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We discuss the relation of these vanishing conditions with a shuffle algebra description of the algebra of Drinfeld currents.


The relation of spectra and numerical range of pωhyponormal operators is obtained.


This paper introduces an emotion model of artificial psychology, in which the transition of emotion can be viewed as a Markov process and the relation of emotion, external incentive and personality can be described by a Markov decision process (MDP).


Using quantification theory I, an analysis of the relation of soil water and qualitative factors, such as, slope degree, slope aspect, slope position, and soil in Wangjiagou watershed area has been done.


Based on the relation of timefrequency distribution of the acoustic leak signal and the dispersion curves of guided waves, the mode components of acoustic leak signals were obtained.

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 A new method for the biological assay of vegetable purgatives based on the numbers of wet faeces excreted by groups of mice after dosing is described. The relation of the number of wet faeces per group of mice to the logarithm of the dose was found to be linear. A cage has been specially designed for this assay and it has been found advantageous to incorporate a definite proportion of water in the diet during test. 40 mice divided equally into 4 groups were used in each assay. 2 groups received the standard... A new method for the biological assay of vegetable purgatives based on the numbers of wet faeces excreted by groups of mice after dosing is described. The relation of the number of wet faeces per group of mice to the logarithm of the dose was found to be linear. A cage has been specially designed for this assay and it has been found advantageous to incorporate a definite proportion of water in the diet during test. 40 mice divided equally into 4 groups were used in each assay. 2 groups received the standard preparation and the other 2 groups received the test preparation. The standard deviation of a single determination based on 9 such assays was estimated to be 15.7 per cent. For rhubarb and its preparations, a“6point”assay is advocated. With suitable restriction in the design of the assay, it is possible to calculate the potency by simple methods. Powdered crude drugs are used as laboratory standards in the assay of senna and rhubarb. The doses of cascara bark required to produce distinctive responses are too inconveniently large to be administered in suspension. It was found possible to use a potent extract of cascara in place of the powdered bark as a laboratory standard. Examples of the assay and the subsequent calculations are given. The method described is not only convenient in use but also gives a comparatively high degree of accuracy. The method has been successfully applied to senna leaf, senna fruit, rhubarb, cascara sagrada and extracts and commercial preparations made from these drugs, pure glycosides(sennosides A and B) and pure anthracene compounds(aloe emodin and aloeemodine anthranol).  (1)本文详述植物性泻药的一种新的生物测定法,此法係用小白鼠在服药后所排出的濕粪数为基础,以定泻药的效价。(2)小白鼠服药後所排出的湿粪数与剂量指数的关係经证明为一直线。(3)本法所用鼠笼係特别设计,并证明在饲料内加入一定量的饮水,具有多种优点。(4)番泻效价的测定,每次用小白鼠4组,每组10只。2组给与标准品,另外2组给与试验品。根据9次试验的结果,试验的标准差是15.7％.(5)大黄效价的测定,以采用“6点”法为宜,即每次试验用小白鼠6组,3组给与标准品,另外3组给与试验品,所得的准确度与上述相仿。波希鼠李皮浸膏的效价测定,则用“4点”法或“6点”法均可。(6)所有试验一律采用粉状生药为实验室的比较标准,但是波希鼠李皮的效价太低,它的粉末不适於作为标准之用,可用波希鼠李皮乾浸膏来代替,作为比较标准。(7)本文对於效价测定及其计算方法都举例说明,并介绍了比较常法为简捷的相关效价计算法。(8)本法不但方便易行,而且有相当高的准确度;曾用在番泻、大黄、波希鼠李皮及其制剂,以及一些纯粹的蒽醌衍生物的效价测定,都获得了满意的结果。  Sweetpotato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the southeasternKwangsi and southwestern Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweetpotato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sicksoil.The infected parts first show the... Sweetpotato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the southeasternKwangsi and southwestern Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweetpotato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sicksoil.The infected parts first show the watersoaked appearance and then extend upwardly,and eventually become blackenedand rotted.As a rule,ths leaves of the infected plants show an abnormal coloror pale yellow,and drooping appearance.In the meantime,the root tips of theadventitious roots of the vines lose their cortex and begin to lot.Wilting followsquite rapidly and finally the entire plant dies.If the disease infects the plantafter the potatoes beginning to form,it may extend throughout the vine and into the roots,causing the enlarged roots to show brown streaks and finally blackenedand rotted with pungent odor. The cause of the disease may appropriately be considered as due to bacteriaand Fusarium spp.Four types of bacteria,i.e.white smooth type,yellow smoothtype,white rough type and yellow rough type,are able to cause the disease.Atleast four kinds of Fusarium,i.e.white aerial mycelium type,white mycelium withred of a purple tint substratum type,pink mycelium with red of a purple tint substratum type and without aerial mycelium type are responsible for the disease.Which is the main cause of the disease? Either bacteria or Fusarium alone or theboth in combination is able to cause the disease,further tests should be madebefore a definite conclusion may be drawn. The dissemination of the wilt organisms may appropriately be considered inthree ways,namely,(1) by infested roots and vines,(2) by sicksoil,and (3) byinsects,as the sweetpotato weevil (Gycas formicarius Fabr.).The former twoways of dissemination are more definite than the latter,however,further testsand observations should be made. According to the results of 2years field experiments in Tsenshi and Pehliustations,it shows that different varieties of sweetpotato possess different resistance to the disease.Among several varieties tested,it is found that Tainung No.3being a promising one,because it yields very high and is highly resistant to thedisease and to the drought.Although it is occasionally found to be susceptibleto the disease in the experiment field of Tsenshi and is more commonly foundin the experiment field of Linkwei.The second variety is Tainung No.46 dueto its high degree of disease resistance. The results of preliminary tests indicate that the method of reproduction byold vines would decrease both in disease resistance and in yield within the samevariety. From tests conducted in two different fields,i.e.one at dry land and the ??other in the rice field,it shows that the discrepancies were found in the occurrence of the disease and also in the relation of the method of manuring to thepercent of infection. Dipping cuttings in different disinfectants did not show any significant results.There are discrepancies in both plowed and sunned field test and two methodsof setting the vines test.These may be due to methods of treatment,landand varieties used for experiment being different. According to the results of date of planting tests in Pehliu,it indicates thatthe occurrence and the development of the disease are closely related to the highhumidity and the high temperature.These climatic factors affect the health ofthe early growth of the plant which in turn would increase the disease resistance.It is suggested that the most suitable date for planting sweetpotato in Pehliu isin the first decade of August. In comparing the weather records of the three districts—Linkwei,Pehliu andTsenshi—in relation to the date of early and last occurrences of the disease,itshows that an average air temperature of 23.428.4℃ is most suitable for the occurrence of the disease,and an average relative humidity of 80 per cent is alsoneeded for the infection of the disease.Based on these facts,we may say thatsweetpotatoes in Linkwei are capable to be easily infected by the wilt organisms.except the last date of the infection would be preceded 1020 clays.Any otherregions with similar climatic factors,it is also very possible to be infected. According to the results of 2years experiments and facts from surveys,suggestive control measures are proposed: (1) excluding the disease by regulationthrough the use of quarantines enforced by an inspection station empowered torestrict or eradicate diseased roots and vines to prevent them from becomingsources of infection in diseasefree districts; (2) selection of disease resistant varieties in combination with cultural practices such as the use of more ash,suitableamount of lime and manure,and suitable date of planting to enable plants toescape or resist the disease.For the present time,we suggest that the use of Tainung No.3 in Tsenshi and Pehliu may meet the requirement,and promotingthe method of root reproduction in place of an old method of reproduction byrepeating vine cuttings from old vines can prevent the degeneration of the plantand decrease the infection of the disease.  甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試... 甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試驗田也会發生过多次。老藤繁殖会降低同一品种的抗病性和产量,值得我們注意。在旱地和水田不同試驗地上所得結果,可初步说明發病情况很不一致,追肥与不追肥处理的發病率也不一致。藥剂处理种苗效应不显著,翻晒土壤及二种种植法試驗结果不一致,想与試驗方法、試驗地不同和供試品种不同有密切关系。薯瘟的發生与發展和高温潮湿有密切关系,而这些气候因素对于植株的早期生??長壮健及增强抗病性也有关系。初步建議,在北流地区以立秋(8月上旬)种植較为适当。从临桂雁山、北流和岑溪三处的气候記录,和薯瘟开始發生与最后發生日期的記录看来,可以初步說平均气温23.4—28.4℃最适于薯瘟的發生。相对湿度平均在80%以上亦适于本病的發生。由此可見,在临桂雁山地区,薯瘟可能是容易發生的,不过停止發病日期会提早10—20天。其他地区如有相似气温与湿度情况,那也是会發生薯瘟的。根据二年試驗結果和調查所得情况,初步提出防治薯瘟的办法如次:(1)应采取种薯和种苗的檢疫措施,禁止病区的种薯运往無病地区,以防蔓延;(2)选育抗病品种为主,結合先进的栽培管理法;多施草木灰,适当施用石灰,根外追肥,适期种植等,以增强植株的抗病性,避免病害的侵染,保証丰产。目前在岑溪及北流地区,可先推广种植“台农三号”品种,并提倡以薯塊育苗,切勿采用老藤繁殖,以避免植株的衰退,减少薯瘟的發生。  Using the x,y,p coordinates,and neglecting the small terms in thesteady state vorticity equation, we have(?)taking two layer baroclinic model,as Sawyer and Bushby,we let(?)in whichA(p)=(p_0+p_12p)/(p_0p_1),(3)where p_0=1000mb and p_1=200mb.Introducing (2) to (1) and integrating from p=p_0 to p=p_1 under thefollowing bundary conditions(?)We obtain(?)where H=(RT_0)/g is the height of the homogeneous atmosphere,and η=η(x,y) is the topography of the earth's surface.For the distribution of vertical velocity,we... Using the x,y,p coordinates,and neglecting the small terms in thesteady state vorticity equation, we have(?)taking two layer baroclinic model,as Sawyer and Bushby,we let(?)in whichA(p)=(p_0+p_12p)/(p_0p_1),(3)where p_0=1000mb and p_1=200mb.Introducing (2) to (1) and integrating from p=p_0 to p=p_1 under thefollowing bundary conditions(?)We obtain(?)where H=(RT_0)/g is the height of the homogeneous atmosphere,and η=η(x,y) is the topography of the earth's surface.For the distribution of vertical velocity,we assume ω(x,y,p)=B(p) (?)(x,y)+C(p) ω_0(x,y),(5)whereB(p)=1A(p)~2,C(p)=(pp_1)/(p_0p_1).(6)Introducing (2) and (5) to (1),multiplying A(p),and then integratingit with respect to p from p_0 to p_1,we find(?)Using again the relations of (2) and (5) and the geostrophic approximationin (Ⅰ)(1),taking steady state and then eliminating (?) from it with (10),we have(?)whereC_1=[R/(gc_p)]ln[p_0/(?)],M=[(4f~2)/(p_0p_1)][1/(C_2RΓ_p)],C_2=(1/2)[(p_0+3p_1)/(p_0p_1)][(4p_0p_1)/(p_0p_1)~2]ln[(2p_0)/(p_0+p_1)].The motion is considered as consisting of small perturbations superimposed upon a basic zonal current (?)+A(p)U_T,and taking geostrophic approximation,wo obtained the two required equations:(?)in which β is the variation of Coriolis parameter with latitude.We used the equation (9) and (10) to a rectangular reigon with a marginal cyclicity and with a length equal to that of the latitud circle at 45°and take 1 day as the time unit and the radius of 45° latitude circle aslength unit.By means of Fourier analysis,the solution may be written inthe following form(?)where the topographical influence function Φ_0 and the heating influencefunction Φ_h are respectively defined by the Fourier series (?)As the equation was linearzed, we can put Q_m=0 to find the topographiceffect, and put η=0 to find the effect of heat sources and sinks;whenboth Q_m≠0 and η≠0,we can find the combined influences of heat sources and sinks and topography.For case of winter,we take (?)=15m/s and U_t=13m/s.In the unitsdescribed above,we find (?)=2.87×10~(1),β=2π,M=231,β/(?)=21.9.We have constructed separately the flow patterns respectively due tothe thermal effect,the topographical effect and the combined effect of themon the westerlies.By examining these patterns we may state the followingpoints on the formation of mean troughs and ridges and jet stream:(1)For the case Q_m=0.There is a trough to the downstream ofmountains and a ridge over the mountains created by the forced ascent ofthe westerly current over the topography.The Tibetan Platean is importanton the formation of the Asiatic mean troughs and ridges.(fig.1) Considering the combined effect of the mountains of Rocky and Greenland,theposition and intensity of the computed mean trough and ridge (fig.6) iswell in agreement with the observation.(fig.4,10) However the effect ofthe forced ascent of the westerly current over the mountains does notgive a jet stream.(2)For the case η=0.Through dynamic processes the largescaleheat sources and sinks show even larger influences than that of the mountains on the midtropospheric flow.The 500 mb trough is located west ofthe heat source,and the ridge west of the heat sink.The jet stream isformed at the southwestern part of the heat source.The perturbationpattern of heating and cooling (fig.2,7) is in better agreement with theobserved one than that due to topography.(3)The flow pattern obtained by considering both heat sources andsinks and topography (fig.3,9) is in good agreement with the observedones.The agreement with observation is much better than any one of thefactors considered alone.  本文第二部分根据简单的两层斜压模式,用小扰动分别解出地形、热源的常定扰动和地形与热源的共同扰动.作者得到西藏高原对于东亚平均槽、脊的形成具有一定的作用.洛矶山加上格林兰高地后更能解释北美槽、脊的形成.在夏季由于西风带的北移,只有地形作用也使得平均槽的强度和位置发生变化.热源的扰动作用对平均槽的生成具有更显著的作用,冬季的西风急流和夏季小槽的生成都和热源扰动更有直接的关系.考虑了热源和地形的共同作用后所得的扰动流型更接近了实现.由此作者提出热源和地形作用通过动力过程在大气环流中相互制约的统一性.   << 更多相关文摘 
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