When a separating body is viewed as a non-equilibrium irreversible thermodynamic process, the full thermodynamic nature of the surface energy induced by crack propagation becomes apparent.

On the basis of study on Muping - Rushan gold and lead-zinc hydrothermal deposits ofEastern Shandong Province, the paper presente a method of setting up a hydrothermal ore-forming reaction system. And following conclusions on geochemical dynamic controlling during the course of hydrothermal minerauzation are drawn: (1)The regional tectonic activities control the concentration of dispersion of elements in the ore - forming process by means of its effect on thermodynamic nature and conditions of the ore-forming reaction system.

Tremendous protential formula of the ideal gas are derived by using the method of quantum statistical mechanics,the thermodynamic nature of ideal gas is studied the classical limits of ideal gas. Quantum statistic results are discussed.

Progogine's dissipation structure theory, this paper probes the idea that the thermodynamic nature of ecological balance is a steady, ordered structure of an ecological system.

Based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics and dissipative structure theory methods, the author discusses and reveals the problems of the formation and stability of the frozen-wall system and its thermodynamic nature, and proposes the thermodynamic entropy models of the system. The result is a great satisfaction.

On the basis of recent hydfothermal experiments and solubility calculation of noble metals, the mechanisms of paragenesis and separation noble metals are studied. It in concluded that the characteristics of siource regions,the nature and active history of hydrothermal solution,the types and thermodynamic nature of complexes,the relative contents of noble metals,and the physicochemical conditions of precipitaticn should be emphasized.

The thermodynamic nature of the massive transformation may be revealed by finding the limiting conditions for the massive mode of growth.

The thermodynamic nature of the threshold has been established, and it is found that the penetration of the organic molecules between the layers involves the formation of an order intercalation phase.

Thermodynamic nature of exponential empirical time dependences of strength characteristics and the failure of materials.

The problem of the existence of a strong stochasticity threshold in the FPU-β model is reconsidered, using suitable microcanonical observables of thermodynamic nature, like the temperature and the specific heat.

The author of the present paper hopes that the thermodynamic nature of biological evolution will be perceived in the nearest future.

First, we cannot but talk in a few words about rheological fracture, because of this subject is generally understood as a self-contradictory one. In fact, Griffith's works just sixty years ago signaled the beginnings of a mechanics of fractcture, he realized and investigated the beginnings of a mechanics of fracture, he realized and investigated the phenomena of rupture and flow in solids. However it must be remembered that rheological mechanics sixty years ago was not well developed. Today from rheological...

First, we cannot but talk in a few words about rheological fracture, because of this subject is generally understood as a self-contradictory one. In fact, Griffith's works just sixty years ago signaled the beginnings of a mechanics of fractcture, he realized and investigated the beginnings of a mechanics of fracture, he realized and investigated the phenomena of rupture and flow in solids. However it must be remembered that rheological mechanics sixty years ago was not well developed. Today from rheological mechanics we know that any material may be caused to flow by varying temperature and force field. If defined as isotropy group of the material at particle Ⅹ, with respect to the reference configuration, then solid is a material whose isotropy group is the orthogonal group and fluid whose isotropy group is the full unimodular group. All continuous deformations form a symmetric group. At rupture, the nature of the group changes. In other words, the change into a state of rupture may be interpreted as an asymptotic phenomenon which imposes a constraint on the invariants of the field tensor. In this new light, flow and rupture are all physical quantities, and any physical quantity has a mathematical background itself. The mathematical background of flow can be in terpreted as a mapping of one topological space into another and of rupture is then the corresponding mapping should become singlar, because of at rupture the macro-element breaks down, and the mo Julus of transformation tends to infinite. Therefore. they are relative, with one another. Rheological fracture is rest upon this mathematical background.The conclusion of our other article is that the fracture is a purely rheological process not influenced by surface energy, but yet the introduction of surface energy into the continuum description of the fracture process forces a major departure from the mechanics appropriate to the non-separation body. We realized that by virtue of this additioncd term however, the possibility of obtaining a corresponding local balance equation directly as a derived consequence of the global balance statement, as is customary in classical continuum mechanics, is lost. They must instead be imposed additional postulates about separating. When a separating body is viewed as a non-equilibrium irreversible thermodynamic process, the full thermodynamic nature of the surface energy induced by crack propagation becomes apparent.Aug mechanical process in a rheological material produees dissipated energy. Thus, in order to properly describe the propagation of a crack it is necessary to consider the rheological solid mechanically as a dissipature type media, and so in the global energy balance law must inclusion the rate-of-energy dissipation term which represent the behavior of rheological materials. According to the character of the surfaces of a propagating crack, the balance equations are material rate equations.Moreover, we have already known from continuum thermodynamics that irreversible processes must be associated with entropy production. Irreversible crack propagation will then, under some conditions, contribute the entropy content to the separationg body, and fracture, in order to be properly viewed, should be viewed as a rhological process with memory.The insights that have been raised here. which not only concerned with thermodynamic first law but second law. require explanation and mathematical argument if rheological fracture is to be given a proper theoretical basis. In this paper, this theoretical basis of rheological fracture is given.We have shown that the thermorheological material with memory can be defined as aviscoelastic material with memory according as thermorheological material response, it only necessary exists certain relation between the time and the temperature history. By virtue of the planestrain crack growth relations can be applied even when the global state of body is one of plane stress, it is only necessary that the failure zone be small enough for the neighborhood of the crack-tip to be in plane strain. Th

Using spectral theory of linear operators, a theory describing the behavior of electromagnetic field caused by propagation of biological energy start from the fundamental principles of theological mechanics is formulated. The field equations inclusive of constitutive equation are established. The equilibrious.biological field and the biological field response are discussed. The thermodynamic nature of the biological field behavior of human body is taken into account. A mathematical general framework within...

Using spectral theory of linear operators, a theory describing the behavior of electromagnetic field caused by propagation of biological energy start from the fundamental principles of theological mechanics is formulated. The field equations inclusive of constitutive equation are established. The equilibrious.biological field and the biological field response are discussed. The thermodynamic nature of the biological field behavior of human body is taken into account. A mathematical general framework within which one could theoretically develop biological field hypothesis of human body is provided.

In this paper, a general form of the plastic constitutive relation is deve- loped based on fundamental laws in thermodynamics by viewing the plastic deformation as an irreversible thermodynamic process and proving the convex- ity and normality rule of the dissipation function in the generalized dissipa- tive force space and generalized dissipative rate space. In addition, the same discussion shows that the Drucker's postulate and Ilyushin's postulate are the direct results of entropy inequality so that the thermodynamic...

In this paper, a general form of the plastic constitutive relation is deve- loped based on fundamental laws in thermodynamics by viewing the plastic deformation as an irreversible thermodynamic process and proving the convex- ity and normality rule of the dissipation function in the generalized dissipa- tive force space and generalized dissipative rate space. In addition, the same discussion shows that the Drucker's postulate and Ilyushin's postulate are the direct results of entropy inequality so that the thermodynamic nature of the two postitutes is demonstrated. It is also shown that the theory of plastic potential can be established from the potential of non-equilibrium state in plasticity, and accor ding to the viewpoint of linear non-equilibrium theory, the flow rule between the theory of plastic potential and the Mises condition can be derived directly from the Onsager's theory. It is seen that itt modern plasticity the fundamental dostulates, the fun- ction of plastic potential, the constitutive equations so derived, as well as the conclusions always follow fundamental ther modynamic laws. Finally, two commonly used energy-variation-based minimum value prin- ciples are proved from the fundamental laws of thermodynamics.