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electrostatic
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  electrostatic
The CoMFA analysis was performed by calculating steric and electrostatic interaction energies around a three dimensional grid.
      
In the CoMSIA model, steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond donating factors were correlated to the activity and later the favorable and unfavorable regions of interaction were obtained.
      
Later steric and electrostatic fields were determined across a 3D grid.
      
tripos standard, hydrogen bonding, parabolic indicator in the case of CoMFA and steric, electrostatic, donor, acceptor, hydrophobic, donor and acceptor, steric and electrostatic in the case of CoMSIA.
      
Besides the hydrophobic interaction provided by nonpolar dodecyl, DPZ also has dipolar interaction, ion-exchange or electrostatic repellent interaction provided by the free phosphonic group and amino group at different conditions.
      
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A right hallow circular cylinder of quartz having its generator parallel to the principal axis liberates electricity when subjected to torsion about its axis. Charges of opposite signs appear on the inner and outer surfaces. When torsion is applied in the same sense as that of the optical rotation, positive electricity is developed on the outer surface, and vice versa. The quantity of electricity produced by the action of a couple of moment C on a hollow quartz cylinder of external diameter d0, internal diameter...

A right hallow circular cylinder of quartz having its generator parallel to the principal axis liberates electricity when subjected to torsion about its axis. Charges of opposite signs appear on the inner and outer surfaces. When torsion is applied in the same sense as that of the optical rotation, positive electricity is developed on the outer surface, and vice versa. The quantity of electricity produced by the action of a couple of moment C on a hollow quartz cylinder of external diameter d0, internal diameter di and length l is klC/do do-di), where k is equal to 9.2x10-8 in absolute C. G. S. electrostatic units.

割水晶成一圆柱,圆柱之轴即为晶体之光轴,在圆柱之中心穿一孔道,使成一空心圆柱壳,以金属箔敷於圆柱壳内外侧面成两电极。当圆柱之一端固定,一端被扭,则两电极发生异号而等量之电荷,扭转之方向既易,内外两极电荷之号亦互易。若扭力偶矩左旋,则左旋水晶柱之外极得正电;若扭力偶矩右旋则右旋水晶柱之外极得正电。 吾人曾由实验测定水晶圆柱之长短l,内外直径d_i及d_0之大小,与由扭偶矩C所生电量q之关系式如次: q=k(l/(d_0(d_0-d_i)))C式中K为一常数,在C.G.S.绝对静电单位制中等於9.2×10~(-8)。

Even though in the application of adsorption to industry or research one almost never deals with solutions containing only a single solute, yet the number of investigations on the adsorption from mixed solutions is very limited. Following the lead of Freundlich the generally held opinion is that the effect of one adsorbate on the adsorption of another is simple displacement. While this may be true for some special cases, it is undoubtedly too simple to be of general validity, because the various interactions,...

Even though in the application of adsorption to industry or research one almost never deals with solutions containing only a single solute, yet the number of investigations on the adsorption from mixed solutions is very limited. Following the lead of Freundlich the generally held opinion is that the effect of one adsorbate on the adsorption of another is simple displacement. While this may be true for some special cases, it is undoubtedly too simple to be of general validity, because the various interactions, such as solid-solvent, solute-solute, solute-solvent, have been neglected in this theory. In the theoretical study of chromatography it is necessary to know the equation for the adsorption isotherm when more than one solute are present in the solution. The most widely adopted equation for this purpose is (x/m)_a=k'_aC_a/(1+k_iC_i) (1) This equation can be easily derived from that for a single adsorbate: x/m = k'C/ (1+kC) (2) by assuming that the presence of an additional solute merely reduces the available surface area of the solid. Formally, this equation is analogous to that of Langmuir for the adsorp- tion of gaseous mixtures, replacing pressures by concentrations, but it is actually an empirical equation, because the numerical values of the k's can be obtained only from experimental data and their physical significance is not at all clear. This equation predicts the de-pression of the adsorption of one solute by another. While it is in line with the current idea, there is no experimental proof of its validity. It is the dual purpose of the present investigation to substantiate or disprove the dis- placement theory and to test the applicability of equation (1). We have studied the adsorption from binary solutions of hydrochloric, acetic, and oxalic acids by sugar char. The adsorbates are chosen because of their widely different strength. Sugar char is chosen because it has been shown from previous studies that with this adsorbent the experimental data for single adsorbate follow equation (2). The experimental results are given below: HCl-CH_3COOH and CH_3COOH-H_2C_2O_4 systems: (1) The adsorption of any acid is less than when it is present alone; (2) When the corresponding (x/m)'s are plotted, straight lines with negative slopes are obtained; (3) The slopes of these straight lines vary with the concentration of the acid being displaced; (4) The order of the displacing power, measured by the slope, is HCl> CH_3COOH > H_2C_2O_4, while the order of adsorption is just the reverse; (5) Equation (1) is not valid. HCl-H_2C_2O_4 system: (6) The adsorption of HCl is decreased; (7) When its concentration is higher than about 0.005 N, the adsorption of oxalic acid is increased; at lower concentrations the adsorption is decreased; (8) The higher the concentration of HCl is, the more pronounced will be the increase of adsorption of oxalic acid; (9) Corresponding (x/m)'s give straight lines whose slopes change sign as C_ox increases beyond 0.005 N. From (3) and (4) it is concluded that the observed decrease of adsorption is not due to simple displacement. Based on the hypothesis that it is primarily the solvent which is displaced with the subsequent shift of equilibrium, a mechanism is proposed to account for the effect of one solute on the adsorption of another, which seems to agree with all the observed results. The increase of the adsorption of oxalic acid disproves conclusively the displacement theory. The fact that there is a critical concentration below which the adsorption of oxalic acid is decreased indicates that there are two opposite influences at work. It is suggested that three factors contribute to the increase of adsorption of oxalic acid: (a) the decrease of dissociation; (b) the lowering of solubility; and (c) electrostatic effect. To determine the relative importance of these factors requires further investigation. Finally, an empirical equation involving three constants has been derived to represent the adsorption of oxalic acid in the presence of hydrochloric acid.

在此工作中我們研究了三種混合酸的吸附。在鹽酸-酸的體系中,鹽酸增加糖炭對於草酸的吸附量,倘若草酸的濃度超過0.005N。這個事實否定了在混合酸中各溶質間的作用是彼此頂替的說法。在醋酸-草酸及醋酸-鹽酸的混合溶液中,各酸的吸附量皆較其單獨存在時低。根據實驗的數據我們指出了各家說法的可疑之點。我們認為在混合溶液中吸附量之減少主要是因為溶質甲頂替了表面上的溶劑,因而使溶質乙的吸附量降低。若是溶質甲能使溶質乙的電離度或溶度降低,或增加溶質乙的Gegen-ion,則能使乙的吸附量增加。因為Langmuir式的混合吸附公式不能代表吸附之增加,我們提出了一個可以此較滿意的代表實驗結果的三常數經驗公式。各溶質的吸附量皆成直線關係。對此結果我們不能作定量的解釋,雖然此種現象與我們的假設並不矛盾。

In industry and in laboratory work oftentimes we are confronted with the problem of electromagnetic shielding between two bodies. In many ceases it is sufficient to have electrostatic shielding, and thus the interaction between two bodies can be determined by examining the mutual capacitance between them. When the interfering body is small and can be considered as a point source, its effect in the presence of another grounded conductor (in our case, the metallic shield) can be calculated by means of the...

In industry and in laboratory work oftentimes we are confronted with the problem of electromagnetic shielding between two bodies. In many ceases it is sufficient to have electrostatic shielding, and thus the interaction between two bodies can be determined by examining the mutual capacitance between them. When the interfering body is small and can be considered as a point source, its effect in the presence of another grounded conductor (in our case, the metallic shield) can be calculated by means of the Green's function for this grounded conductor surface. As the Green's functions for various surfaces are well established so these various forms of shielding can be handled by the method proposed in this paper.

在工业上和在实验室中,我们都会遇到两个物体之间的电磁屏蔽的问题。在许多应用中,我们只须注意到两个物体之间的静电屏蔽就够了,因而它们之间的相互作用可以从计算它们之间的相互电容来定出。当干扰物体的尺寸很小因而可以认为是一个点电源时,则当它与另一个接地导体(即问题中的电磁屏蔽)共同存在时所生的效应即可由这一个接地导体的格林函数表出。关于格林函数的知识已有很丰富的积累,因而本文中所提出的方法是可以解决多种多样的问题的。 文中讨论了扁椭球坐标和长椭球坐标中的格林函数,并对带虚数自变数的勒讓特函数的若干个公式作了推导,因为这些有用的公式在流行的文献中还未见到。 导体表面任意形状的小孔的问题是值得讨论的,特别是有限大导体表面上的小孔问题,本文从理论上验证了文献上已经提出来的实验结果。最后我们给出如下两个物体之间的相互电容公式:其中一个是在带小孔的闭合电磁屏蔽体的另一个之内。

 
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