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basic principles and methods
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  基本原理与基本方法
     This paper reviews tho history of ultrasonic impulse technique in measuring elastic constants of composite materials and describes the present state and basic principles and methods, and offers some comments on the direction of study in the future.
     本文简要地回顾了利用超声波脉冲技术测定复合材料弹性常数的历史,概述了现状、基本原理与基本方法,并对今后的研究方向提出了看法.
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  “basic principles and methods”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The text proposes the basic principles and methods from the analysis of problems of the curriculum organization in the geography teaching system.
     从地理教学课程体系中的问题分析入手,提出了地理教学课程体系改革的基本原则,制定了地理教学课程体系改革的基本方案。
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     Basic principles and methods of denuded strata comeback
     浅述地层剥蚀量恢复的基本原理与方法
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     Several basic principles and methods of using the optical sensor to measure the displacement are presented, and the property and application of sensor is analyzed by experiment.
     给出了几种运用光位移传感器对线性位移检测的基本原理和方法,并通过实验对传感器测试性能、应用进行分析。
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     According to the characteristics of electronic atlas, this paper puts forward the basic principles and methods of automatic map division of electronic atlas, and the atlas' map division has been accomplished automatically based on the advanced ActiveX MapX under VC++.
     根据电子地图集的特点 ,提出了电子地图集自动分幅设计的基本原则和方法 ,并在VC ++环境下实现了基于MapX控件的电子地图集自动分幅。
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     Then it details the basic principles and methods of SPC and APC.
     然后详细讨论了SPC、APC的基本原理和方法;
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     The basic principles and methods of flavoring
     调味的基本原理和方法
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     basic principles;
     协议基本原则;
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     basic principles;
     基本原理 ;
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     The basic principles and methods of the thought are discussed.
     并对其应用原则和基本方法进行了阐述。
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     PALEOMAGNETISM:BASIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF STUDY
     略谈古地磁学的基本原理和研究方法
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  basic principles and methods
The course examines basic principles and methods of science by following the concept of evolution from the big bang to the origin and evolution of life.
      
The basic principles and methods of the moiré method are well known.
      
The paper introduces the basic principles and methods of current catastrophe prediction in ecology.
      
The basic principles and methods used in the stabilization system can also be applied in other accelerators and electrophysical devices.
      
Each of these books are consistent with regard to certain basic principles and methods, as well as the beneficial outcomes of this approach.
      
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In this paper the writer studies the basic principles underlying the thermodynamical aspect of designing a range of back pressure industrial steam turbines, both of the constant and variable speed types. The method of specifying the main design parameters of the range is also discussed. In accordance with the users' fundamental requirements which a back pressure turbine range is usually called to satisfy, a general quantitative analysis is first made of the various factors that influence the...

In this paper the writer studies the basic principles underlying the thermodynamical aspect of designing a range of back pressure industrial steam turbines, both of the constant and variable speed types. The method of specifying the main design parameters of the range is also discussed. In accordance with the users' fundamental requirements which a back pressure turbine range is usually called to satisfy, a general quantitative analysis is first made of the various factors that influence the establishment of basic design parameters of such a range of steam turbines. It is then shown, how, based on preliminary calculations, the basic principles and method of approach may be applied in specifying one possible set of thermodynamical parameters of a typical back pressure turbine range. Finally, on the strength of concrete analysis, conclusions are drawn that may prove helpful in relation to designing back pressure steam turbine ranges for China and establishing their fundamental thermodynamical parameters.

本文试图针对等转速和变转速背压式工业汽轮机系列的热力设计基本原则和方法进行研究。首先,从使用单位向背压式工业汽轮机提出的基本要求出发对影响这种系列基本特性参数的各项因素进行综合的定量分析。其次,在具体计算的基础上表明基本原则和方法如何用于确定一个具体系列的典型方案的主要特性参数。最后,通过对这一典型系列方案的分析,得出数条有关建立我国背压式工业汽轮机系列问题以及有关这种系列的基本热力参数的具体结论。

In this report, the basic principle and methods of laser beam reflective holographic and speckle interferometry for studying the three-dimensional displacement fields are presented. Using these methods the three-dimensional displacement fields around a crack tip for centrally cracked strip are measured. The strips are made of aluminum alloy LY12-CZ, and are subjected to uniaxial tension and large-scale yield conditions. In this report, the following results are described: (1)the change...

In this report, the basic principle and methods of laser beam reflective holographic and speckle interferometry for studying the three-dimensional displacement fields are presented. Using these methods the three-dimensional displacement fields around a crack tip for centrally cracked strip are measured. The strips are made of aluminum alloy LY12-CZ, and are subjected to uniaxial tension and large-scale yield conditions. In this report, the following results are described: (1)the change of the size and contour of plastic zone when the load are increased by steps; (2)the curve of load P versus deformation Δ within a fixed gauge length; (3)the curve of crack opening displacement(COD)versus the axial load; (4) the critical crack opening displacement(COD*)when the propagation becomes imminent; (5)the in-plane displacement distribution around a crack tip; (6)the strain distribution and singularity in the near-tip region. Then. some results of measurement are discussed and compared with the results of other investigators.

本文介绍了激光一束光反射式全息和激光散斑干涉法基本原理,两者结合分析三维位移场的基本方法。用此方法分析了有限宽带有中心裂纹铝合金板(LY 12—CZ),在受均匀伸拉载荷作用下,直至大范围屈服情况下,裂纹尖端三维位移场。本文给出了位移场与裂纹尖端塑性区随载荷变化,直至裂纹失稳扩展,裂纹尖端塑性区的变化。讨论了在上述条件下,裂纹板塑性区的形状;给出了塑性区尺寸随载荷变化曲线。定量测定了裂纹尖端附近u,v,w三维位移;一定标距下P—△曲线,裂纹尖端特征点的 COD随载荷变化曲线;裂纹起裂点的 δc(即COD*),给出了裂纹尖端应变变化和应变奇异性结果。

The basic principle and method of using the moon as calibration beacon in the measurement of antenna parameters are presented in this paper. In this method, we use loads of liquid nitrogen at low and normal ambient temperature as standards of calibration, and use switch-type radiometer for calibration. The aperture and operating wavelength of the measured antenna are respectively 5 m and 7.5cm. The feeder of the same antenna consists of horns of hybrid-mode developed by the Shijia Zhuang...

The basic principle and method of using the moon as calibration beacon in the measurement of antenna parameters are presented in this paper. In this method, we use loads of liquid nitrogen at low and normal ambient temperature as standards of calibration, and use switch-type radiometer for calibration. The aperture and operating wavelength of the measured antenna are respectively 5 m and 7.5cm. The feeder of the same antenna consists of horns of hybrid-mode developed by the Shijia Zhuang Communication Laboratories. The results of measurement show that this radioastronomical method can give satisfactory antenna parameters. It is accurate and simple. Moreover, it can be used to measure the background noise temperature of antenna which is a parameter unobtainable by classical methods of measurement.

本文介绍了以月亮为校准源,以液氮低温负载与常温负载为定标基准,利用开关型辐射计,进行天线参数测量的基本原理和方法。被测天线口径为5米,工作波长为7.5厘米,馈源采用石家庄通信研究所研制的复合式多模喇叭。测量结果表明,用射电天文方法测量天线参数可得到满意结果,既精确又方便。此法还能方便地测出用经典方法不能测试的天线噪声温度。

 
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