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these groups
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  各组间
     Results: The effectual time of atracurium showed significant difference among these groups( F =4.14, P <0.01),and in group 5(1.48±0.43 min), it was shorter than that of group 1(2.27±0.73 min) or group 2(2.28±0.38 min) ( P <0.05).
     结果:阿曲库铵的起效时间各组间有显著性差异(F=4.14,P<0.01),V组(1.48±0.43min)短于I组(2.27±0.73min)和Ⅱ组(2.28±0.38min)(P<0.05)。
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     The positive expression of p53 protein were 9.1%, 28.6%, 30.0%, 80.0%, 71.4% respectively. There were significant differences between these groups except for severe non-typical proliferation and esophageal adenocarcinoma group(P< 0.05).
     各组中p53蛋白表达阳性率则分别为9.1%、28.6%、30.0%、80.0%、71.4%,除重度不典型增生与食管癌组间差异无显著性意义外,其它各组间差异有显著性意义(P<0.05)。
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     The difference among these groups aforesaid was remark- able( P<0 .0 5 or P<0 .0 1 ) but between the group and ( P>0 .0 5 ) .
     上述各组间差异显著或极显著 ( P<0 .0 5或 P<0 .0 1 ) ( 组和 组间差异不显著 )。
短句来源
     Results In these groups, serum Cystatin C(F=28.334, P<0.01), TIMP-1(F=128.091, P<0.01) and TIMP-2(F=196.549, P<0.01) concentrations were of significant difference.
     结果受试者CystatinC、TIMP-1和TIMP-2在各组间差异均有统计学意义(F值分别为28.234、128.091、196.549,P值均<0.001)。
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     The number of positive cells of PCNA was 4.26±2.14 in CDM,7.43 ±3. 26 inCAN and 20.21 ±6. 58 in CM. The difference among these groups was significant (P < 0.01).
     大肠癌远分、近旁和癌粘膜PCNM阳性细胞数分别为小4.26±2.14、7.43±3.26和20.21±6.58,各组间比较均有极显著性差异(P<0.01);
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     RMS2: 0.51±0.27\0.46±0.25 RMSg: 1.05±0.36\ 0.96±0.30 RMSh: 0.47±0.12\0.48±0.14 and the values had no significant difference among these groups (including RMS1、RMS3、RMS4、RMS5、RMS6) (P>0.05).
     RMS2: 0.51±0.27\0.46±0.25 RMSg: 1.05±0.36\ 0.96±0.30 RMSh: 0.47±0.12\0.48±0.14以及RMS1、RMS3、RMS4、RMS5、RMS6各组值比较结果无显著性差异(P>0.05)。
短句来源
     Reˉsults:The densities of apoptosis cell in these groups were37±6.95,19±2.93,21±4.47,26±4.24,52±6.44and61±5.91respectively.
     结果 :再灌注后其凋亡细胞密度0 102mm2分别为(37±6 95)、(19±2 93)、(21±4 47)、(26±4 24)、(52±6 44)、(61±5 91)。
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     Serum CEA in these groups were (19.3±20.1), (10.7±5.6), (11.7±8.4) and (10.9±9.9) μg/L;
     四组血清CEA含量分别为(19·3±20·1)、(10·7±5·6)、(11·7±8·4)和(10·9±9·9)μg/L;
短句来源
     The values had no significant difference among these groups (including RMS1、RMS3、RMS4、RMS5、RMS6、RMSg、RMSh) (P>0.05).
     RMS1、RMS3、RMS4、RMS5、RMS6、RMSg、RMSh各组值比较均无显著性差异(P>0.05)。
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     ResultThere were highly significant differences in T,LH,TG,HDL-C,ApoA1,ApoB,and hs-CRP among these groups.
     结果T、LH、TG、HDL-C、ApoA1、ApoB、hs-CRP组间存在明显差异。
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     Of these, E.
     其中,E.
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     To analyse data of these groups respectively.
     分别对组间数据进行分析。
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     These policy groups are solutions to conflicts.
     这两种政策正是解决两对矛盾的对策。
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     These relationships are:?
     这些关系是:〈一〉基础研究和应用、开发研究
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     On P~s-Regular Groups
     关于P~S—正则群
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  these groups
Therefore, these groups might be seen as indicative groups.
      
Further, sesame plants in these groups flower and seed earlier than those in the control group, and single plant yield also increased.
      
A consistency index for the opinions of political groups in an elective body is described and the mutual relations of these groups are estimated by this index under nonconsolidated voting.
      
A conclusion has been drawn that palaeoecological studies should cover the lowest taxa possible within these groups to maximize the ecological indicator value of the assemblages recorded.
      
Within these groups, the samples were genetically heterogeneous, and each of them could be regarded as an individual population.
      
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Studies on three types of antifungal antibiotics produced by representative Actinomycetes has been described. Three morphologically distinct groups classified as series white, yellow and brown were subjected to chemical examinations for their characteristics. All these groups of Actinomycetes were primarily antifungal against a variety of test fungi. They are taxonomically unrelated organisms possessing the ability to produce different forms of antifungal substances. By means of solvent extraction, three...

Studies on three types of antifungal antibiotics produced by representative Actinomycetes has been described. Three morphologically distinct groups classified as series white, yellow and brown were subjected to chemical examinations for their characteristics. All these groups of Actinomycetes were primarily antifungal against a variety of test fungi. They are taxonomically unrelated organisms possessing the ability to produce different forms of antifungal substances. By means of solvent extraction, three antibiotics designated as antibiotic A-94, A-113 and A-262 were successively obtained in forms of crystalline powder or amorphous solid. The characterized ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectra of these antibiotics indicated the presence of chemically different polyene structures, for example, antibiotic A-94 was classified as conjugated tetraene, and both antibiotic A-113 and A-262 as conjugated heptaene. On the basis of comparison of chemical reactions with the known polyene antibiotics recorded in literatures, it is suggested that, antibiotic A-94 is identical to fungicidin, and antibiotic A-113 and A-262 should be regarded as two new members of the heptaene group, based upon the fact that although both gave positive Molisch reaction as does amphotericin B, they differed essentially from amphotericin B by specific rotation in several solvents. However, with the aid of analysis of functional groups it is possible to differentiate antibiotic A-113 from antibiotic A-262 according to the absence of N-methyl group in the molecule of antibiotic A-262. The biological spectra of these antibiotics when tested upon representative organisms showed that both the heptaene antibiotic A-113 and A-262 were active in vitro against influenza virus PR_8 and protozoa such as trichomonas vaginalis, while the tetraene antibiotic A-94 was found to have weak effect against influenza virus and no effect on protozoa. All these three polyene antibiotics were strongly effective-against pathogenic and saprophtic candida and bear yeast, but apparently have no inhibitory action against different forms of bacteria as well as Ehrlich ascites tumour cell.

对中国南方土壤最常发現之三种类型放綫菌的三种代表抗菌素,从化学与物理性貭与文献所报告者作了比较,发现抗菌素A-94与制霉菌素(Fungicidine,Nystatin)为同一化合物。其他二个抗菌素A-113与A-262之研究推论为属于七烯类之新抗菌素,这两个抗菌素除抗酵母菌外并具有抗原虫、流感病毒之生物性质。

Decaisnea fargesii Franch. is one of the rubber plants which have received considerable attention in recent years. The rubber of Decaisnea fargesii occurs only in the laticiferous canals of the pericarp and there is neither laticiferous canal, nor rubber substances in its roots, stems and leaves. In the present paper, a preliminary result on the research of the structure and the ontogeny of the laticiferous canals of Decaisnea fargesii is reported. In the pericarp of the mature fruit, an aggregate fleshy follicle,...

Decaisnea fargesii Franch. is one of the rubber plants which have received considerable attention in recent years. The rubber of Decaisnea fargesii occurs only in the laticiferous canals of the pericarp and there is neither laticiferous canal, nor rubber substances in its roots, stems and leaves. In the present paper, a preliminary result on the research of the structure and the ontogeny of the laticiferous canals of Decaisnea fargesii is reported. In the pericarp of the mature fruit, an aggregate fleshy follicle, of Decaisnea fargesii, there are numerous white colored laticiferous canals which are easily recognized with the naked eye. These canals connect with each other to form a reticulum. The fundamental structure of the pericarp of the young flowers is not different from that of other flowering plants. However, the protoplasm of the outer epidermal cells of the pericarp is more dense and it takes stains more deeply than that of the cells of its inner side. After the blooming fertilization, numerous spots on the outer epidermis of pericarp become centers of activity. There the cells begin to divide more actively than the other portion. As a result, numerous minute papillae are simultaneously formed. As the cells continuously divide, the papillae are gradually elevated and enlarged. At the bases of these papillae are depressions which become canal-like structures. These connect to form a reticulum below the surface of pericarp. When the canals reach a depth of 200--300μ, the divisions of the epidermal cells flanking the canals gradually slow down, but these cells increase in volume. Because the cells enlarge in anticlinal direction much more than in periclinal direction, the canals become narrower and narrower as the cell enlargement continues. Finally, the lateral walls of the canals meet each other and become fused. Here after enlargement of the epidermal cells are restricted to the lower portion of the canals. The whole structure viewed in cross-section is like a flask. At this stage, the epidermal cells in the lower portion of the flask-like structures are characterized by their larger in volume, larger nucleus, denser-protoplasm and smaller vocuoles. The chloroplasts formerly present disappear and some deeply stained particles appear in the protoplasm. Therefore, the morphology and the structure of these cell-groups are quite different from other epidermal cells of the pericarp including those on the surface and in the upper portion of canals. These groups of cells may be called secretory epidermal cells. At the end of the cells enlargement, the secretory epidermal cells of the lower portion of the canals separate each other and their walls begin to disintegrate. As these activities extend to every part of the secretory epidermal cells, a lysigenous intercellular canal is finally formed. The epidermal cells of the upper portion of the flask-like canals remain intact thus burying the canals formed in the mesocarp of the fruit. The protoplasm and inclusions of the disintegrated cells assume the appearance of milky fluid in the canals. Thus these canals should be regarded as laticiferous canals. During the further development of the pericarp, 2—4 layers of parenchymatous cells of the mesocarp surrounding the disintegrated epidermal cells break off. This makes the diameter of laticiferous canals to be further enlarged. In general, the ontogenetic processes of the laticiferous canals of Decaisnea fargesii include (1) elevation of the external epidermal cells of pericarp, (2) depression of the epidermal cells in the peripheral zone of the papillae, (3) formation and burying of the canals, and (4) disintegration of the secretory epidermal cells. Such a complex phenomena in formation of the laticiferous canals of Decaisnea fargesii is the special type in intercellular canals of plants. Within the pericarp of fully matured fruits, the diameter of the laticiferous canals may reach 600—800μ and their structure resembles the schizogenous intercellular canals generally occurring in other plants in which no special peripheral sheath-like cells has been observed. They remain in the mesocarp, covered externally by 6—9 layers of cells and form a reticulate system parallel with the outer wall of the fruit. According to the present analysis on their structure, ontogeny and distribution, the laticiferous canal system of Decaisnea fargesii is obviously different from the laticiferous tubes and the intercellular canals usually observed in the other plant. Their special type of formation is probably connected with the localization of their occurrence and particularly in relation with the characteristics of development of the fleshy fruit.

五、摘要猫屎瓜为一种近年来引起重视的橡胶植物。据报导,其橡胶只含在果皮内的乳汁道中,根、茎和叶内并无乳汁道,亦不合有橡胶物质。现就其乳汁道的结构及形成过程作一初步报告。在尚未开放的雌花中,子房壁的基本结构类似一般有花植物,仅果皮的外表皮细胞显示出原生质浓厚,染色较深。开花,受精以后,外表皮细胞开始进行分裂活动,而且此种活动在静多分散的小区域中显得特别活跃。因此,在果皮的外表面逐渐形成许多微小的突起。以后,这些突起渐渐增大和加高,同时,在突起的四周产生凹陷的沟道。这些沟道在果皮的表面上是互相贯通,连接成网状的。当沟道的深度达200—300微米时,沟道二侧的表皮细胞的分裂活动逐渐停止,细胞体积开始增大。因而沟道腔就渐渐变狭,进而其侧壁接触在一起,愈合成一块组织。以后,这种增大过程只局限在沟道下半部分的表皮细胞中进行。不久,这些细胞不仅体积大,而且细胞核大,原生质丰富,液泡化弱,叶绿体消失,染色亦特别深,所以它们和沟道上部及果皮外围的外表皮细胞,在形态结构上已明显不同,按其特征可以称为分泌表皮。以后,分泌表皮细胞停止增大,进而细胞之间因中层溶解而分离。不久,这些分离的细胞逐渐破毁,溶解,因而就形成了溶生的胞间道。在...

五、摘要猫屎瓜为一种近年来引起重视的橡胶植物。据报导,其橡胶只含在果皮内的乳汁道中,根、茎和叶内并无乳汁道,亦不合有橡胶物质。现就其乳汁道的结构及形成过程作一初步报告。在尚未开放的雌花中,子房壁的基本结构类似一般有花植物,仅果皮的外表皮细胞显示出原生质浓厚,染色较深。开花,受精以后,外表皮细胞开始进行分裂活动,而且此种活动在静多分散的小区域中显得特别活跃。因此,在果皮的外表面逐渐形成许多微小的突起。以后,这些突起渐渐增大和加高,同时,在突起的四周产生凹陷的沟道。这些沟道在果皮的表面上是互相贯通,连接成网状的。当沟道的深度达200—300微米时,沟道二侧的表皮细胞的分裂活动逐渐停止,细胞体积开始增大。因而沟道腔就渐渐变狭,进而其侧壁接触在一起,愈合成一块组织。以后,这种增大过程只局限在沟道下半部分的表皮细胞中进行。不久,这些细胞不仅体积大,而且细胞核大,原生质丰富,液泡化弱,叶绿体消失,染色亦特别深,所以它们和沟道上部及果皮外围的外表皮细胞,在形态结构上已明显不同,按其特征可以称为分泌表皮。以后,分泌表皮细胞停止增大,进而细胞之间因中层溶解而分离。不久,这些分离的细胞逐渐破毁,溶解,因而就形成了溶生的胞间道。在这种胞间道中,充满了乳白色的液体状物质,所以可以称为乳汁道。由于沟道上部数层表皮细胞并不破毁,乳汁道就深藏在中果皮内。在果皮的进一步发育中,原来包围在分泌表皮周围的2—4层中果皮薄壁组织细胞,亦随着破坏,使乳汁道更为扩大。因此,此种乳汁道是经过果皮部分外表皮的凹陷,封闭及细胞的溶解等复合方式形成的,是一种形成方式很特殊的胞间道。猫屎瓜的果实为聚合肉质蓇葖果,在完全成熟的果皮中,每个乳汁道的直径可达650—800微米。它们位于外表皮内6—9层细胞处,与果实的外表面呈平行分布。各乳汁道分枝的方向不一,互相贯通,连接成不规则的网状系统,凭肉眼亦可看到。从猫屎瓜乳汁道的结构、形成过程和在植物体内的分布情况分析,显然不同于乳汁管,亦和常见的胞间道的情况不同。此种特殊现象是与其特异的、复合的形成方式相连系的,而该种形成方式又是和肉质果实的发育特点有关的。

One of the important requirements on oscillators is to have stable frequency of oscillation. The frequency stability problem for vacuum tube oscillators has been extensively in-estigated, however, the same problem for transistor oscillators has not been adequately treated. It is therefore the purpose of this paper to offer a detailed analysis on the frequency stability of transistor feedback oscillators.General equation of oscillations for feedback oscillators are first derived by using the linear analysis based...

One of the important requirements on oscillators is to have stable frequency of oscillation. The frequency stability problem for vacuum tube oscillators has been extensively in-estigated, however, the same problem for transistor oscillators has not been adequately treated. It is therefore the purpose of this paper to offer a detailed analysis on the frequency stability of transistor feedback oscillators.General equation of oscillations for feedback oscillators are first derived by using the linear analysis based on the cascade parameter matrix representation of 2-port networks. Analysis is then applied to the various types of transistor feedback oscillators. Various types of the equivalent circuits for the common-emitter network and various forms of feedback networks using only pure reactive elements are used in deriving the equationsof oscillations. Elements of the feedback networks are assumed to remain unchanged andparameters of the transistor networks are assumed to be varied in the investigation of the frequency drift of transistor oscillators.Feedback networks are grouped into three major groups according to their geometries: the three-arm π configurations, the four-arm and the five-arm configurations. Conditions of oscillations, conditions of frequency stability for oscillators using these groups of feedback networks are discussed and results are summarised into three tables for ready references.

振荡器的一项重要性能是振荡频率的稳定度,对电子管振荡器的频率稳定性能已有比较长时期的研究。然而,对晶体管振荡器频率稳定性能的研究则尚欠完善。本文将对晶体管反馈振荡器的频率稳定性能作比较详细的研讨。 根据四端网络分析及级联参数矩阵表示法,首先推导反馈振荡器的通用振荡方程,然后对共发射极网络的各种等效电路以及对各种纯电抗元件的反馈网络的级联参数进行分析,用这些网络形成各种晶体管反馈振荡器,并推导这些振荡器的振荡方程。根据振荡方程对这些振荡器的振荡性能,包括振荡频率的稳定性能,进行分析及比较。 假设反馈网络所用外加电抗元件固定不变,而晶体管参数改变(包括晶体管的输出输入电阻,输出输入电容,电流放大系数的虚数部分,负载电阻等的改变),对由于这些参数改变所引起的振荡频率漂移作了分析及比较。 根据所用反馈网络的几何构造,将反馈网络分成三臂π形,四臂及五臂网络等三类,对采用这三类网络而组成的晶体管振荡器的振荡性能进行分析,重要结果分别在三表中列出,供研究及设计者参考。

 
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