and (4) good correlation was found between acid soluble fraction and easily reducible fraction of Cu, which indicated that conversion behavior of the two fractions of Cu was similar.

RESULTS Under the condition of 0.5 mol·L-1 H2SO4 at 50 ℃ for 6 h and 80 ℃ for 2 h, two fractions named F1 and F2 inhibited NEG in vitro and the inhibiting rates reached 27.56% and 35.26%.

Patients in 60Gy group received conventional fraction radiation for the first 3 weeks,and then hyperfractionation radiation(1.5Gy per fraction,two fractions a day with 6 hour interval,10 fractions per week) to the total dose of 60Gy/35 fractions/5 weeks.

Two fractions with high inhibitory activity to ACE were purificated. The IC_(50) of fraction A and fraction B were 0.033 mg/mL, 0.041 mg/mL,respectively.

2个较高 ACE 抑制活性的组分样品 A 和样品 B 的 IC_(50)分别为0．033mg/mL 和 0．041mg/mL。

The results showed that AMP-1 was a neutral and pure polysaccharide, AMP-2 was a acidic polysaccharide which consists of two fractions, AMP-2a and AMP-2b.

Twenty-three patients in LCAF group were treated with the same conventional fractionation as CF group until the dose of 38Gy～40Gy,then followed by LCAF radiotherapy:1.5Gy/F,twice per day with 6 hours interval between the two fractions,to a total dose of 72Gy～76Gy/DT.

Two fractions that included acid arabinogalactan and pectin were extracted from the callus culture of duckweed plants (Lemna minorL.) with water and ammonium oxalate.

Two fractions (1 and 2) of the galactomannan from seeds of sophora (Styphnolobium japonicum) were isolated using cold and hot aqueous extraction with a total yield of 12.88%.

The two fractions differed by the ratio between mannose (Man) and galactose (Gal) residues (4.8 : 1 and 5.3 : 1, respectively) and molecular weight (1190 and 1400 kDa, respectively).

The presence of two fractions in the mRNA-18°C indicates alternative splicing.

The medium conditioned by dense, self-synchronized hepatocyte cultures was centrifuged at 150?000 g to obtain two fractions.

(1) In the present report a simple type of bacterial mill is described. The chief advantages of this apparatus are high percentage of disintegration, short duration of grinding and repeatability of results. The apparatus is essentially composed of a ground glass cylinder made from suitable hard glass tubing, which is filled with ice and rotates mechanically in horizontal position in a closely fitting trough of hard porcelain. (Fig. 1 and 2). It allows with the help of an abrasive, such as glass powder, to break...

(1) In the present report a simple type of bacterial mill is described. The chief advantages of this apparatus are high percentage of disintegration, short duration of grinding and repeatability of results. The apparatus is essentially composed of a ground glass cylinder made from suitable hard glass tubing, which is filled with ice and rotates mechanically in horizontal position in a closely fitting trough of hard porcelain. (Fig. 1 and 2). It allows with the help of an abrasive, such as glass powder, to break bacteria (Escherichia coli) to an. extent of 99.99%. The fast and highly efficient breaking of the cells permits the preparation of particulate fractions possessing enzymatic activities, contaminated only with an inconsiderable amount of viable bacteria. Because the grinding process does not require any manual operation besides adding the bacteria abrasive mixture and removing the ground material, extracts of comparatively reproducible activity can be obtained from the same batch of microorganisms. Thus the succinic and malic oxidase activity in extracts from the same lot of bacteria did not differ by more than ±10% and ±16% from the average activities respectively. (2) The extracts obtained from the ground E. coli prepared with our mill were separated by differential centrifugation into a particulate (sedimenting between 5,000-20,000)×g during 2 hours) and a non-sedimentable fraction (supernatant after centrifugation at 20,000×g, for 2 hours). The former fraction was alble to oxidize succinate, L-lactate, and formate with a comparatively fast rate (Qo_2 (N) of 464, 1150, and, 126 respectively, taking the first 10 minute rates); L-matate and ethanol were oxidized only slowly while L-aspartate, L-glutamate, L-alanine, citrate and fumarate were practically not oxidized. All the mentioned substrates with the exception of citrate and alanine could be oxidized by the non-sedimentable fraction in absence of any acceptor dye. On mixing the two fractions three different kinds of results could be noted depending on the substrates used. (ⅰ) The rate of oxygen consumption of the mixture was approximately equal to the sum of the rates of the individual fractions. This was found for succinate, formate, and L-malate. (ⅱ) Mixing of the two fractions produced a markedly higher rate of the oxidation than what could be accounted for by the activities of individual ones. This is the case for fumarate, L-glutamate, L-aspartate, L-alanine, and ethanol. (ⅲ) The combination of the two fractions lowered the rate of oxygen uptake. This was noted for L-lactate.

In this paper, further simplifications are suggested for the two-fraction method based on the solubility function and the treatment of fractionation data by using Tung functipn which were proposed by the present authors in previous publications.The evaluation of the distribution parameters for a fraction from two intrinsic viscosity measurements in a good solvent and in a θ-solvent is shown to be not practical, because the required precision is not attainable in ordinary measurements....

In this paper, further simplifications are suggested for the two-fraction method based on the solubility function and the treatment of fractionation data by using Tung functipn which were proposed by the present authors in previous publications.The evaluation of the distribution parameters for a fraction from two intrinsic viscosity measurements in a good solvent and in a θ-solvent is shown to be not practical, because the required precision is not attainable in ordinary measurements. A new approximation is suggested by taking the phase separation parameter Q to be equal to the volume ratio R of the concentrated and dilute phases. Then, the distribution parameters for the two-fraction method can be readily evaluated. Actual calculations show that the distribution parameters thus calculated is not very sensitive to the value of Q taken, and therefore this approximation is justified as a tentative simplification of the two-fraction method for the determination of molecular weight distributions.In the treatment of ordinary fractionation data by means of Tung function, all fractions except the first and the last ones can be approximated by a straight line for the integral distribution curve. The line passes through the points M(1 = 1/2) = Mη, M(1 = 0) = 1/2Mη which corresponds roughly to a straight line with equal slope as the Tung function at M1/2 with b = 2.7-3.0. This leads to a considerable saving in computation but very slight difference to the result.The suggested simplifications have been applied to a sample of PMMA. The integral distribution curve obtained by the suggested method are closer to the actual one obtained by sedmentation rate method than the usual Schulz-Dinlinger treatment.

In experiments on cyclic photophosphorylation by spinach (Spinacia oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) chloroplasts, it was found that the rate of photophosphorylation by chloroplasts from any one of the three species was significantly enhanced by supernatants of the crude chloroplast preparation ("homogenate") from another species. This phenomenon is tentatively designated as "complementary action" of photophosphorylation between different plant species. The main results of these...

In experiments on cyclic photophosphorylation by spinach (Spinacia oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) chloroplasts, it was found that the rate of photophosphorylation by chloroplasts from any one of the three species was significantly enhanced by supernatants of the crude chloroplast preparation ("homogenate") from another species. This phenomenon is tentatively designated as "complementary action" of photophosphorylation between different plant species. The main results of these experiments are summarized as follows:When crude chloroplast preparations ("homogenates") from leaves of spinach and of Swiss chard were mixed together, the resulting mixture showed a much higher rate of photophosphorylation than that of spinach homogenate alone.When homogenates were freed of chloroplast and of PS Ⅱ and PS Ⅰ fragments by centrifugation at 1000×g (15min), 10000×g (30min) and 140000×g (30min) respectively (designated as supernatants S_1,S_2 and S_3 respectively), such "complementary action" can still be obtained, and even to a more pronounced degree.With supernatant S_3, which should be practically free of any PSⅠ and PSⅡ fragments as well as of whole chloroplasts, the addition of supernatants from Swiss chard to spinach or lettuce chloroplasts accelerated the rates of photophosphorylation significantly, but it has no effect on Swiss chard chloroplasts themselves. On the other hand, while the addition of spinach supernatant S_3 to Swiss chard or lettuce chloroplasts showed a similar stimulation of photophosphorylation activity, it reduced the activity of spinach chloroplasts to almost one half of the control. Supernatant from lettuce also showed the same "complementary action" by stimulating the rates of phosphorylation by spinach and Swiss chard chloroplasts, but it also stimulated the rate of photophosphorylation by chloroplasts from the same species (lettuce).Results with supernatants S_0 and S_1 which are practically devoid of whole chloroplasts and PS I fragments respectively, gave essentially similar results, but the degree of stimulation is not so marked and not as steady as in experiments using S_3. The stimulting action of the supernatants is concentration dependent. In a total reaction volume of 3 ml, stimulation becomes more pronounced from 0.2 to 0.6ml of added supernatant when a maximum is reached. After that, the stimulation effect decreases as the amounts of added supernatants are increased, up to 1ml. This is taken to mean that besides a stimulating factor or factors, the supernatant also contains an inhibiting factor or factors.Heating the supernatant (S_3) to 100℃ for 5min destroys about 2/3 of the stimulating action of the supernatant. The destruction is not complete, leaving behind a residual heat stable fraction amounting to l/4th of the control. This is taken as evidence for the presence of two types of stimulating substances in the supernatant: a heat labile major fraction and a heat stable minor fraction.From these main results and subsidiary experiments reported in the paper, the following tentative conclusions are drawn:1. There is present in supernatants from centrifuged chloroplast preparations a factor (or factors) capable of stimulating PMS mediated cyclic photophosphorylation in spinach, lettuce and Swiss chard. The effect is more prononnced and consistent when the supernatant from one plant species is added to the chloroplasts from another species ("complementary action").Since the factor(s) is effective on whole chloroplasts not subjected to EDTA treatment, its identity with the coupling factor of phosphorylation appears unlikely.2. The stimulating factor (s) contains two fractions: a heat stable fraction, and a heat labile fraction. While the smaller heat stable fraction may be attributable to phosphodoxin, the larger heat labile fraction can not be accounted for by the properties of that substance which is known to be heat stable.3. The possibility that the stimulating factor(s) may be primary electron acceptor (s) for PS I, such as FRS, bound ferredoxin or P430 cannot be ruled out, the fact that it is not tightly bound to chloroplast fragments, but is present in the supernatant even after 1000×g (16min) or 140000×g (30min) centrifugation makes it doubtful that it is of the nature of primary electron acceptors which are known to be quite firmly bound to chloroplast lamella. Preliminary examination showed that the absorption spectrum of the supernatant differs from that of any of the above mentioned acceptors. Gel filtration with Sephadex G75 gave an approximate molecular weight of 60000 for the stimulating factors, separable into three fractions.