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     A Three-dimension Approach to the Subject of the 20th Century Chinese Literature
     20世纪中国文学主体问题三论
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     The paper discusses four aspects as the relationship among agriculture, countryside logistics and urban logistics, the contents of agriculture and countryside logistics plan, the layout of agriculture and countryside logistics nodes and the subject of agriculture and countryside logistics operation in regional logistics plan and presents the way of implementing agriculture and countryside logistics plan.
     在明确区域物流规划任务的基础上,指出农业与农村物流应该是区域物流规划的一个重要内容。 从农业与农村物流和城市物流的关系、农业与农村物流规划的内容、农业与农村物流节点布局和农业与农村物流运作主体培育等四个方面论述了区域物流规划中农业与农村物流规划的思路,并简要论述了农业与农村物流规划的保障措施。
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     Educational system,as a system of regulations which normalize the educational conducts of the subject of education and promote the development of both education and human beings,is subject to and dominated by the educational ideas and notions of the subjects.
     教育制度作为规范主体教育行为、促进教育发展和人的发展的规则体系,无论是其内容还是形式都受着主体教育思想、教育观念等的影响、指导和支配。
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     Farmers are the direct beneficiaries of the new rural construction,as well as subject of advancing new rural construction.
     农民是新农村建设的直接受益者,也是推进新农村建设的主体
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     In the electronic transactions,the owner of information system who sends out information is the subject of electronic contract.
     在电子交易中,发出信息的信息系统的拥有者是电子合同的主体
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     Investigation and Study on the Subject of Engaging Specialists as Consultants
     聘请专家当顾问的调查与研究
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     ESTABLISHING MULTIPLE BENEFIT FOREST IS A NEW SUBJECT OF FOREST MANAGEMENT
     创建多效益林业是森林经理的新课题
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     Corporate Culture—a New Subject of Cultural Philosophy
     企业文化:文化哲学的新课题
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     The Anisotropic Damage of the Isotropic Materials Subject of Pure Shear
     各向同性材料在纯剪切下的各向异性损伤
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     The Study of the Relationship Between Research Subject of Disciplinary and the Document Quantity
     学科研究主题与文献量的关系研究
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     the subject;
     挪用公款罪的主体;
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     On Subversion of the Subject
     主体的颠覆:拉康精神分析学中的“自我”
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     With regard to the subject of E.
     关于卡明斯的诗歌主题,总的来说,有三个方面;
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The subject of risk management is attracting more and more attention around the world.
      
Adsorption on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is a subject of growing experimental and theoretical interest.
      
However, the definition and classification of CWD have been the subject of a long debate in forest ecology.
      
Its vital importance has made it the subject of numerous investigations.
      
Noise filtering is the subject of a voluminous literature on radio engineering.
      
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It is well known to engineers that railway embankments should be compacted during construction in order to insure stability and prevent excessive settlement. Naturally there arises the problem, to what degree of density should an embankment be compacted. This forms the subject of this paper from both the theoretical and the practical points of view.

路堤高填土應達到什麼密度的問題最近在鐵路工作中被提出來。在文獻中,關於這個問題的系統分析不很多見。這篇報告從土壤的强度理論和土壤的壓縮性質出發,解釋路堤中一些現象的根源,提供合理地設計高填土密度的論據;並且針對現場的需要而介紹一部份有關的蘇聯先進資料。希望關心這件工作的同志們多給以批評和討論。

1.With the enormons increase of electrical power loads on board ships.the old D.C.system is very difficult to meet the challenge,the trend is toward the development of A.C.system. 2.A.C.System is not only economical in generating and distribution,hut also made possible the application of squirrel cage motor,which is simplest, cheapest and most rugged rotating electrical machine obtainable. 3.The variable speed characteristics of A.C.motors is inferior to D.C. motors.particularly as applied to cargo winches....

1.With the enormons increase of electrical power loads on board ships.the old D.C.system is very difficult to meet the challenge,the trend is toward the development of A.C.system. 2.A.C.System is not only economical in generating and distribution,hut also made possible the application of squirrel cage motor,which is simplest, cheapest and most rugged rotating electrical machine obtainable. 3.The variable speed characteristics of A.C.motors is inferior to D.C. motors.particularly as applied to cargo winches. 4.A.C.is specially suitable for large power installations.As the installed generating capacity exceeds 1000 kw.,A.C.is definitely superior to D.C.As the generating capacity is under 1000 kw.,the choice is dependent on usage,for passenger ships,tankers,inland vessels and harbour crafts,where there is little need for variable speed.the superiority of A.C.is quite noticable,for eargo ships, where the electrical load is mainly cargo winches,the advantage is not so noticable. 5.Considering the development of large capacity semi-conductor rectifiers. A.C.and D.C.in the future are not so distinctively different from each other,but may be under a unified system. 6.The author suggests immediate research and experiment works directed to the subject of application of A.C.to ships,and recommends installation of various systems on same type of ships to obtain direct comparisons,and conclusions to be drawn.

1.由于船舶需用之电量急剧增加,旧有之直流系统难以满足需要。发展的趋向为使用交流电。2.交流系统不但在发电及输配电方面经济合算,并且使使用鼠笼式电动机成为可能。鼠笼式电动机为所有旋转电机中最简单、价廉、坚固之电机。3.交流电动机之变速特性较直流电动机为差,特别在使用于起货机时。4.对于大容量装置,交流系统特别适宜。如果发电机容量大于1000千瓦,交流肯定的比直流有利。如果发电机容量小于1000千瓦,应视用途而定。对客船、运油船、内河船舶和港湾作业船等,变速的需要不大,交流显然有利。在以起货机作为主要负荷的货船上,交流电的优点不显著。5.考虑到大容量半导体整流器的发展,将来的情况将是直流和交流的分界不是截然不同的,而是可能在一个体系之下的。6.作者建议对交流电应用到船舶上的问题立即进行研究和试验,并建议在同一型式船舶上装置不同系统,以获得经验,得出结论。

The main subjects in relation to the earthquake resistant design of earth dams such as the determination of seismic forces acting upon earth dams and their foundations,the evaluation of dynamic properties of soils under seismic actions,the method of analysis of seismic stability of earth dams and the engineering measures in earthquake resistant de- sign of earth dams are reviewed systematically based on literatures and data which are available to the author. The works done by Matumura,Mononobe,Hatanaka,Ambraseys...

The main subjects in relation to the earthquake resistant design of earth dams such as the determination of seismic forces acting upon earth dams and their foundations,the evaluation of dynamic properties of soils under seismic actions,the method of analysis of seismic stability of earth dams and the engineering measures in earthquake resistant de- sign of earth dams are reviewed systematically based on literatures and data which are available to the author. The works done by Matumura,Mononobe,Hatanaka,Ambraseys and Napetvaridze on the dynamic theories of seismic forces of earth dams are specially reviewed,also the prevalent practices in USSR,Japan,America,etc.about the method of calculation of seismic forces of earth dams are mentioned. On the subject of dynamic properties of soils under seismic actions the stress-strain relationship,damping characteristic,shear strength and pore pressure of the soil and soil mass are discussed. Following a brief review of the methods of analysis of seismic stability of earth dams the paper presents a table compiling records of the seismic behavior of thirty two earth dams in several earthquake regions of the world.According to the actual behavior of earth dams at earthquakes the author calls attention to the designers how and why it is necessary and important to take special engineering measures in earthquake resistant de- sign of earth dams,even though many of those measures may be entirely empirical at present stage of our knowledge. Finally,the author recaptulates a few topics for further research and future develop- ment.

本文对土坝抗地震设计中有关地震荷载、土的动力性质、土坝地震稳定分析方法和防震工程措施等方面的问题,进行了综合论述.在土坝地震荷载方面,着重介绍了日本松村、物部和畑中,英国恩伯拉散斯(N.N.Ambraseys)和苏联那比脱伐列齐等人所做的工作,以及目前在苏联、日本和美国等土坝设计中关于士坝地震荷载估算方面的实际执行情况.关于土在地震动力作用下的特性方面,文中主要介绍和讨论了目前上坝地震动力分析理论中所采用的土的应力应变关系和阻尼问题,以及土坝地震稳定分析中所需考虑的土的抗剪强度和孔隙压力问题.关于土坝地震稳定分析方法和防震工程措施方面,文中在简单介绍了目前一般采用的土坝地震稳定静力分析方法之后,又根据世界上若干地震区土坝实际情况的记载,提出土坝防震工程措施的重要性,和在地震区设计土坝时应注意的问题.文中最后并提出了今后研究工作的初步意见.

 
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