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extent of
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     INfCUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON SPONTANEOUS EXTENT OF CHEMICAL REACTION
     温度对化学反应自发程度的影响
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     STUDY ON THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SYSTOLIC TIME INTERVALS AND DEGREE OR EXTENT OF CORONARY STENOSIS
     心脏收缩时间间期与冠状动脉狭窄程度或范围的相关性研究
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     RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SILENT MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA AND EXTENT OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
     冠心病无症状性心肌缺血与冠状动脉病变程度的关系
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     A Model for Comprehensive Assessing the Aging Damage Extent of Irrigation Project
     灌区工程老化损坏程度综合评判模型
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     A study on the relationship between serum lipoprotein (a) and the extent of coronary stenosis
     脂蛋白(a)与冠状动脉狭窄程度的关系
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     Method of Calculation of Extent of Solid Particles Reaction with Fluid in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor
     连续多级串联完全混合槽中固体颗粒反应产率计算方法
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     Clinical Studies of Relationship between Prognosis and Extent of Myocardial Infarct—Study on Measurement of Extent of infarct(Ⅲ)
     急性心肌梗塞范围与预后关系的临床研究(心肌梗塞范围计算的研究Ⅲ)
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     On the Extent of Reaction
     化学反应进度
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     A PRELIMINARY REASEACH ON QUANTIFICATION AND DECISION ANALYSIS FOR THE EXTENT OF DIFFICULTY OF MATHEMATICS TEXTBOOK IN MIDDLE SCHOOL
     关于中学数学教材难度问题的定量化与决策分析初探
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     Discussion on the Sequence and Extent of Changes of Natural Environment in the Eastern Qinghai Plateau During the Past 30,000 Years
     青海高原东部三万年来自然环境变迁的序列与幅度探讨
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     On the Extent of Reaction
     化学反应进度
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     ⑶Combined extent.
     ⑶合并范围的各国差异。
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     the prevalence and extent of Wushu;
     武术普及推广问题 ;
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     How about its extent?
     影响的程度怎样?
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Discriminant analysis of the molecular properties of 17 nitrogen mustard agents designed in this work determined the extent of dissimilarity among members of this group.
      
Stand Factors and Risk Analysis of Harm Extent of Gypsy Moths
      
Twelve stand factors affecting the harm extent of Gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar) were studied.
      
The results showed that there exists a positive correlation between soil infertility extent and the harm extent of Gypsy moths and a significant negative correlation between the other two key factors and the harm extent of this insect.
      
Using the three key factors, a multivariate linear regression model was established by which the authors made a risk analysis of the harm extent of Gypsy moths.
      
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The extent of coprecipitation of copper with ferric hydroxide in the am- monium chloride-ammonia process has been studied. Pentavalent arsenic and antimony may be present up to 10 mg, and phosphate, 50 mg. Aluminum exerts little effect. It is found that this method yields satisfactory results. The amount of copper coprecipitated in the ferric hydroxide precipitate is negligible in practical analysis.

用氫氧化銨及氯化銨以分離銅與鐵,結果很好。氫氧化鐵中所留銅量,在實用分析上,已少至毋須考慮。用此法自多量鐵中分離少量銅份,可直接用此色法测定。五價砷與銻存在時,如不超過10毫克,或磷酸根不超過50毫克時,不影響銅與鐵的分離。鋁對分離更無影響。

The main difficulty of the one-electron theory of optical activity lies in the calculation of the so-called vicinal actions. This may be overcome, as suggested in the present investiga- tion by assuming that the vicinal actions are due to the interactions of various chemical bonds in the molecule with the chromophoric electron. For the calculation of these interactions the charge distribution of a single covalent bond is assumed to consist of two nuclei, each of unit positive charge, separated by the bond distance...

The main difficulty of the one-electron theory of optical activity lies in the calculation of the so-called vicinal actions. This may be overcome, as suggested in the present investiga- tion by assuming that the vicinal actions are due to the interactions of various chemical bonds in the molecule with the chromophoric electron. For the calculation of these interactions the charge distribution of a single covalent bond is assumed to consist of two nuclei, each of unit positive charge, separated by the bond distance and two electrons with opposite spins and a spherically symmetrical orbital eigenfunction represented by (?) where r is the distance measured from a certain point on the bond axis and near the center of the bond. The location of this point is so determined that the model will give the proper dipole moment of the bond. The exponent α, which determines the extent of diffusivity of the electron cloud, is obtained by an approximate variational treatment. The quadruple moment of this model, calculated for the C-H bond, agrees very well with that estimated by Lassettre and Dean from a study of the potential barrier hindering the internal rotation of the ethane molecule. To test the theory and also to illustrate the procedure which is followed in calculating optical rotations using the new model of vicinal actions, the optical rotations of several methyl derivatives of cyclopentanone have been calculated and the following conclusions have been reached: (1) The proposed model gives rise to optical rotations in agreement with the observed values. (2) The effect of the internal rotation of the methyl group on the molecular rotation [M]_D of 3-methylcyclopentanone is large, [M]_D being +44° and -130° for the cis- trans-conformations, respectively. (3) The observed [M]_D may be regarded as composed of two parts, namely, the contribution from the multipole terms and that from the orbital overlapping. The latter corresponds to the "incomplete screening of atomic nuclei", and has been regarded as the most important vicinal action in earlier calculations. In the present work, it is shown, however, that this effect contributes only a few percent of the total [M]_D, unless the perturbing group is very near to the chromophoric group as it is in the case of 2-methyl- cyclopentanone. The failure of the previous calculations is, therefore, due mainly to the omission of the multipole (especially the quadrupole) terms. (4) The absolute configuration of 3-methylcyclopentanone, indicated by the present calculation, is the opposite of the one suggested by Eyring, since he based on the overlapping contribution alone, which bears a sign opposite to that of the total [M]_D (5) That the observed [M]_D of 2,4,5,5-tetramethylcyclopentanone is considerably smaller than that of 2,4-dimethylcyclopentanone may be due to one or both of the following possibilities: (a) that the conformation of the 2- and 4-methyl groups slightly deviates from the trans-position in the tetra-methyl compound, due to the presence of the two additional methyl groups; (b) that the two additional methyl groups in 5,5-positions are not exactly symmetrical with respect to the ring so that they make contributions to [M]_D.

本文在量子力學的單電子旋光理論的鄰近作用問題上,作了如下的貢獻: 1.指出旋光度應由分子中各化學鍵,而不是分子中各原子(如像前人所假定的)對於生色團電子的微擾作用來計算,兩者的主要不同點在於是否考慮鍵的多極矩。 2.建議在旋光度的計算中,共價單鍵可以看作是由兩個處於鍵端的正電荷和一個以單中心狀態函數,表示出來的電子雲所組成。根據這個假定計算了環戊酮的甲基衍生物的旋光度,其結果與實驗值甚爲一致(詳見結果討論)。 3.計算結果證明甲基的內旋轉對於旋光度的影響很大,例如順式和反式構型的3-甲基環戊酮的旋光度,應分別為+44°和-30°。 4.指定了3-甲基環戊酮的絕對構型,其結果Eyring所指定者相反。

The kinetics of the condensation reaction of o-toluidine and p-nitro-sophenol to produce o-methyl-indoaniline, and the quantitative determina-tion of the latter have been studied photometrically. Attempt to determine the product by first converting it to its leuco form with excess reducing agent (SnCl2, Vitamine C) has been proved unsatisfactory, because the extent of excess of the reducing agent will notably affect the analytical results. It has been found from photometric data that the o-methyl-indoaniline...

The kinetics of the condensation reaction of o-toluidine and p-nitro-sophenol to produce o-methyl-indoaniline, and the quantitative determina-tion of the latter have been studied photometrically. Attempt to determine the product by first converting it to its leuco form with excess reducing agent (SnCl2, Vitamine C) has been proved unsatisfactory, because the extent of excess of the reducing agent will notably affect the analytical results. It has been found from photometric data that the o-methyl-indoaniline itself is very stable in a solution of about 82% H2S04. If enough sulphuric acid of proper strength has been used to dilute the sample of reaction mass so as to stop the reaction almost instantaneously and completely, then the quantity of indoaniline present will not change with time.

对于制造硫化蓝染料的中间体,磷-甲基靛苯胺Ⅰ的合成过程,研究了应用光度计的控制方法.经确定试样以多量82%硫酸稀释后,反应实际上立刻停止进行,而Ⅰ在82%的硫酸中又非常稳定.随后测定了Ⅰ在82%硫酸溶液中对波长574和428毫微米的克分子消光系数分别为2.44×10~4和2.27×10~3(公升-克分子~(-1)-厘米~(-1)),而对亚硝基苯酚的则分别为0和5.40×10~3;并证明可以利用光度计法来分析两者在混合溶液中的各别含量.应用本法测定的反应速率常数与文献上发表过的数字相符,因此肯定在控制Ⅰ的合成过程上就用光度计法的可靠性.试用本法观察实际生产情况的结果,发现靛苯胺在反应混合物中的存在量往往随着反应时间而上升至一个最高值,接着再下降.由此推测,采用本法来控制生产是具有实际意义的.

 
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