Derived results are able to reflect the influence of the quality of a material to them,compared with the result from the shear strain energy strength theory.

EAS modes were adopted to overcome the significant deficiency of excessive shear strain energy in "thin" structural applications,the number of internal DOFs is remarkably reduced and the computational efficiency is improved.

The paper presents a new four-node quadrilateral shell element, called L3, which is based on the general four-node element with modification of transverse shear strain energy.

Yet for thickness shear actuators, due to the shear deformation dominates the plate deflection for shear actuation mechanism, the higher order shear theory can provide more accurate evaluation of the shear strain energy of the plate than the first-order one, higher order shear deformation theory can provide more accurate evaluation of the de- formation of the plate.

Timoshenko beam model is considered to solve dynamic characteristics and unbalanced response of a rotor system with a flexible shaft and rigid disks supported by non-conservative flexible bearings using a technique called the generalized polynomial expansion method(GPEM). Cross-coupled stiffness and damping coefficients of bearings,transverse shear strain energy,rotary inertia and gyroscopic effects of the system are taken in consideration.

Two different theories available in the literature are discussed, and a new one is presented which takes into account the nonlinear shear strain energy and the nonlinear transverse normal strain energy.

However, in the diffusional case, minimization of growth ledge formation kinetics seems to be the main role thereby played, whereas in martensitic growth, the main purpose of such an interface is to minimize elastic shear strain energy.

Special emphasis is placed on the roles played by the anisotropy of interphase boundary structure and energy and also upon elastic shear strain energy in both types of transformation.

The critical planes were determined with use of two methods based on the maximum parameters of, respectively, normal and shear strain energy density.

The parameter of normal and shear strain energy density in critical planes is applied for estimation of fatigue life under cyclic conditions of pure bending, pure torsion and combined proportional bending with torsion.

The major impediment to the transformation was the shear strain energy which could not be reduced sufficiently by twinning alone.

The paper presents a new four-node quadrilateral shell element, called L3, which is based on the general four-node element with modification of transverse shear strain energy. The element, possessing five degrees of freedom per node, is suited for linear, nonlinear and nonlinear stability finite element analysis of isotropic, orthotropic and laminated plates and shells. Various numerical examples of laminated structures are given herein.The results illustrate the advantages of not only fewer degrees of...

The paper presents a new four-node quadrilateral shell element, called L3, which is based on the general four-node element with modification of transverse shear strain energy. The element, possessing five degrees of freedom per node, is suited for linear, nonlinear and nonlinear stability finite element analysis of isotropic, orthotropic and laminated plates and shells. Various numerical examples of laminated structures are given herein.The results illustrate the advantages of not only fewer degrees of freedoms and simple formulation, but also satisfactory accuracy and better convergence.

The unified formulae of the finite element equilibrium equations, (Kb+αKs) q = F, is derived for both displacement method and hybrid stress method. It is demonstrated that the reason of eliminating locking of reduced integration and assumed stress method is identical, i.e., the constraints infroduced by shear-strain energy Ksq = 0 only give rise to Kirchhoff constraints. The conditions for existence of zero energy modes are given via detection of degree of freedom and constraints. Finally,...

The unified formulae of the finite element equilibrium equations, (Kb+αKs) q = F, is derived for both displacement method and hybrid stress method. It is demonstrated that the reason of eliminating locking of reduced integration and assumed stress method is identical, i.e., the constraints infroduced by shear-strain energy Ksq = 0 only give rise to Kirchhoff constraints. The conditions for existence of zero energy modes are given via detection of degree of freedom and constraints. Finally, numerical examples are given to present the equivalenee of reduced integration and assumed stress method on eliminating locking. The paper may be guidance for constructing efficient general elements.

In this paper, the warping displacement function method is adopted to analyse the shear lag effect in single cell box girder bridges. The influence due to the width of the flange plate and the distance to the central axis, and the equilibrium of axial forces are both considered to form a warping displacement function for a single cell box girder with overhanging plates of varied width. It could be transformed into a warping displacement function for open-type beams. The differential equationis derivd form the...

In this paper, the warping displacement function method is adopted to analyse the shear lag effect in single cell box girder bridges. The influence due to the width of the flange plate and the distance to the central axis, and the equilibrium of axial forces are both considered to form a warping displacement function for a single cell box girder with overhanging plates of varied width. It could be transformed into a warping displacement function for open-type beams. The differential equationis derivd form the theory of minimum potential energy and its solution is then obtained. The Calculating process is simple and fast. It is good useful to precision of calculated deflection that the effect of not only shear lag but S. Timoshenko's beam shear strain energy on deflection is considered. In this paper, the results obtained from the finite strip method are used to compare with the results obtained from the warping displacement method. Finally the calculated results are compared with the data from model tests. It shows that the method given in this paper is universal and precise.