident electrons, the distortions are much greater in the field of the lithium atom than in the field of helium atom. The first and second order phases, which were practically negligible in the field of helium atom, are much greater in the field of lithium atom, and are comparable with the zero order phases at the higher velocities.

本文用数字计算法算出了电子在正常态锂原子场中运动的畸变波函数,电子的投射能量由零算到340伏特.同时也算出了电子波的前三次调和项的位相移动一速度曲线.

This paper incends to give a comprehensive survey of the high encrgy nuckar interactions produced in emulsions and cloud chambers by particles of an energy in the range 10~21 to l014 cV. The more difficult problems of measurement, such as determination of the primary energy, identification of the secondary particles and estimation of the target mass, are first brought up for discussion. Effort has been made to explain whenever possible the physical meaning of the quantities, which may give information concerning...

This paper incends to give a comprehensive survey of the high encrgy nuckar interactions produced in emulsions and cloud chambers by particles of an energy in the range 10~21 to l014 cV. The more difficult problems of measurement, such as determination of the primary energy, identification of the secondary particles and estimation of the target mass, are first brought up for discussion. Effort has been made to explain whenever possible the physical meaning of the quantities, which may give information concerning the collision mechanism and hence the internal structure of the colliding particles. The main quantities or these arc the angular distribution, the transverse momentum and the inelasticity, in addition to the multiplicities of the different kinds of the secondary particles. For these quantities, the principle of measurement, the accuracy of experiment and the meaning of the results, particularly the latter, have been emphazised and discussed in some detail. Finally, the various models of the "one emitting centre" and of the "two emitting centres" arc discussed entirely from the physical point of view and are compared with the experimental results. It is hoped that this paper may present a general picture of the recent development of the high energy nuclear interactions and indicate the problems siill remained to be sclved.

这篇总结性文章叙论了由能量高到10~(11)—10~(14)电子伏的粒子在乳胶和云室中所引起的高能核作用。文中首先提出和讨论了在测量上较困难的一些问题,例如,初能量的测量,次粒子的辨认和靶质量的估计。一些可能揭示碰撞机构从而显示核子内部结构的物理量的物理意义,也适当地加以讨论和阐明。除了不同次粒子的多重性外,主要的物理量是:次粒子的角分布、它们的横动量和非弹性系数。关于这些量的测量原理,实验准确度和实验结果的物理意义,特别是后面一点,都有了较充分的检查和讨论。末了,“一个发射中心”和两个发射中心”的各种模型也从物理观点作了较定性的描述和讨论,并和实验结果作了比较。希望通过这篇文章对高能核作用目前发展的概况、尚存在的问题及今后工作的方向能有一定的了解。

In this paper, it is attempted to give a comprehensive survey of recent experimental works on theπ-N and pinteractions with kinetic energies of incident π-mesons, protons and antiprotons, ranging from a few hundred Mev to 10 Bev. Experimental results concerning cross-sections of total scattering, elastic scattering and inelastic scattering of these interactions are summarized and analysed. Curves representing the trend of change of these cross-sections with energies are presented and compared with theoretical...

In this paper, it is attempted to give a comprehensive survey of recent experimental works on theπ-N and pinteractions with kinetic energies of incident π-mesons, protons and antiprotons, ranging from a few hundred Mev to 10 Bev. Experimental results concerning cross-sections of total scattering, elastic scattering and inelastic scattering of these interactions are summarized and analysed. Curves representing the trend of change of these cross-sections with energies are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Some interesting points of these curves are indicated. In the case of π-N N interactions, the appea-rence of some resonance peaks are demonstrated and their interpretations by some theoreticians are described. For elastic scatterings, the angular distributions of differential cross-sections are compared with optical model. For inelastic collisions, the multiplicities, angular and momentum distributions and transversal momenta of secondary particles and the variations of these quantities with energies are described and discussed. Special attention being paid on the persistence of the backword scattering of protons in the case of π--ρ interactions and the symmtrical but nonisotropic scattering of protons in the case of p-p interactions. These phenomena are attributed to the so called peripherical " collision of the interacting nucleons. This and other facts in elastic scattering may indicate that nucleon really has a "nucleus" but of very small dimension ( ≤ 0.4 X 10-13 cm in raduis).

本文试把到写稿时为止(1961年3月底)的一切关于π-N,p-N和-p的作用和入射粒子能量在几百Mev.至10Bev.范围以内的实验工作予以报导和总论。举凡关于这些作用的总截面、弹性散射截面和非弹性散射截面,都经收集整理,并加以分析。这些截面随能量的增减而变化的情况,都以曲线表达,并且与理论结果作出比较。曲线中有几个重要和有趣之点,也予以指出。在π-N作用中的几个共振峯和关于他们的理论解释,也经较详细的叙述。在弹性散射方面,我们将微分截面的角分布和理论作了比较。在非弹性散射方面,我们把多重产生、动量分布、角分布、横动量和它们与入射粒子能量的关系,都加以分析和讨论。我们特别注意和讨论了下列二种情况:在π-p作用时,质子总是向后散射;而在p-p作用时,两个质子总是不各向均匀地但向前后对称地散射。这种现象被称为质子的“边缘”碰撞。我们认为,这些和其他事实都可能表明了在质子内的确有“核心”的存在,而且这个“核心”非常的小,它的直径比O.4×10~(-13)厘米要小得多。

 
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