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     Comparing Word Sense based Language Model to other language models, the experiments based on the corpus of TREC shows that WSLM method has a better performance than the traditional td-idf method. If a more powerful Word Sense Disambiguation tool is used, the result could be improved.
     在基于词义语言模型的信息检索研究中,介绍了同义词词典的词义表示方法,在实验中使用TREC语料把基于词义的语言模型并与其他语言模型进行了比较,实验表明,基于词义的语言模型方法要好于传统的TD-IDF方法,如果有更加精准的词义消歧工具,实验结果还会有进一步提高。
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     Second language vocabulary acquisition researches involve many aspects such as word definition, vocabulary testing and evaluation, vocabulary learning strategies, vocabulary teaching, mental lexicon, relation between vocabulary acquisition and other language skills, etc, which have bora rich fruits.
     第二语言词汇习得研究涉及词的定义、词汇量的测试与评估、词汇学习策略、词汇教学、人脑词典、词汇习得与其他语言技能之间的关系等诸多方面,已取得一定进展。
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     English reading skills are very important learning skills ,which are essential and fundamental to other language skills such as listening ,speaking and writing.
     就各类英语测试来说,语言最难、内容最深、题量最大、分数最多的部分,还是阅读理解; 英语阅读技能既是重要的语言技能,也是重要的学习技能,是发展其他语言技能的基础和前提
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     Impromptu NBA commentaries, different from other language style such as advertising, news and speech and so on, is as wonderful, vivid and colorful as NBA game itself, and shows its different style for the particular situation and the event itself.
     NBA即席解说词正如NBA比赛本身一样精彩、生动、丰富,它与其他语言文体如广告、新闻、演讲等大不相同,表现出自身独特的语言特点。
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     The experimental results show that the method can achieve good results and can also be applied to other language pairs.
     实验结果表明 ,该方法具有良好的使用价值 ,可以用于其他语言对的对齐
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  “other language”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Mutual calling method among FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL and C language on the VAX-11/780 computer is introduced, specially, further developing mutual calling method between C and other language can be used as a reference to the application of C language.
     介绍在VAK-11/780计算机上FORTRAN,BASIC,PASCAL和C语言之间的相互调用方法,特别对C语言与其它语言之间的调用方法,作了进一步探索,可为C语言的应用研究提供参考。
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     The whole system was developed through applying VC++6.0 language under the Windows2000 operating system, the processing speed of VC language is quick than the other language, so it fits for real-time processing request.
     整个系统是基于Windows2000操作系统平台下应用VC++6.0开发的,VC++语言在算法的处理速度上较其它语言快,适合实时处理的需要。
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     The conversion from high to low version database and other language documents
     高版本数据向低版本数据库及其他语言文件的转换
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     In this paper, based on wavelet transform, a method to realize a dossier information system with face recognition in VFP by using hybrid programming of MATLAB、MATCOM、VC++ and VFP is developed. The method is simple,effective,with high recognition rates and easy to transplant to other language platform.
     在基于小波变换的基础上,给出了一种利用MATLAB,MATCOM,VC++和VFP混合编程在VFP平台上实现对档案管理系统中面像进行识别的方法,该方法具有识别率高、开发简单快速、可移植性强等优点。
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     Translation is one of the language arts. It is the language activity that represents the meaning of the sentence by using other language systems.
     翻译是许多语言活动的一种 ,它是用一种语言形式把另外一种语言形式里的内容重新表现出来的语言实践活动 .
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     the other language environments.
     其他语境。
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     G Language
     G语言
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     of language.
     通过语言可以研究文化,通过文化可以研究语言。
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     Language and culture affect each other.
     语言与文化互相影响 ,互相作用 ;
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     On the other hand, G.
     tastiensis构成的姐妹种与G.
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Our findings indicate that familial risk for dyslexia is reliably reflected in emerging phonological awareness already at this early age and it can be assessed independently of other language skills.
      
It is important for those working with dyslexic students to recognize the possibility of reinforcement by associating one faulty language skill with other language skills perhaps less poorly developed.
      
The acquisition of a language of feelings is similar to the acquisition of other language and can be conceptualized within a Piagetian framework.
      
Loanword formation seems to provide a good test bed for the growing field of computational phonology, since it occurs in a more tightly controlled environment than other language processing tasks.
      
No other language variables were significant predictors of the students' GPA in the study.
      
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(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which...

(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which has made the ethnic position of the Malayans as well as the ethnicrelationship between the Malayans and the other related peoples unclear scientifically. Therecent anthropological studies revealed the close ethnic relation between the brown raceand the yellow race, hence the Malayan stock is regarded as one branch of the Mongo-loids and given a new term "Oceanic Mongoloid". The Malayan stock now stands closelywith its two brothers the Northern Mongoloid and the Southern Mongoloid. The term "Malayans" is used here in its broader meaning which includes all thepeoples in Malaysia with a physical characteristics mostly of yellowish-brown colour.brachycephalie (broad) head form, black and straight hair, scanty beard, Malayan eye.medium stature and speaking branches of Malayo-Polynesian language which is agglutina-tive in its nature. Scientifically, both the "proto-Malays" and the "deutero-Malays", orboth the "true Malays" (Orang Malayu) and the other Malayans outside of it are to beconsidered here as the Malayan stock. Generally speaking, largest part of the peoplesliving in Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines and other islands bear this common name inscientific sense. Within the country of Indonesia the term Indonesians is most usuallyused, but in this article, the Indonesians is also included in the term Malayan stockbecause the latter is larger in its scope and more generally used in science. The Malayan stock is not a pure, single race but one of many elements intermixedtogether. The first element is the Oceanic Mongoloid which came from the north, pro-bable Chinese continent, its physical characteristics survived are the black, straight hair,broad head, yellowish-brown colour, medium stature and certain degree of Mongolian eye(narrow eye with Mongolian fold which covers the upper eye-lid). The second elementis the Indonesian stock, (This is used in scientific, narrower meaning instead of thatused in common sense) and early branch of the Caucasian race, originated in westernAsia and migrated eastward to Malaysia through Indo-China; it gives the present people the physical characteristics of Malayan eye, (broad eye without Mongolian fold hence theeye-lashes and a concave line on the eye-lid can be seen clearly) a certain degree of doli-chocephalie (long) head together with the agglutinative Malayo-Polynesian language. Thethird element is the Oceanic Negroid whose part contributed to the Malayans is not solarge that it still has pure descendants in present day viz. the Negritoes and the Papuans;while the fourth element is the Veddas came from India. The third and fourth one arri-ved earliest in probably Palaeolithic age, but played no important role in ethnic composi-tion of the Malayan stock because of their small number in population. The second onereached Malaysia after the above two probably in early period of Neolithic age, while thefirst one arrived latest in later period of Neolithic age. Though later in time, the OceanicMongoloids and Indonesians came in large numbers hence they formed the two principalelements of the Malayan stock. As the outcome of the intermixing of blood there appea-red a great mixed racial stock which looks different from its original elements, conseq-uently the original names are no longer suitable to be used. The term Indonesian is usedhere in its original meaning which is different from that of the so-called "Indonesians"in present day use. The mixed stock is no more called Indonesian but Malayan stock inthis article. Ⅱ. Is there Any Connection Between the Malayan Stock and the Ancient Peoples in Southern China? The cradle of the mix-blooded Malayan stock may be in the meeting point of the twoprincipal elements. Indo-China, a necessary meeting point on their ways, was naturally thecradle of the Malayan stock. From Indo-China floods of racial migration appeared fromtime to time and peopled the islands of Malaysia from west to east. As the Oceanic Mongoloid might be originated in the east Asia continent and mig-rated southward to Indo-China, naturally there must be a time in which they lived insouthern China as well as in Indo-China. Furthermore, the ancient peoples in SouthernChina consisted of various aboriginal tribes different from the Chinese Proper, it seemsnot very unreasonable to suggest that besides the Mongoloids there might existed too acertain primitive branch of Caucasian race or even Negroid race in southern China eventhough in small number before the Chinese Proper migrated southward. Possessing theability of migrating southward by the difficult way of water, why the Indonesians couldor would not proceed further eastward from Indo-China by an easier way of land tosouthern China During or preceding Chow dynasty (before 250 B. C.) in the coastal regions of sout-hern China (Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Kwangsi provinces) there existedan ancient aboriginal stock with the name of "Yueh" which was looked by the Chineseproper as a different race because they lived in different way, followed their own queerhabits and customs and spoke in a different tongue. This stock was indeed more strangethan the other aboriginal stocks in southem China. The formation of such a stock mightbe the outcome of blending of the Mongoloids arrived from the north with some other peoples came from the southwest. As there really existed a different people-the In-donesians-migrated from the west and the blending of the two races-the Indonesiansand the Mongoloids-was actually taking place in Indo-China, it is far from impossiblethat such a phenomenon might extend and appear also in southem China. Being theproduct of mixing blood of the two principal races-the Mongoloids and the Indonesians-the Yueh stock might be in the same condition as the Malayan. If the intermixing of the Mongoloids with the Indonesians really took place in sout-hern China, the ancient people Yueh then was the brother of the Malayan stock. At thebeginning they might resemble to each other, but in later days both of them lived indifferent places and mixed with more other peoples, hence appeared also different fromeach other. Since the Chin dynasty (220 B. C.) the Yueh stock began to be assimilatedby the Chinese Proper from the north; the process of assimilation of culture and theblending of blood reached its conclusion in about 6th century. Later on no survivor ofYueh stock with pure blood or tribal name ever appeared in China. Their mix-bloodedoffspring, however, have existed up to present time as the population of the southeastcoastal region viz. Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung Provinces. Ⅲ. Three Evidences From the historical and geographical point of view, we get the above hypothesis ofthe ethnical Connection between the Malayan and the Yueh stock in southern China. Ifthis is true there must be, between them, physical and cultural resemblances which aresound enough as the evidence. Three sorts of facts, as I seek, may do this service: (1) Resemblances in Physical Characteristics--Though there is still no enoughamount of prehistoric skeletons of both the Indonesians and the Oceanic Mongoloidsunearthed in Malaysia and southern China for scientific research, the Iiving offsprings ofboth the two ancient races may give us some hints about this question,. It is often observedthat the physical characteristics of the southern Chinese of present day are different insome respects from the northern ones although basically they are of the same type viz.the Chinese type. Among them, the peoples of Kwangtung and Fukien have espicially adifferent appearence: Firstly, the eyes of them are broader and less in degree of Mongolian fold on theupper eye-lid. The eye of this type is the medium form between the Mongolian and theMalayan eye, and may be called Half-Malayan eye. Generally most of the Mongol Properand the northern Chinese have the Mongoian eye, while the Malayans have the Malayaneye. The intermediate eye suggests that the human group possessing it must be the mixedblood of the two kinds of peoples with these two sorts of eyes. Wherefrom did the sout-hern Chinese get the half-Malayan eye? Unless they had as one part of their compositeelement a sort of people with Malayan eyes, it is quite impossible to explain the derivationof this eye form. this eye form, therefore, tells us that the southern Chinese, especiallythat of Kwangtung, Fukien and perhaps Chekiang provinces had as one part of theirancestors a people with Malayan eyes. The Malayans may get their malayan eye from the Indoncsians, because the Indonesians belong to the Caucasian race whose eye is calledEuropean eye which is the same as the Malayan one. In fact, the European eye formappeared on the Malayan face is called Malayan eye. The eyes of the southern Chinesetherefore might he derived from the same way as the Malayans. Secondly, the stature of the southern Chinese especially those of Kwangtung andFukien is generally lower than that of the northern Chinese; while compared with theMalayans, they are nearly the same with each other. Thirdly, some of the faces of the southern Chinese looks different from the northernones but appears resembling the Malayans. The Southerns have a shorter face while thenortherners have a longer one. As the physical characteristics of both the southem Chinese and the Malayans resem-bling each other, it is hardly possible to distinguish some Chinese in Malayan costumesand vice versa. The Chinese new comers in Malaysia are often astonished to find thatthe so-called strangers or foreigners viz. the Malayans, look quite like themselves in theirphysical respect. Sometimes it is not easy too for the Europeans to distinguish betweenthe Chinese and the Malayans, because most of the Chinese immigrated to Malaysiancountries were from the southeastern coastal regions which was the home country of theancient Yueh people. (2) Resemblances in Early Cultural Respects--Of course the cultural life ofthe southern Chinese and the Malayans in present day are different to each other, butthe historical records about the ancient Yueh people reveal that the Yueh stock had intheir material life, social customs and languages some points suggesting the connectionwith the Malayans. These may be enumerated as the following: 1, Hair cutting: The ancient northern Chinese never cut their hair, the Miao stockbound their hair too, only the Yueh people was noted for their hair cutting. The primitivebranches of the present Malayan also cut their hair, the early Malayans probably had thiscustom in ancient times too. 2, Tattooing: The Yueh was also well-known for their tattooing which made themlook quite wonderful to the other Chinese, The Malayans of today still have kept thiscustom in Borneo, Philippines etc. 3, Snake worship: The Yueh worshipped the snakes and those in Fukien even tookthe snake as their totem. The aborigines in Taiwan province, which belong to Malayanstock too, still preserve the remnant of such belief, Snake worship is not unknown tothe Malayans in Malaysia too. 4, Pile-house: At present the pile-houses of the Malayans is quite well-known forits specialty; such form of building, however, was also adopted by the ancient southernChinese because it is recorded that the Yueh lived in nest, and the later southern peopleslived actually in the pile-houses which was called "kan-lan". 5, Naked foot: The Yueh's naked foot custom was also noted in ancient times.while the Malayans in history also kept their feet naked even though they were officersin the kings courts. 6, Agglutinative language: The Yueh spoke in a different and queer tongue fromthe Chinese Proper and even the other peoples in ancient times, the translation of Yuehwords gave the Chinese Proper a hard question; to denote the sound of a Yueh word,one Chinese word is not enough, while two or three words sound too much. Thiscondition suggests that though the Chinese language was isolating in its nature, that ofthe Yueh might belong to agglutinative one, because one agglutinative word usually pro-nounces just like two or more isolating words connected. Heine-Geldern and other scholarealso suggested that the Malayo-Polynesian or Austro-Asiatic language was originated inthe continent. The present south-eastern Chinese still speak in different dialects whichproves that the ancient Yueh language was quite strange to the northern Chinese. Thedifficulty to compare the ancient Yueh language with the Malayan one lies in the factthat both the present tongues used by the modern Malayans and the southern Chinesehave been changed by nearly two thousand years' assimilation with other languages. (3) Resemblances of Prehistoric Remains--Before the prehistoric archaeologicaldiscoveries took place in southern China, the question of the derivation or origin of someprehistoric objects in malaysia and even Polynesia had been very hard to be solved. Poly-nesia is famous for one special type of stone implements viz. the tanged adze or steppedadze, the origin of it was traced to that unearthed in Philippines; the derivation of thestepped adze of Philippines, however, was also very hard to be traced. Since about 1930the prehistoric findings began to take place in southern Chinese continent. the newmaterials enable the old questions easier to be solved. The prehistoric remains are difte-rent to those found in northern China, the latter consists of the painted pottery, blackpottery, thick stone axe, holed stone axe etc., whilc the former consists of the pressedgeometric-designed pettery, the stepped adze, the shouldered axe etc.. Strange to say thatthe southern prehistoric objects of China really resemble those of Malaysia and evenPolynesia. These objects may be pointed as the following: 1, Stepped stone adze: Stepped adze is found in large numbers in the south-easternregions viz. Fukien, Kwangtung, Chekiang, Kiangsi, Kiangsu etc., but appears veryrare in the eastern part of northern China and is entirely unknown in the western partof it. The shape suggests that it was developed in three stages just like that of Phi-lippines and Polynesia. Furthermore, the stepped adze of primary and intermediate stagesappeared more in number in south-eastern China, while that of the higher stage appearedmore in Philippines and Polynesia; such a condition reveals that the stepped adze of Phi-lippines and Polynesia was derived from south-eastern China. The way of transmigrationof the stepped adze is probably through Taiwan, Philippines and other islands. 2, Shouldered stone axe: The shouldered axe appeared in Indo-China. Malay pe-ninsula, Philippines etc., but was not found in the intermediate islands viz Sumatra,Java etc.. It was unearthed in Taiwan and Hainan islands too. In the southern part ofthe Chinese continent it appeared less in number but more will be found in future. Inthe north-eastern China very rare was obtaine(?) too. The shouldered axe might be ori-ginated in Indo-China and then spreaded eastward to the south-eastern coastal region of Chinese continent, therefrom it crossed the sea and arrived in Philippines through Tai-wan island, On the way a northward route led it to the north-eastern region. Anotherroute led it southward to Malay Peninsula. Shouldered axe is also an object of evidenceshowing the relation of the Malayans and the southern Chinese, because the prehistoricpeoples in Indo-China was the Malayans instead of the Annamese etc.. 3, Pressed geometric-designed pottery: In southern, especially south-eastern China,the prehistoric pottery was that with geometric designs pressed with pottery prints, thisis quite different to the painted pottery of north-western China and the black pottery ofnorth-eastern China. In Malaysia and Indo-China the prehistoric potteries found resembleto that of south China, some of the shape of the potteries as well as the pressed designsare quite like each other. Some potteries of this type were actuaily found in Indo-China,Java and Sulawesi, which are comparable with that of south China. This kind of potteryalso suggests the prehistoric connection between Malayans and the southern Chinese. Ⅳ. Conclusions (1) The Malayan stock is a mixed blood of chiefly the Oceanic Mongoloid raceand the Indonesians which is an early branch of the Caucasian race. These two raceshave been blended to such a degree that a new stock appeared which is called the Ma-Jayan stock, and the two elements have no more pure offsprings survived. The presentMalayans show more Mongolian physical features than the Indonesian ones, hencs it istaken as a branch of Mongoloids. (2) The Oceanic Mongoloid came from southern China, hence these should beethnic connection. between the Malayans and the ancient southern Chinese. Moreover,the other two elements of the Malayans, the Indonesians and the Negritoes probablyalso arrived and lived in southern China earlier than the Mongoloids and became partof the ethnical elements of the southern Chinese in later days, therefore the Malayansand the southern Chinese may have the same ethnical element. (3) The present southern Chinese, especially the south-eastern ones have some phy-sical characteristics like the Malayans, their ancestor Yueh stock had some customs andlanguage showing some resemblances to the Malayans, finally, the prehistoric discoveriesalso show the relationship between these two races. (4) The processes of the formation of the Malayan stock might proceeded in Indo-China and southern China. Since Neolithic age the Malayans migrated step by step toMalaysian islands, while those remained in Indo-China and southern China were assimi-lated by the Chinese Proper, Annamese, Siamese and Burmese. The ancient Yueh stockin southern China might have nearly the same ethnic composition as the Malayans, butwas assimilated by the Chinese Proper since two thousand years ago. (5) There might be two routes of southward migration of the Malayans. The firstand principal one was the west route which started from Indo-China, penetrated Suma-tra, Java and Borneo, and finally reached Philippines; the evidences are the pressedgeometric designed pottery and the shouldered axe. The second was the east route whichstarted from the south-eastern coast of Chinese continent, passed Taiwan and other islets,finally re

林惠祥同志三十多年来除了对人类学(包括古学、民族学)进行系统的研究,并获得很大的成就和贡献外,他一生对南洋问题的研究,也曾下过工夫,做过不少工作和贡献。“南洋马来族与华南古民族的关系”这篇论文是林惠祥同志关于南洲问题最后的遗著。前篇于一九三八年以“马来人与中国东南方人同源说”为题曾在南洋发表过,后篇是他二十年后对这问题进一步深入研究的成果,提出更丰富、更可靠的有关人类学(包括考古学、民族学)的材料和证据,把我国和南洋民族的历史关系以及将东南亚这一大片地方过去被遗忘的历史补充起来,这是他三十年多年来对南洋研究的重要贡献,也是他一生对南洋问题研究总结的一部份。

Chinese dialects, like English and other languages, are comprised ofseveral lexical strata. In Chinese, these strata are mostly due to the influence of formsof the standard language at various periods in the past. Evidence of this type of lexicalstratification is preserved very well in the Min dialects, especially in the conservative dia-lect of Amoy. An inspetion of etymological doublets and triplets in Min dialects leadsto the conclusion that Proto-Min already showed considerable stratification...

Chinese dialects, like English and other languages, are comprised ofseveral lexical strata. In Chinese, these strata are mostly due to the influence of formsof the standard language at various periods in the past. Evidence of this type of lexicalstratification is preserved very well in the Min dialects, especially in the conservative dia-lect of Amoy. An inspetion of etymological doublets and triplets in Min dialects leadsto the conclusion that Proto-Min already showed considerable stratification in its lexi-con.

语言里往往有读音不同而来源相同的词,譬如英文的shirt和skirt都可以追溯到同一个古日耳曼语的词根;只是前者为固有的盎格鲁撒克逊语,后者却是从与古英语很相近的一种古斯堪的纳维亚方言借来的。许多语言的词汇是这样分层次的;研究语言的历史演变,辨别这种词汇层次(lexical stratification)极其重要。汉语方言里类似的现象也很普遍。北京话有不少又读字:薄bao/bo,落lao/luo,熟Shou//shu,模mu/mo,更jing/geng,等等。这些字的又读都和上述英文例子一样:前者是北京方言固有的,而后者可视为外来的借词。这种词汇层次起因于方言受某一时代共同语或标准语的影响。在中国历史上方言不断吸收共同语的成份。在华南这种情形特别地普遍而复杂。汉族多次南迁。每次都带着某种汉语方言。秦汉时,汉人第一次涌进南方,与当地土著民族杂居。关于这些早期移民的语言,我们知道得很少,据《史记》记载,多半是犯逃亡罪的人、赘婿及小商,可以推测他们的语言是当代民间通用的共同汉语。南方方言,尤其是闽语方言,还保存着这个语言的遗迹。秦汉以后,汉族第二次大规模地迁移南方是在西晋灭亡的时候(公元316年),那时大量的北方士...

语言里往往有读音不同而来源相同的词,譬如英文的shirt和skirt都可以追溯到同一个古日耳曼语的词根;只是前者为固有的盎格鲁撒克逊语,后者却是从与古英语很相近的一种古斯堪的纳维亚方言借来的。许多语言的词汇是这样分层次的;研究语言的历史演变,辨别这种词汇层次(lexical stratification)极其重要。汉语方言里类似的现象也很普遍。北京话有不少又读字:薄bao/bo,落lao/luo,熟Shou//shu,模mu/mo,更jing/geng,等等。这些字的又读都和上述英文例子一样:前者是北京方言固有的,而后者可视为外来的借词。这种词汇层次起因于方言受某一时代共同语或标准语的影响。在中国历史上方言不断吸收共同语的成份。在华南这种情形特别地普遍而复杂。汉族多次南迁。每次都带着某种汉语方言。秦汉时,汉人第一次涌进南方,与当地土著民族杂居。关于这些早期移民的语言,我们知道得很少,据《史记》记载,多半是犯逃亡罪的人、赘婿及小商,可以推测他们的语言是当代民间通用的共同汉语。南方方言,尤其是闽语方言,还保存着这个语言的遗迹。秦汉以后,汉族第二次大规模地迁移南方是在西晋灭亡的时候(公元316年),那时大量的北方士族移居江南,南朝的首都建菜就变成中国的文化中心。因为建业的文化声望远播四方,其语言对中国南方各地方言有相当大的影响,有时甚至于代替了当地方言。陆法言的《切韵》编于陈朝灭亡后不久,据周祖谟先生研究的结果,建业和邺下的雅言对《切韵》音系的影响很大。唐代的共同语大概以长安方言为基础,与《切韵》音系颇有出入。这个方言对当时各地方言的影响非常大。到辽金元三代,北京话就成为中国的新共同语,即所谓的“官话”。中国各地方言虽然也吸收了许多“官话”的成份,但其影响力不如上面所提的那些共同语那么广泛。闽语地区比较偏僻,受其他外来影响较少,至今还保存了不少秦汉时移民带来的词汇,同时也吸收了许多南朝和唐代的词汇。因此间语里同一个汉语词根,因为历史来源不一,往往有不同的读音。这就是词汇的时代层次的宝贵证据。厦门话里这类同源词特别多:譬如《切韵》昔韵的字时常有两三个或更多的读法。我认为这些“又读字”是由不同时代遗留下来的:最早的可以推测是汉代移民所说的汉语方言的遗迹;还有些是从南朝的雅言借来的;较新的就是唐朝中叶以后借的。比方说厦门话“石”字有三个读法;最老的是[tisio?~8],就是石头的意思;第二个读法是[sia?~8],用于石砚[sia?~8hi~6];第三个读法[sik~8]是一般的文言音。福州话有相同的现象:“悬”字读[kei?~2]是高的意思;读[hei?~2]用于悬落来[hei?~2 lo?~8 li~2],是下垂的意思;读[hie?~2]用于悬空[hie?~2 khu?~1]。[kein?~2,hei?~2,hie?~2]三个音都是从一个“悬”字演变下来的,反映出三个不同时代的层次。这样,闽语方言大体上可以分成三个重要的时代层次。闽语里也许有一些词不能归到这三个层次中,可以视为例外。一般说来,中国南方方言的词汇几乎都能追溯到上述的时代。这个现象不仅汉语方言里有,中国边缘上的和国内的非汉语也都吸收了大量的汉语措词,这些借词也可以追溯到不同的历史时代。譬如越南语“墓”字有三个音:ma,mo,mo,这三个读法正相当于上述三个层次。日本语也有类似的情形:所谓上古音(Joko-on)相当于第一个层次,吴音(Go-on)相当于第二个层次,而汉音(Kanon)乃是第三个层次。泰语、朝鲜语和苗瑶语都具有大量的汉语借词;这些语言是否也有这类层次现象,有待进一步研究。

This paper is approaching an initial subject of the phrasal verbs that bear specific features and usage in English of science and technology. It points out that English phrasal verbs are fixed in grammatical structure and complete in the meaning of words. Though in some cases, they are separated by a member of the sentence, they still express an integrated concept. More facts prove that greater application has been found in English of science and technology. That is because the structure of phrasal verbs are...

This paper is approaching an initial subject of the phrasal verbs that bear specific features and usage in English of science and technology. It points out that English phrasal verbs are fixed in grammatical structure and complete in the meaning of words. Though in some cases, they are separated by a member of the sentence, they still express an integrated concept. More facts prove that greater application has been found in English of science and technology. That is because the structure of phrasal verbs are shout but pithy. They have a lot of synonyms and some of them can find similar equivalents for the verbs when they are translated into other languages. Moreover, rhetoric effects added to the above features all make it possible to write a good article in a vivid and vigorous way, and with correct and figurative words and a metaphor as well. The paper lays special stress on the significance of learning as many as possible pnrasal varbs.If a beginner does so he will improve his reading and writing quickly.

本文对短语动词在科技英语中的特点和用法进行了初步的探讨,指出英语的短语动词结构固定,词义完整.虽然有时被其它成份所分隔,但仍旧表达了一个完整的概念.在科技文章中,使用短语动词也越来越普遍,这是因为短语动同在结构上短小精悍,在词义上一词多义或多词同义,许多短语动词还有修辞的功能,采用它们可以使文章写得生动活泼,词义表达得准确、形象化,并具有比喻的作用.本文强调初学者要了解和掌握更多的短语动词,以利于阅读和写作.

 
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