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contribution
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     In this text,We mainly analyze the main problems existing in the technical institutions’contribution of quality Inspection Department to the development of the local economy,and also raise the countermeasures to such problems.
     本文剖析了质量部门的技术机构在为地方经济发展做贡献中存在的主要问题 ,并提出了相应对策。
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     Comparing the result of the trays , then the construction parameters’ contribution to the performance of the tray in the same operation condition was obtained, which have a reference role for design tray for different system.
     同时对两套塔板的实验结果进行比较,得出了在相同的操作条件下塔板各结构参数对实验结果影响大小,对于以后在对不同物系时的塔板的设计具有参考作用。
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     Simulation for these loop filters shows resistors’ contribution to phase noise.
     用仿真手段对这两种不同的环路滤波器进行了仿真,清楚地表明了电阻对相位噪声的影响。
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     It begins with the development of schema theory, with a detailed analysis of Bartlett, Piaget and other related researchers’ contribution to the theory.
     首先,论文阐述了图式理论的发展和巴特利特、皮亚杰等相关研究者对图式理论的贡献。
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     The following five aspects are discussed in the third chapter---the shareholders’ liability and venture of non-formed property contribution: the quality of liability of shareholders’ contribution is first discussed, which provides theory with analysis of the forms and contents of the shareholders’ liability and venture of non-formed property contribution.
     第三章“股东无形财产出资责任及风险承担”阐述了五个问题:首先论述的是股东出资责任的性质,这为分析股东无形财产出资责任的责任形式和内容作了基础理论的铺垫;
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     On this basis we empirically tested the relation between household characteristics and household income, and the main household characteristics’contribution rate to household income. And then we found that various aspects of the household characteristics will have impacted on household income, and poor farmers’internal factors are important reasons for their poverty.
     在此基础上,通过对各种家户特征与家庭收入的关系,以及主要家户特征对收入的贡献率的实证分析,发现家户特征的各个方面都会对家庭收入产生影响,贫困农户的自身内部因素是导致贫困的重要原因。
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     The Contribution of Qingbao
     清宝的投稿
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     Contribution and Loyalty
     奉献和忠诚——记山西省运城市世行扶贫项目办公室主任、国际金融组织贷款管理局局长刘峰
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Many methods of analyzing statically indeterminate structures are now available. The method of redundant forces and that of deformations (i. e. the slope-deflection method), heretofore generally used in the U. S. S. R., both require the solution of a system of simultaneous simple equations. In the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents, the large number of such equations would greatly complicate the calculation work, it being both time-consuming and liable to make mistakes. The method of moment distribution...

Many methods of analyzing statically indeterminate structures are now available. The method of redundant forces and that of deformations (i. e. the slope-deflection method), heretofore generally used in the U. S. S. R., both require the solution of a system of simultaneous simple equations. In the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents, the large number of such equations would greatly complicate the calculation work, it being both time-consuming and liable to make mistakes. The method of moment distribution simplifies calculations to a great extent, as there is no need to solve simultaneous equations, and therefore it has been warmly received bY practical engineers. Many soviet scholars are also devoted to its study. There are, however, defects in this method, namely: (1) Should the moments obtained in the successive cycles of distribution and carrying-over prove to converge very slowly, twenty or more such cycles must be done if fairly accurate results are expected.(2) In the case of analyzing structures under various conditions of loading, while it is possible to find the influence moments by applying a unit moment at each joint as proposed by Prof. Hardy Cross, it would bequite laborious in the case of multi-storey and multi-bay bents containing a large number of members, especially when subjected to unsymmetrical loadings.For the remedy of the first defect, such Chinese scholars as Profs. Lin Tung Yen, Chao Tsu Wu, Meng Chao Li and Tsai Fang Yin have made much contribution, and the author of this paper has recently written a discussion on the two papers of the last-mentioned scholar. For the remedy of the second defect, the author is unaware of any except that mentioned below.One of the soviet scholars, Dr. P. P. Shaggin (i.e.) has suggested important improvements with regard to both these defects. For the former, he adopted a method of single-cycle distribution; and for the latter, he invented the method of successive conjugation which greatly reduces the work of calculation in finding the influence moments. The essence of these methods is well-worth studying on the part of our Chinese engineers. After an intensive study, the author of this paper thinks that, while Dr. Shaggin's methods are quite correct in principle, his methods of calculation can still be somewhat improved, as described herein, so as to be made more easily applied in practice.This paper Shaggin based upon the book, (Calculation of Multi-storey Frames by the Method of Successive Conjugation) published in 1954 by Dr. P. P. Shaggin in Leningrad, U. S. S. R., shows that, in applying a unit moment at each joint of a given statically indeterminate structure, one can easily find the influence moments at the ends of all the members, and that, after multiplying the unbalanced fixed-end moments at each joint calculated in accordance with the given external loads, by the respective influence moments, the sum of such products added to the original fixed-end moments will give at once the actual moments at each end of the members in the structure.Three notable improvements are indicated in this paper:(1) Dr. Shaggin's formula (5") on page 11 of his book, has been altered to formulas (3) in this paper. (2) For multi-storey bents, Dr. Shaggin's method of finding the conjugate moments (i. e. the influence moments) by formulas is replaced by the usual method of simple moment-distribution.(3) The author of the paper has extended the method to the analysis of multi-storey and multi-bay bents under any system of unsymmetrical loading.Of course, for structures under a single system of loading, influence moments need not be found and, generally speaking, it would be more convenient to apply the original method of moment-distribution; for a multi-storey bent, it would be better, even in this case, to modify it by applying the method of successive conjugation.The author is of the opinion that the application of the methods described in this paper, being convenient and time-saving, would be useful to the practical engineers.

本文以蘇聯學者沙金博士最近出版之“用逐次互聯法計算多層排架”一書为依據,叙述在已知超靜定結構中每一結點,施以單位力矩,可以很容易地求得各桿端的影響力矩;然後依照其所受外力荷載,求得各結点處的定端力矩,分別乘以相當的影響力矩,相加之後並加以原有的定端力矩,即得各該桿端的實際力矩。若結構承受多種多样的荷載(不問其為豎向的或平向的、對稱的或不對稱的),用此篇所述之方法以推算各桿端力矩,著者認為最便利、最省時,並且適合實際工作者之需要。

Sommaire.—On rappelle tout d'abord les principaux travaux effectués en photométrie des galaxies depuis une trentaine d'années: méthodes de la chambre à courte distance locale, de la Schraffier-Kassette, photoélectrique et du profil photométrique. On applique ensuite la méthode du cercle oculaire de Ch. Fabry à la détermination des magnitudes globales de 175 galaxies et à l'établissement d'une séquence photométrique de 40 nébuleuses groupées dans l'amas Virgo, de magnitude 9, 2 à 13,2. Les mesures faites avec...

Sommaire.—On rappelle tout d'abord les principaux travaux effectués en photométrie des galaxies depuis une trentaine d'années: méthodes de la chambre à courte distance locale, de la Schraffier-Kassette, photoélectrique et du profil photométrique. On applique ensuite la méthode du cercle oculaire de Ch. Fabry à la détermination des magnitudes globales de 175 galaxies et à l'établissement d'une séquence photométrique de 40 nébuleuses groupées dans l'amas Virgo, de magnitude 9, 2 à 13,2. Les mesures faites avec des diaphragmes d'ouvertures croissantes ont permis de mettre en évidence la contribution des régions périphériques et d'atteindre les magnitudes totales. Il ressort des comparaison des mesures "Fabry" aux résultats donnés par les diverses autres méthodes que: a) La méthode de la chambre à court foyer (Harvard, Lund) conduit à des résultats à la fois imprécis et entachés d'erreur systématique. b) La méthode extrafocale est également entachée d'erreur systématique. c) Les mesures photoélectriques et les magnitudes déduites des profils photométriques sont par contre en très bon accord avec les n()tres. Pour 64 galaxies résolues, la magnitude absolue M est bien représentée par une courbe de Gauss avec fréquence maxima à M=-15, ce qui conduit à doubler l'éclat moyen et par suite la masse moyenne des galaxies d'où un accroissement appréciable de la densité ρ de l'espace. La méthode de Fabry étant beaucoup trop lente pour l'étude de milliers de galaxies, on a cherché s'il serait possible d'obtenir rapidement leurs magnitudes en les comparant aux galaxies de la séquence Virgo. On a vérifié que cette méthode donnait des résultats corrects avec une précision suffisante pour les travaux de statistique: écarts moyens de l'ordre de ±0,2 magnitude.

本文先敘述三十年來关于河外星系光度方面做過的主要的工作:短焦距照相法,移盒法(Schraffier-Kassette),光電法与谱線轮廓光度法。跟着再提出我们所用的法布里(Ch.Fabry)的圓形目鏡法,和用这个方法测定的175个河外星系的总星等,并由此對於室女座星系圈內,由9.2至13.2星等的40个星系,建立了一个光度序(Séquence photomérique)。使用開孔逐漸增大的光(?)所作的测量,可以綜合周界区的光度,以求星系的总星等。由法布里方法的测量和由别的方法测得的結果比较,表现以下几个事实: a)短焦距照相法(Harvard,Lund)所得的结果,既不精確,又混有系统差在内。 b)焦外照相法也有系统差。 c)光电测量的结果和由轮廓光度導出的星等同我們的测量非常相合。对于64个可以分解的星系,绝對星等M很好发为高斯曲線所代表,其最大频率值在M=-15,由此结果,我們须將河外星系的平均亮度加倍,因此平均质量亦須加倍,于是空间的密度ρ有显著的增加。使用法布里的方法以研究数以千萬計的河外星系,過於缓慢,我們曾经研究過把它们和室女座內星系的光度序比较,是不是可以快速地得着它們的星等。结果证明由这方法...

本文先敘述三十年來关于河外星系光度方面做過的主要的工作:短焦距照相法,移盒法(Schraffier-Kassette),光電法与谱線轮廓光度法。跟着再提出我们所用的法布里(Ch.Fabry)的圓形目鏡法,和用这个方法测定的175个河外星系的总星等,并由此對於室女座星系圈內,由9.2至13.2星等的40个星系,建立了一个光度序(Séquence photomérique)。使用開孔逐漸增大的光(?)所作的测量,可以綜合周界区的光度,以求星系的总星等。由法布里方法的测量和由别的方法测得的結果比较,表现以下几个事实: a)短焦距照相法(Harvard,Lund)所得的结果,既不精確,又混有系统差在内。 b)焦外照相法也有系统差。 c)光电测量的结果和由轮廓光度導出的星等同我們的测量非常相合。对于64个可以分解的星系,绝對星等M很好发为高斯曲線所代表,其最大频率值在M=-15,由此结果,我們须將河外星系的平均亮度加倍,因此平均质量亦須加倍,于是空间的密度ρ有显著的增加。使用法布里的方法以研究数以千萬計的河外星系,過於缓慢,我們曾经研究過把它们和室女座內星系的光度序比较,是不是可以快速地得着它們的星等。结果证明由这方法所得的结果是正确的,精确度可以滿足统计工作的需要:平均差的数量级約為±0.2星等。

The main difficulty of the one-electron theory of optical activity lies in the calculation of the so-called vicinal actions. This may be overcome, as suggested in the present investiga- tion by assuming that the vicinal actions are due to the interactions of various chemical bonds in the molecule with the chromophoric electron. For the calculation of these interactions the charge distribution of a single covalent bond is assumed to consist of two nuclei, each of unit positive charge, separated by the bond distance...

The main difficulty of the one-electron theory of optical activity lies in the calculation of the so-called vicinal actions. This may be overcome, as suggested in the present investiga- tion by assuming that the vicinal actions are due to the interactions of various chemical bonds in the molecule with the chromophoric electron. For the calculation of these interactions the charge distribution of a single covalent bond is assumed to consist of two nuclei, each of unit positive charge, separated by the bond distance and two electrons with opposite spins and a spherically symmetrical orbital eigenfunction represented by (?) where r is the distance measured from a certain point on the bond axis and near the center of the bond. The location of this point is so determined that the model will give the proper dipole moment of the bond. The exponent α, which determines the extent of diffusivity of the electron cloud, is obtained by an approximate variational treatment. The quadruple moment of this model, calculated for the C-H bond, agrees very well with that estimated by Lassettre and Dean from a study of the potential barrier hindering the internal rotation of the ethane molecule. To test the theory and also to illustrate the procedure which is followed in calculating optical rotations using the new model of vicinal actions, the optical rotations of several methyl derivatives of cyclopentanone have been calculated and the following conclusions have been reached: (1) The proposed model gives rise to optical rotations in agreement with the observed values. (2) The effect of the internal rotation of the methyl group on the molecular rotation [M]_D of 3-methylcyclopentanone is large, [M]_D being +44° and -130° for the cis- trans-conformations, respectively. (3) The observed [M]_D may be regarded as composed of two parts, namely, the contribution from the multipole terms and that from the orbital overlapping. The latter corresponds to the "incomplete screening of atomic nuclei", and has been regarded as the most important vicinal action in earlier calculations. In the present work, it is shown, however, that this effect contributes only a few percent of the total [M]_D, unless the perturbing group is very near to the chromophoric group as it is in the case of 2-methyl- cyclopentanone. The failure of the previous calculations is, therefore, due mainly to the omission of the multipole (especially the quadrupole) terms. (4) The absolute configuration of 3-methylcyclopentanone, indicated by the present calculation, is the opposite of the one suggested by Eyring, since he based on the overlapping contribution alone, which bears a sign opposite to that of the total [M]_D (5) That the observed [M]_D of 2,4,5,5-tetramethylcyclopentanone is considerably smaller than that of 2,4-dimethylcyclopentanone may be due to one or both of the following possibilities: (a) that the conformation of the 2- and 4-methyl groups slightly deviates from the trans-position in the tetra-methyl compound, due to the presence of the two additional methyl groups; (b) that the two additional methyl groups in 5,5-positions are not exactly symmetrical with respect to the ring so that they make contributions to [M]_D.

本文在量子力學的單電子旋光理論的鄰近作用問題上,作了如下的貢獻: 1.指出旋光度應由分子中各化學鍵,而不是分子中各原子(如像前人所假定的)對於生色團電子的微擾作用來計算,兩者的主要不同點在於是否考慮鍵的多極矩。 2.建議在旋光度的計算中,共價單鍵可以看作是由兩個處於鍵端的正電荷和一個以單中心狀態函數,表示出來的電子雲所組成。根據這個假定計算了環戊酮的甲基衍生物的旋光度,其結果與實驗值甚爲一致(詳見結果討論)。 3.計算結果證明甲基的內旋轉對於旋光度的影響很大,例如順式和反式構型的3-甲基環戊酮的旋光度,應分別為+44°和-30°。 4.指定了3-甲基環戊酮的絕對構型,其結果Eyring所指定者相反。

 
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