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plasma
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  “plasma”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Trichosathin Interacts with Ribosomal Protein L10a and Plasma Membrane Proteins
    天花粉蛋白与核糖体蛋白L10a及细胞质膜蛋白的结合研究
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    THE EFFECTS OF LOW DOSE ~(60)Co γ-RAY ON THE PLASMA MEMBRANE OF HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES
    低剂量~(60)Coγ线照射对人淋巴细胞质膜的效应
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    EFFECT OF S38,A HEPARIN WITH LOW ANTICOAGULANT POTENCY ON RAT PLASMA LIPID LEVELS AND ITS MECHANISM
    低抗凝效价肝素S_(38)对大鼠血脂的调整作用及机理
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    RESEARCH ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF TRACE ELEMENT CHROMIUM TO ATHEROSCLEROSIS——Ⅱ.THE EFFECTS OF Cr~(3+) ON PLASMA LCAT AND TISSUE LPL AND HEL IN RATS WITH HYPERLIPIDEMIA
    微量元素(Cr~(3+))与动脉粥样硬化关系的研究——Ⅱ.Cr~(3+)对高脂血症大鼠几种脂质代谢关键酶的影响
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    Study on Serum Lipid Peroxides of Patients with Cerebral Trauma and Acute Hepatitis A——Lipid Peroxide in Plasma and Reye Syndrome
    脑损伤和急性肝炎病人血清过氧化脂质的研究—血清过氧化脂质与Reye综合征(英文)
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  plasma
The α-isomer exhibited rapid and significantly higher peak plasma concentrations in all the species post intramuscular administrations, while β-isomer showed prolonged plasma levels.
      
These derivatives exhibited in vitro stability in buffers of pH 2.0 and 7.4 for 6 h and were readily hydrolyzed by human plasma esterases to liberate the parent drug.
      
In the diabetic group, serum VEGF appeared to be positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, LDL, creatinin and microalbuminuria.
      
A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established for the determination of concentration of 5-FU-1-acetic acid in the gastrointestinal contents and plasma of rats.
      
The feeding-sample system used by microwave plasma torch atomic emission spectroscopy (MPT-AES) is the pneumatic nebulization system; its efficiency, however, is not good.
      
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A method is proposed for the determination of anthraquinone derivatives in whole blood, plasma, urine, faeces and various organs or tissues. The anthraquinone derivatives in the sample is first extracted with alcohol-ether mixture and hydrolysed with acid. The free anthraquinone derivatives are then extracted successively with chloroform and alkalie. The alkaline solution is acidified and again extracted with chloroform. Evaporate the chloroform to dryness. Dissolve the residue with methyl alcohol. Add...

A method is proposed for the determination of anthraquinone derivatives in whole blood, plasma, urine, faeces and various organs or tissues. The anthraquinone derivatives in the sample is first extracted with alcohol-ether mixture and hydrolysed with acid. The free anthraquinone derivatives are then extracted successively with chloroform and alkalie. The alkaline solution is acidified and again extracted with chloroform. Evaporate the chloroform to dryness. Dissolve the residue with methyl alcohol. Add Mgacetate reagent to give a pink colour which is determined colorimetrically. The recovery of this method is practically complete. The anthraquinone derivatives are equally distributed between the plasma and red cells.

本文初步报导了体液和組織中大黄蒽醌衍生物的簡便測定法.一般平均回收率为98—101%,唯粪中回收率稍低,为95—98%,检出限量为5微克.实驗也証明了蒽醌衍生物在血浆和血球中的分布相等.

The antifertility effect of gossypol was discovered and confirmed by Chinese Scientific workers during therecent years through experiments onanimals and clinical studies.However,It's toxicity to animals and the develop-ment of side effects in some of thesubjects following gossypol administra-tion have also been reported.In orderto analyze the cause and effect rela-tionship between the toxicity and thenature of metabolism of gossypol,wehave conducted experiments designedto obtain information concerning themetabolic...

The antifertility effect of gossypol was discovered and confirmed by Chinese Scientific workers during therecent years through experiments onanimals and clinical studies.However,It's toxicity to animals and the develop-ment of side effects in some of thesubjects following gossypol administra-tion have also been reported.In orderto analyze the cause and effect rela-tionship between the toxicity and thenature of metabolism of gossypol,wehave conducted experiments designedto obtain information concerning themetabolic fate of gossypol in rats fol-lowing the oral administration of ~(14)C-gossypol acetic acid.Wistar male rats selected for uniformity of weight (105—200g body weight) were placed in individual metaboliccages that were designed to controlexperimental conditions.A single oraldose (94μci/35mg) of radioactive gos-sypol (sp.act.2.665μci/mg) was givento each rat in one group of experi-ments,and in another group the ratswere given labeled gossypol at thedosage of 4.5μci/5mg/day for 2—3 weeksconsecutively.The rats were anesthetized and frozen in acetone cooled to-78℃ with dry ice after varying intervals of time.Whole body andmicro-autoradiography of various or-gan tissues were performed according tothe methods described elsewhere.Ob-servations on the absorption,distribu-tion,accumulation and elimination of~(14)C-gossypol in the rat body as wellas cytopathological examination on theH.E.stained histological sections werecarried out.(1) The whole-body autoradio-graphs demonstrated that the radioac-tivity was located mainly over thegastro-intestinal tract and liver,andthe contents of different parts of the alimentary canal had the highest acti-vity 1-2 days following a single oraldose of ~(14)C-labeled gossypol.At thefourth day,there was a general increasein the activity in all tissues,and theradioactivity in the main visceral organswere rapidly reached to their highestlevel by the 9th day.Strong accumu-lation could be observed in the liver,spleen,kidney,adrenal,pancreas,mu-scle,lymph node,thymus,pitutary,testis and salivary gland in the 9th day autoradiograph.14 days after the administration,the radioactivity in alltissues and organs were markedly de-creased,Only in bones and lymphnodes still contained high activities.Most of the tissues had no detectableor having very low activity 19 daysafter the oral dosing,indicated that nolong term accumulation of gossypolretained in the visceras.(2) The pattern of absorption anddistribution of radioactivity in the bodyof rats that on continuous administra-tion of ~(14)C-gossypol (4.5μci/5mg/day)was basically similar to the rats thatreceived a single oral dose.In both dosage cases,the alimentary canaland liver had the highest activity,followed by the spleen,lymph nodes,heart,kidney,adrenal,bone marrow,salivary gland,thymus,muscle,testis,epididymis,accessory sex glands,pan-creas,lung and urinary bladder inwhich decreased their radioactivitiesin order.Gossypol was usually unde-tectable in the brain and spinal cordor having the lowest activity only,evidently there was blood-brain barrier that protected the brain against passage of gossypol.(3) The organs concerned withelimination of gossypol,spleen,lymphnode,thymus,bone marrow as well asthe reticulo-endothelial cells of variousvisceral organs (i.e.Kupffer cells ofliver,dust and septal cells of lung,lymphocytes,plasma cells and macro-phages in different tissues) showed highconcentrations of radioactivity,sugges-ted that the reticulo-endothelial systemmight play a part in the detoxicationof gossypol in the body.(4) Cytological examination reve-aled that,with the exception of thetestis,no pathological changes weredetectable in the organs and tissuessuch as liver,spleen,heart,kidney,lung,pancreas and bone marrow.Thefact that the testis is the only organthat is damaged at low dosage of gos-sypol and that the radioactivity in thetestis is lower than that in the aboveorgans indicates that the selective orhigher susceptibility of the testis togossypol is not due to concentration ofgossypol in the testis,but to a highervulnerabilit sensitivity of the testis to the drug. (5) The results revealed that there was rather high radioactivity in the endocrine organs concerned with re- production and water and salts metabo- lism (i.e.adrenal gland,pituitary andthe Leydig cells of interstitial tissuesof testis),and a significant but lowamounts of radioactivity in the nucleiof hypothalamus as well as the medianeminence,suggests the possibility thatgossypol might effect in some degreeon the above endocrine hormone secre-tions and on the autonomic nervouscenter as well.(6) The possible cause and effectcorrelation between the clinical sym-ptoms (i.e.The transient weakness,SGPT and ECG changes,hypokalemicand thirsty etc.) and gossypol adminis-tration in connection with the distribu-tion of ~(14)C-gossypol in high amountsin the corresponding tissues and organssuch as skeletal muscle,liver,heart,kidney and salivary gland in this reportwas discussed.

以~(14)C 标记的醋酸棉酚喂饲成年雄性大鼠,一次口服组的剂量为94微居里/35毫克;累加服药组为4.5微居里/日。分别于服药后不同时期取材制成整体或组织放射自显片。追踪标记棉酚在体内各脏器和组织中的吸收,分布和累积的定位变化动态。相应的组织切片用H、E 染色,作细胞病理学观察。结果摘述如下:1.一次口服标记棉酚后1—2天,标记物主要分布于胃、肠道和肝脏中。4—9天后,心、脾、肺、肾、胰、睾丸、附睾、附属性腺、肾上腺、垂体、胸腺、唾腺、骨髓、淋巴结和肌肉等脏器组织中的活性均迅速达到各自的高峰水平。以后标记物逐渐扩布至全身。14天后,活性明显下降。19天后,活性已不易追踪。未见有长期定位的累积现象。累加服药组的吸收和分布状态与一次服药组基本相同。2.定位于各脏器组织中的标记物活性强度以消化道为最高,其次为肝脏。以下的大体顺序为:脾、淋巴结>心、肾、垂体、肾上腺、骨髓>唾腺、胸腺、肌肉、睾丸、附睾、附属性腺、胰、肺>血液> 膀胱>脑及骨髓。骨质在后期活性略有升高。脑和脊髓的活性反应微弱,可能与血脑屏障的保护性作用有关。3.脾脏、淋巴结、胸腺、骨髓和各脏器中的网状内皮系细胞(枯否氏细胞、尘细胞、淋巴细胞、浆细胞、...

以~(14)C 标记的醋酸棉酚喂饲成年雄性大鼠,一次口服组的剂量为94微居里/35毫克;累加服药组为4.5微居里/日。分别于服药后不同时期取材制成整体或组织放射自显片。追踪标记棉酚在体内各脏器和组织中的吸收,分布和累积的定位变化动态。相应的组织切片用H、E 染色,作细胞病理学观察。结果摘述如下:1.一次口服标记棉酚后1—2天,标记物主要分布于胃、肠道和肝脏中。4—9天后,心、脾、肺、肾、胰、睾丸、附睾、附属性腺、肾上腺、垂体、胸腺、唾腺、骨髓、淋巴结和肌肉等脏器组织中的活性均迅速达到各自的高峰水平。以后标记物逐渐扩布至全身。14天后,活性明显下降。19天后,活性已不易追踪。未见有长期定位的累积现象。累加服药组的吸收和分布状态与一次服药组基本相同。2.定位于各脏器组织中的标记物活性强度以消化道为最高,其次为肝脏。以下的大体顺序为:脾、淋巴结>心、肾、垂体、肾上腺、骨髓>唾腺、胸腺、肌肉、睾丸、附睾、附属性腺、胰、肺>血液> 膀胱>脑及骨髓。骨质在后期活性略有升高。脑和脊髓的活性反应微弱,可能与血脑屏障的保护性作用有关。3.脾脏、淋巴结、胸腺、骨髓和各脏器中的网状内皮系细胞(枯否氏细胞、尘细胞、淋巴细胞、浆细胞、巨噬细胞等)均呈现高强度的放射活性。表明网状内皮系统可能参与清除棉酚的解毒过程。4.实验中出现较高活性分布的心、肝、脾、肾、肺、胰、骨髓等主要脏器组织均未见有细胞病理改变,而处于中等活性水平的睾丸曲细精管则出现明显的细胞损伤。表明生精上皮细胞对棉酚的敏感性较其他脏器组织为高。毒性反应与剂量水平在一定范围内似无正比相关,而与细胞的敏感性和耐受性的高低则有密切关系。5.与生殖及水盐代谢有关的内分泌腺:肾上腺、垂体和睾丸间质细胞均有较高的放射活性。丘脑下部有关核团及正中隆突亦有微弱的活性定位。提示了棉酚在某种条件下对上述内分泌激素分泌及植物性神经中枢产生影响的可能性。6.本报导联系临床上出现的口干、乏力及过渡性肝功能和心电图异常等毒性症状与相应脏器(唾腺、肌肉、肝及心脏)中标记棉酚活性分布的状态及其间的可能相关予以讨论。

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of gossypol on the distribu tion kinetics and excretions of ~(42)K in rats by using autoradiographic and quantitative measurement techniques. After oral administration of gossypol to male rats at a dosage of 5~10 mg/day for 4~17 weeks, the animals were subjected to an intravenous(via vena sublingualis) injection of a dose of ~(42)K proportional to their body weight, and then one group of animals were anaesthetized and frozen in acetone cooled to -78℃ with...

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of gossypol on the distribu tion kinetics and excretions of ~(42)K in rats by using autoradiographic and quantitative measurement techniques. After oral administration of gossypol to male rats at a dosage of 5~10 mg/day for 4~17 weeks, the animals were subjected to an intravenous(via vena sublingualis) injection of a dose of ~(42)K proportional to their body weight, and then one group of animals were anaesthetized and frozen in acetone cooled to -78℃ with dry ice at varying time intervals after injection for whole-body and micro-autoradiographical observation; and another group the animals were killed at the same time intervals with samples of blood and tissues removed for analysis. It was found that the viscera take up ~(42)K rapidly after injection, among them the kidney, heart, spleen, pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract appeared to be the earliest to reach their peak levels of radioactivity with their rapid uptake rates, next followed by cartilage, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, Lung, skin and testis the erythrocytes and brain tissues were took up most slowly. The plasma specific radioactivity decreased at about 30 minutes following injection to a level lower than that of the heart kidney and skeletal muscle, and thereafter maintained in a state of relative equilibrium. The pattern of distribution, kinetics and the uptake rates of ~(42)K radioactivity in viscera and blood of gossypol treated rats did not differ significantly from that of the controls. However, a tendency of somewhat higher excretion rates of urine ~(42)K in the gossypol treated rats was evident, among them a very small proportion of animals were found to be with loner ~(42)K activity in viscera and plasma concomitant with a higher rate of urine ~(42)K excretion. This phenomenon suggested the possibility that gossypol might induce renal potassium depletion. The effect of gossypol on potassium metabolism and the possible mechanism of renal K depletion induced by gossypol were analyzed and discussed.

本实验用同位素~(42)钾(~(42)KGl)示踪放射自显影定位以及定量测定方法研究棉酚对大鼠钾代谢的影响及其与低血钾的可能关系。动物连续喂服棉酚(剂量为5~10毫克/日/鼠)4-17周后按体重从舌下静脉注射50~100微居里~(42)KGl溶液。于注射后不同时距冷冻动物制成放射自显片观察,另取心、肾、骨骼肌、血和尿进行γ线闪烁定量测定。实验结果表明:(1)~(42)K注入体内后迅速与体内钾交换而摄入于脏器组织中,其中肾、心、脾、胰及胃肠道管壁出现放射活性高峰的时间最早,摄入速度最快。以下依次为软骨、肌肉、肝、皮下脂肪、肺、皮肤及睾丸,而以红细胞和脑脊组织的摄入速度最慢。血浆~(42)K的放射强度在注入体内30分钟后即降至较心、肾和肌肉为低的相对恒定水平。(2)大鼠服棉酚后,各脏器和血液中~(42)K的单位放射强度、摄入速度和分布动态,一般与对照组无明显差异,但肾脏的尿排~(42)K率则有增高倾向。其中少数动物在尿~(42)K排出率增高的同时,血浆和脏器~(42)K均明显下降。提示棉酚引起肾性失钾的可能性。本文对棉酚影响K代谢及引起肾性失钾的可能机理予以分析和讨论。

 
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