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secondary
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     The secondary disaster
     二次灾难
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     On the secondary spectrum
     关于二级光谱问题的探讨
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  secondary
The 3D QSAR studies using Apex 3D expert system led to the identification of the pharmacophore in terms of common biophoric sites and secondary sites for interacting with PPARγ receptors.
      
1) for R isomers with correlation coefficient r =0.9, chance= 0.05 and match= 0.47 has four biophoric sites and three secondary sites while the best model for S isomers (model no.
      
2) with correlation coefficient r =0.86, chance =0.01 and match = 0.45 has three biophoric sites and two secondary sites.
      
Biological Evaluation of a Secondary Metabolite, 9-O-methylfusarubin, from Fusarium oxysporum
      
In this paper a new mathematical model of secondary frost heave is presented.
      
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A new species of tapeworm Bothriocephalus gowkongensis sp. nov. is reported for Ctenopharyngodon idellus from Gowkong, near Canton, South China. The parasite is of great economic importance owing to the high mortality of the host caused by the infection and consequently heavy losses to the freshwater fishery industry. A preliminary note is given on the life cycle, which involves unidentified cyclops as intermediate hosts. The eggs are fully embryonated when laid and it is the first Bothriocephalus konwn with...

A new species of tapeworm Bothriocephalus gowkongensis sp. nov. is reported for Ctenopharyngodon idellus from Gowkong, near Canton, South China. The parasite is of great economic importance owing to the high mortality of the host caused by the infection and consequently heavy losses to the freshwater fishery industry. A preliminary note is given on the life cycle, which involves unidentified cyclops as intermediate hosts. The eggs are fully embryonated when laid and it is the first Bothriocephalus konwn with this phenomenon. From a study of the variation in a large number of specimens of B. gowkongensis sp. nov., the author considers B. opsariichthydis Yamaguti, 1934 a synonym of B. achilognathi Yamaguti, 1934.SPECIFIC DIAGNOSIS: Bothriocephalus Rudolphi, 1808 emended Lühe, 1899, with generic characters. About 35-80 mm. in length and 0.5-1.2 mm. in width. Segments with or without distinct segmentation. Slight indications of secondary segmentation might occur in all segments. Immature segments broader than long, mature segments square and gravid segments longer than broad. Scolex large, fleshy, heart-shaped with distinct terminal disc and well-developed fleshy bothria. Inner longitudinal muscle bundles extremely weak and sparsely scattered. 50-90 testes. Cirrus immediately in front of vagina. Cirro-vaginal aperture median or slightly lateral between mid-line and posterior third of segment. Ovary near posterior of proglottid. Uterus convoluted, voluminous, and confined to median field. Uterine sac-may encroach on posterior border of preceeding segment or be placed some distance away. Vitellaria in complete circle in cortex. Like the testes, they are continuous from segment to segment. Eggs thin-shelled, operculated, fully embryonated when laid, measuring 33-38 53-54μType host: Ctenopharyngodon idellus.Habitat: Intestine.Type: To be deposited with the Department of Parasitology, Hun-Nan Medical College, Canton, China.Co-types: In author's collection, and to be deposited with the Depertment of Biology, Chung-Shan University, Canton, China.

1.文中记载草鱼腸中新种絛蟲B. gowkongensisn. sp. 是由广东九江採得的。 2.本蟲促使宿主的死亡率,使淡水渔业受到很大的损失。 3.由头槽絛蟲生活史的初步观察,发现它的卵排出时,已有发育完全的胚胎。 4.从研究大量新种标本的变化中,作者认为B. opsariichthydis Yamaguti, 1934是B. achilognathi Yamaguti, 1934的同种异名。

(1) This paper deals with the external morphology of six species of no-todontid larvae belonging to five different genera. Their common characteristicsare as follows: (a) With lobed clypeal membrane, the membrane between theclypeus and the labrum. (b) The mandibles are not dentate but evenly archedon the outer margin. (c) With eversible prothoracic gland (except Melalophaanachoreta Fabr.). (2) According to the chaetotaxy of the head, the notodontid larvae may beclassified as three different types: (a) With primary...

(1) This paper deals with the external morphology of six species of no-todontid larvae belonging to five different genera. Their common characteristicsare as follows: (a) With lobed clypeal membrane, the membrane between theclypeus and the labrum. (b) The mandibles are not dentate but evenly archedon the outer margin. (c) With eversible prothoracic gland (except Melalophaanachoreta Fabr.). (2) According to the chaetotaxy of the head, the notodontid larvae may beclassified as three different types: (a) With primary setae only. (b) Both theprimary and secondary setae are present, but the former are much stouter andlonger. (c) The primary and secondary setae are unseparable. (3) The variation of the structures of the labrum and mandible may beadopted as taxonomic characteristics. (4) As regard to the setal arrangement of the body, the following typicalforms may be recognizable: (a) With primary setae only. (b) With secondarysetae. (c) With both the secondary setae and verrucae, as the former are arrang-ed in groups, the nomenclature of verruca are adopted in naming them. (5) The close phhlogenetic relationships between the families Notodontidae,Noctuidae and Arctiidae are made evident by the comparative study of theirexternal morphology, especially the chaetotaxy of the body.

(1)本文比较了六种天社蛾幼虫(隶属于五个不同的属)的外部形态,它们在构造上具有下列的共同特点:(甲)唇基膜具有一定的叶状构造。(乙)上颚尖端的外缘呈弧形,无齿。(丙)六种幼虫中有五种具有前胸翻缩腺。 (2)天社蛾幼虫头部的毛具有下列几个类型:(甲)仅具原生毛。(乙)虽具有次生毛,但由于原生毛较粗是尚易于识别。(丙)由于次生毛过分密集;致原生毛无从区分。 (3)天社蛾幼虫的上唇和上颚的构造可供分类学上的应用。 (4)天社蛾幼虫体毛的分布,可分下列几个类型:(甲)除腹足外身体的其他区域仅具原生毛。(乙)身体各部均有次生毛。(丙)兼具有次生毛和毛疣。由于次生毛常有区域性的集中现象,可以按照毛群加以命名。 (5)按照幼虫的构造,尤其是体毛的分布情况,天社蛾科和夜蛾科、灯蛾科具有较近的系统关系。

Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith...

Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith different climatic conditions but also from field to field under similarclimatic conditions.Our data record a range of 18-42 days.Circumstantial eviden-ces indicate that this variation is due,on the one hand,to the rainfall whichinfluences the amounts of sporulation and the frequency of penetration of thepathogene,and on the other hand,to cultural and other factors that determinethe vigor and the rate of aging of the plant itself. Actual counts of lesions formed from secondary infection in the early periodof the spread of the disease in a potato field,reveal that their distribution bearsdirect relation with the direction of the prevailing wind.It is estimated that over90% of spores fall within a rectangle of 800 sq.m.around a diseased plantcenter along the loci of wind directions. On the basis of possible function of absorbed copper ions in the enhancementof plant resistance to late blight,field experiments have been conducted by using0.1 - 0.2% copper sulfate solutions as spray.Results show that spraying 2-3 timesat 7-10 days' interval,started soon after the appearance of diseased plant center,gives remarkable control of late blight and corresponding reduction of loss inyield.The copper sulfate spray,though less effective and stable in comparisonwith the bordeaux spray,has the advantage of being more economical and easierto apply.Further experiments with the pu:pose of modifying and improving themethod are in progress.

從馬鈴薯的開花期起可能在田间出现的晚疫病中心病株是本田當年病害即將大量發生的重要標誌。每次再侵染的潛育期,在張家口壩下地區的氣候下,大約4天。從病害的最初發現到全面枯死所經過的日期囚種種外界環境條件而有很大的差別,我們所觀察到的是18—42天。根據調查资料來推測,一方面,促進病菌孢子形成数量和侵入數量的雨水,另一方面,决定植株衰老速度的栽培條件,是這種差別的主要原因。田間再侵染所形成的病斑之分佈情况說明病菌孢子的傳播与風向有直接的關係。估計90%以土的孢子落在中心病株附近順着風向的800平方米的長方形面積上。根據馬鈴薯地上部吸收銅素以提高共抗病力的可能性,利用0.1—0.2%硫酸銅溶液作為噴射劑,在田间中心病株發現的時期開始每隔7—10天喷射共2—3次,可以顯著地降低晚疫病的為害,提高產量。這個方法在共效驗及穩定性上不如波爾多液,在藥劑費用的節省及施用的方便上則勝之?椒ǖ母牧己吞岣哒谶M一步研究中。

 
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