Used in this study are monthly mean temperatures at 10 standard levels from surface to 30 hPa, total ozone and 2 800 MHz solar flux over Antarctic 16 stations in 1962～1993 that are treated by a maximum entropy spectrum method with the aim to uncover the linear trend variation in climate and spectral features at all the levels alongside possible causes discussed for January, April, July and October (as mid season months).

500 hPa temperature (solar flux) has the variability of 0.4℃ (22.1 × 2 800 MHz) per decade in January with the flux displaying salient periods of 3 and 9～10 years for these months;

Solar flux variations at 175 and 304 ? and their relation to solar wind parameters

It is shown that the variations of solar flux in both ranges are similar and demonstrate a high correlation for long data series.

For long periods, the spectra of the full-disk flux at 175 ? and of the solar wind density are close to each other; the same is true for the solar flux spectrum in the 304-? range and the spectrum of the solar wind velocity.

Solar radiation makes the impact of dust even more complicated depending on the solar flux, the dust number density, the photoelectric properties of the dust particles, the dust particle composition, the distribution of the sizes, etc.

Studying air pollution with kitt peak solar flux atlas - analysis method and results of observation

For the needs of researches and predictions of flare activities in the middle-term(101 - 102days), the first thing is that we should establish a suitable form describing flare activities.We have found that the daily flare indices I/ published by NOAA deviate seriously from the normal distribution. Through conversion, we obtained the logarithmic flar indices FL corresponding to the order of magnitude of integral radiant intensity from flaresand found that in this case the normal distribution holds good for FL....

For the needs of researches and predictions of flare activities in the middle-term(101 - 102days), the first thing is that we should establish a suitable form describing flare activities.We have found that the daily flare indices I/ published by NOAA deviate seriously from the normal distribution. Through conversion, we obtained the logarithmic flar indices FL corresponding to the order of magnitude of integral radiant intensity from flaresand found that in this case the normal distribution holds good for FL. Consequently, their mean FL and standard deviation σF in any period of time can perfectly statistically describe the level of flare activity in that period.According to the probability theory, using the random number generator, we deduced the approximate values of FL below the thresholds of reporting, and composed the complete alignment FL(t), which describes the continual changes of solar flare activities.We have calculated FL and σF of every cycle of the solar rotation cycles from 1642 to 1684 and found them to evolve correlatively with the slowly varying component of the Sun (solar flux S0 at 2800 Me). The compound correlation coefficient RF = 0.93, and Rσ = 0.46. On the other hand, the relative regressionresiduals . Evidently, it is difficult to explain and forecast them quantitatively, and we should further explore the law.In addition, we have also found that the correlation coefficint of FL with Sa equals 0.93 and the corresponding regression equation isFL = -0.70 + 0.0155Sa By relying on the forecasts of the mean Sa of the Solar flux at 2800Mc, we cancomparatively accurately forecast the average FL of the logarithmic flare indices,

The purpose of this paper is to deal with the image calculation for a solar tower concentrator system.A theoretical analysis is obtained and image equations for receivers of various shapes are derived.Equations can conveniently be used to solve the calculations of image and effective mirror field and to be the basis of calculation of solar flux density on receiver.

The radio telescope (PEKG 9395) of Beijing Observatory at 3.2 cm began to practice the absolute calibration and daily relative measurement of solar flux density in 1965. A pyramidal horn used as a standard antenna for measuring gain of the paraboloid antenna used in daily calibration was designed. The size of the horn is 36.1 cm ×29.1 cm ×240 cm. As a standard noise power a hot noise source boiling water was developed. The effect temperature that the hot noise source supply is about 373 K. The rms. error...

The radio telescope (PEKG 9395) of Beijing Observatory at 3.2 cm began to practice the absolute calibration and daily relative measurement of solar flux density in 1965. A pyramidal horn used as a standard antenna for measuring gain of the paraboloid antenna used in daily calibration was designed. The size of the horn is 36.1 cm ×29.1 cm ×240 cm. As a standard noise power a hot noise source boiling water was developed. The effect temperature that the hot noise source supply is about 373 K. The rms. error is ±0.24 K.The gain of the paraboloid antenna with diameter of 2m used in daily calibration was obtained by the method to measure the solar emission using the horn antenna and paraboloid antenna in turn. The experiment arrangment is shown in Fig, 2. The experiment was carried out repeatedly in 1965, 1968, 1969, and 1978. The results were consistent and are shown in table 1. T.(h), the distribution of the background noise temperature of the paraboloid antenna directing at zenith and meridian plane, were calibrated by the hot noise source and has been taken as "second noise standard" of daily calibration. The results are shown in table 2, and Fig. 3. The total error is about 3.6% (rms)-8% (max).The mean ratio of the solar flux density in a year between PEKG 9395 and TYKW 9400 (Toyokawa Observatory,Nagaya Univ., Toyokawa, Japan) is different from one unity by a factor of 0.02 (shown in table 3 and Fig. 4). After analysing the data it was found that the annual veriation of the ratio of solar flux density between PEKG 9395 and TYKW 9400 are caused by the annual variation of Ts(h), the distribution of the background noise temperature of the paraboloid antenna, and the correct factor of atmospheric attenuation. The annual variation of the ratio was almost removed by means of modifying the background radiation by measuring daily with a gas discharge noise tube and correcting the atmospheric attenuation (shown in Fig. 5 and Pig. 6).The accidental error of daily calibration make a few progress in late years, but it was found that the accidental error raised as the solar activity increase, because more intense active regions that cause the observed value decreasing and more bursts of GRF, PBI type that cause the observed value increasing appeared in max. Years.Through observation for one and half solar cycle, it is proved that our absolute calibration and daily relative calibration have a fine absolute accuracy and a good stability of short and long term. This method may be used in all centimeter band and long millimeter band.