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Electron probe microanalysis of the deposits showed a network structure that results from the surface defects of the cold rolled Ag substrate and the lattice mismatch between substrate and deposit.


Thus, it is evident that although large specific surface area is important for nanoNaH to be used as a catalyst component, high surface energy with surface defects seems to be more important.


Physical defects have always played an important role in integrated circuit (IC) yields, and the design sensitivity to these physical elements has continued to increase in today's nanometer technologies.


Since the outlines of 70% defects approximate to elliptical shapes, a novel yield model associated with elliptical outlines of defects is presented.


This model is more general than the circular defects model as the latter is only an instance of the proposed model.

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 Hairline cracks or flakes in steel are known to be associated with the presence of hydrogen. A prevailing theory states that the crack formation is due to disruptive hydrogen pressure being built up in defects in steel. However, little was known regarding to the nature of these defects and the detailed mechanism of the hairline crack formation. An attempt was made in the present research to investigate this problem by means of internal friction measurements. The preliminary experiments show: (1)... Hairline cracks or flakes in steel are known to be associated with the presence of hydrogen. A prevailing theory states that the crack formation is due to disruptive hydrogen pressure being built up in defects in steel. However, little was known regarding to the nature of these defects and the detailed mechanism of the hairline crack formation. An attempt was made in the present research to investigate this problem by means of internal friction measurements. The preliminary experiments show: (1) The presence of hydrogen in certain steels may give rise to the appearance of an internal friction peak when internal friction is plotted against the temperature of measurement; (2) a slight amount of coldwork or soaking at a given temperature has a considerable effect on the optimum temperature of the observed internal friction peak, which indicates that the internal friction peak may be connected with the defects or stress condition in steel; (3) the internal friction peak shows an anomalous amplitude effect, i.e., at a given temperature of measurement an internal friction peak is obtained when the internal friction is plotted against the stress amplitude. Such an anomalous behavior is similar to that previously observed by. one of the authors (Ke) in the case of aluminimum containing 0.5% Cu. It is therefore considered that the internal friction peaks observed may be related to the interaction of hydrogen with the dislocations in steel.  钢的内部发裂已经公认为与钢中的氢气有关。现有的理论认为这是由于氢气聚集于钢中的内部缺陷产生破裂压力所引起,然而关于缺陷的性质和引起内部发裂的详细机构迄今还没有明确的了解。本文尝试用内耗测量的方法来研究这个问题。初步实验的结果指出: (1)氢在钢中可以引起内耗峰(将内耗表示为测量温度的函数时); (2)轻微冷加工或保温对于内耗峰的颠值温度有着显著的影响,这表示所得的内耗峰与钢中的缺陷和应力状态有关系; (3)所得的内耗峰表现有反常的振幅效应,即在一定的观测温度时,如将内耗表示为外加应力的函数,则也得到一个内耗峰。这与本文作者之一以前在铝铜合金中所观测到的反常内耗峰的性质和表现相同,因而所得的内耗峰可能是由于氢与钢中的原子脱节的交互作用所引起来的。  Many methods of analyzing statically indeterminate structures are now available. The method of redundant forces and that of deformations (i. e. the slopedeflection method), heretofore generally used in the U. S. S. R., both require the solution of a system of simultaneous simple equations. In the case of multistorey and multibay bents, the large number of such equations would greatly complicate the calculation work, it being both timeconsuming and liable to make mistakes. The method of moment distribution... Many methods of analyzing statically indeterminate structures are now available. The method of redundant forces and that of deformations (i. e. the slopedeflection method), heretofore generally used in the U. S. S. R., both require the solution of a system of simultaneous simple equations. In the case of multistorey and multibay bents, the large number of such equations would greatly complicate the calculation work, it being both timeconsuming and liable to make mistakes. The method of moment distribution simplifies calculations to a great extent, as there is no need to solve simultaneous equations, and therefore it has been warmly received bY practical engineers. Many soviet scholars are also devoted to its study. There are, however, defects in this method, namely: (1) Should the moments obtained in the successive cycles of distribution and carryingover prove to converge very slowly, twenty or more such cycles must be done if fairly accurate results are expected.(2) In the case of analyzing structures under various conditions of loading, while it is possible to find the influence moments by applying a unit moment at each joint as proposed by Prof. Hardy Cross, it would bequite laborious in the case of multistorey and multibay bents containing a large number of members, especially when subjected to unsymmetrical loadings.For the remedy of the first defect, such Chinese scholars as Profs. Lin Tung Yen, Chao Tsu Wu, Meng Chao Li and Tsai Fang Yin have made much contribution, and the author of this paper has recently written a discussion on the two papers of the lastmentioned scholar. For the remedy of the second defect, the author is unaware of any except that mentioned below.One of the soviet scholars, Dr. P. P. Shaggin (i.e.) has suggested important improvements with regard to both these defects. For the former, he adopted a method of singlecycle distribution; and for the latter, he invented the method of successive conjugation which greatly reduces the work of calculation in finding the influence moments. The essence of these methods is wellworth studying on the part of our Chinese engineers. After an intensive study, the author of this paper thinks that, while Dr. Shaggin's methods are quite correct in principle, his methods of calculation can still be somewhat improved, as described herein, so as to be made more easily applied in practice.This paper Shaggin based upon the book, (Calculation of Multistorey Frames by the Method of Successive Conjugation) published in 1954 by Dr. P. P. Shaggin in Leningrad, U. S. S. R., shows that, in applying a unit moment at each joint of a given statically indeterminate structure, one can easily find the influence moments at the ends of all the members, and that, after multiplying the unbalanced fixedend moments at each joint calculated in accordance with the given external loads, by the respective influence moments, the sum of such products added to the original fixedend moments will give at once the actual moments at each end of the members in the structure.Three notable improvements are indicated in this paper:(1) Dr. Shaggin's formula (5") on page 11 of his book, has been altered to formulas (3) in this paper. (2) For multistorey bents, Dr. Shaggin's method of finding the conjugate moments (i. e. the influence moments) by formulas is replaced by the usual method of simple momentdistribution.(3) The author of the paper has extended the method to the analysis of multistorey and multibay bents under any system of unsymmetrical loading.Of course, for structures under a single system of loading, influence moments need not be found and, generally speaking, it would be more convenient to apply the original method of momentdistribution; for a multistorey bent, it would be better, even in this case, to modify it by applying the method of successive conjugation.The author is of the opinion that the application of the methods described in this paper, being convenient and timesaving, would be useful to the practical engineers.  本文以蘇聯學者沙金博士最近出版之“用逐次互聯法計算多層排架”一書为依據,叙述在已知超靜定結構中每一結點,施以單位力矩,可以很容易地求得各桿端的影響力矩;然後依照其所受外力荷載,求得各結点處的定端力矩,分別乘以相當的影響力矩,相加之後並加以原有的定端力矩,即得各該桿端的實際力矩。若結構承受多種多样的荷載(不問其為豎向的或平向的、對稱的或不對稱的),用此篇所述之方法以推算各桿端力矩,著者認為最便利、最省時,並且適合實際工作者之需要。  Since the beginning of the last half century, the science of hydrology through successive steps of development has advanced to the realm of quantitative analysis. Engineers employed empirical methods to compute river discharges from precipitation data in answer to the everincreasing demands made upon hydrologic analyses for engineering works. Yet for the phenomena of conflux of flows from precipitations, there exist only meager and fragmental quantitative analyses, without, so far, a systematic study of their... Since the beginning of the last half century, the science of hydrology through successive steps of development has advanced to the realm of quantitative analysis. Engineers employed empirical methods to compute river discharges from precipitation data in answer to the everincreasing demands made upon hydrologic analyses for engineering works. Yet for the phenomena of conflux of flows from precipitations, there exist only meager and fragmental quantitative analyses, without, so far, a systematic study of their underlying theories recorded in literature. On account of this, the progress of hydrology in respect to theory as well as to prac tice has been retarded. By means of hydrodynamic analysis, the author has tentatively made an approach to the establishment of such a scheme of theories, in which he divided the rainfallrunoff phenomena into three parts for separate analyses, i. e., the occurrence of runoff due to rainfall at a surface point, the surface flow, and. the conflux of channel flows. This paper is devoted to the first part, which is, in essence, an analysis of the basic hydrologic phenomena. The theories thus established may be used as a guide for various hydrologic analyses in practice, may be based upon to examine the validity of various methods of hydrologic calculations, and may be further used to develop an approximate yet rational method for computing discharges from precipitation data. In this paper, the author proposes a scheme of underlying theories for analyzing the hydrograph of surface flow due to rainfall at a point, in which the essence of basic hydrologic phenomena is revealed, and this is accompanied with calculations of an example. In the earlier years, R. E. Horton established a theory of correlations of rainfall and runoff from small drainage basins by analyzing the data of Homer's sprinkler experiments. Thereafter, researchers basing upon his theories and methods analyzed the relations between rainfall and runoff by sprinkler experiments or data from natural areas. On account of the fact that Horton's analysis does not begin with an accurate hydrodynamical viewpoint, problems are bound to arise in practice due to defects in the underlying theories. Shortcomings of Homer's analysis on the basis of the author's theories are pointed out and the practical value of sprinkler experiments estimated. A method proposed by E. V. Bodakoff for computing discharges due to storms on small basins has raised wide discussions among the Soviet scholars, many of whom hold different views. The author hereby points out the main shortcomings of Bodakoff's method, and gives a numerical example with results compared with those computed by the author's method, thus showing the limitations of Bodakoff's method in practical applications.  半世紀來,水文学在發展的过程中已進入了定量分析的途徑;工程師們曾用各种經驗性的方法依據降水的资料推演河槽裹水流的現象,以应各种工程建設对於水文分析的要求。但是对於降水集流的过程始終祇有一些零星、片面的数值分析,没有一套完整的理論系統,因此阻碍着水文学在理論与应用方面的發展。作者曾用流体力学的分析法初步建立了降水集流的理論系統,把降水集流的过程分為三個階段:雨降地面逕流的產生、地面流、槽流之滙集,分别予以分析。本文便是其中第一階段,亦即最基本水文現象的分析。这些建立了的理論可以用為指導各种水文分析的南針,用為評論各种水文計算法的依據,並可用以創造一种近似而合理的方法,从降水資料推算逕流資料。本文中作者貢献一套理論,以分析地面點上降雨產生逕流的过程,揭發了基本水文現象的本質,最後並列舉实例的計算。早年郝登(R.E.Horton)曾依據郝納(W.W.Homer)的地面流实驗資料建立了一套在小地域內降水和逕流關係之理論,其後学者們根據他的理論和方法,用人工降雨法或流域資料实測法來確定降水和逕流間的關係。郝登的分析並没有从準確的動力学观點出發。在实際分析中發生了欠缺理論基礎的根本問題。这方面作者持着不同的意見。本文中根... 半世紀來,水文学在發展的过程中已進入了定量分析的途徑;工程師們曾用各种經驗性的方法依據降水的资料推演河槽裹水流的現象,以应各种工程建設对於水文分析的要求。但是对於降水集流的过程始終祇有一些零星、片面的数值分析,没有一套完整的理論系統,因此阻碍着水文学在理論与应用方面的發展。作者曾用流体力学的分析法初步建立了降水集流的理論系統,把降水集流的过程分為三個階段:雨降地面逕流的產生、地面流、槽流之滙集,分别予以分析。本文便是其中第一階段,亦即最基本水文現象的分析。这些建立了的理論可以用為指導各种水文分析的南針,用為評論各种水文計算法的依據,並可用以創造一种近似而合理的方法,从降水資料推算逕流資料。本文中作者貢献一套理論,以分析地面點上降雨產生逕流的过程,揭發了基本水文現象的本質,最後並列舉实例的計算。早年郝登(R.E.Horton)曾依據郝納(W.W.Homer)的地面流实驗資料建立了一套在小地域內降水和逕流關係之理論,其後学者們根據他的理論和方法,用人工降雨法或流域資料实測法來確定降水和逕流間的關係。郝登的分析並没有从準確的動力学观點出發。在实際分析中發生了欠缺理論基礎的根本問題。这方面作者持着不同的意見。本文中根據作者的理論指出了郝登分析法的癥結所在,並估計了人工降雨实驗法的实用價值之限度。波達闊夫曾建議暴雨逕流之一种計算法,引起了苏联学者的廣泛討論,很多人持有不同的意見。作者於文中指出了波氏等方法發生問題的症結所在;並用实例計算和作者的方法比較,說明了波氏法在实用中的準確限度。   << 更多相关文摘 
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