Correction of Nonlinearity of SPM Scanning in Biomedicine

SPM在生物医学扫描中的非线性研究与校正

at 530 ℃,the greatest correction of velocities in the sample X and sample Y were up to -0.270 km/s and -0.118 km/s with the decreases of 3 3% and 1 5%,respectively.

After correction of essential risk factors of coronary heart disease, angiotensinogen 174MM gene still increased significantly the risk of myocardial infarction (Odds ratio was 3.66, P= 0.018).

Relativistic correction of heavy quarkonium spectra were analysed with a phenomenological confinement potenlial of the form U_c(r)=1/2kr~2+λ_1r~4+λ_2r~6+C.

Force-reflecting teleoperation of robots based on on-line correction of a virtual model

The dynamic correction of collimation errors of CT slicing pictures

Finally, experiments are carried out to test the characteristics of the pump and to verify the correction of the theory on this pump.

Error measurement and assemble error correction of a 3D-step-gauge

The use of different methods of fixing and fermentation provides activation or inhibition of these processes, thereby making it possible to carry out target-oriented correction of the alkaloid composition of the medicinal plants studied.

Some practical problems arising from the adoption of the absolute scale ol temperature as standard in place of the Celsius scale are discussed. The absolute scale is fixed by assigning a numerical value (say T_3=273.1700) to the triple point of water. The problems 'considered include the correction of gas thermometer readings, the specification of: the platinum resistance thermometer and of the platinum thermocouple. It is pointed out that, when the absolute scale has been chosen as standard, the determination...

Some practical problems arising from the adoption of the absolute scale ol temperature as standard in place of the Celsius scale are discussed. The absolute scale is fixed by assigning a numerical value (say T_3=273.1700) to the triple point of water. The problems 'considered include the correction of gas thermometer readings, the specification of: the platinum resistance thermometer and of the platinum thermocouple. It is pointed out that, when the absolute scale has been chosen as standard, the determination of the absolute temperature of the ice point and the correction of gas thermometers become one and the same task. It is further pointed out, that the accuracy in the experimental determination of the absolute temperature will be greatly increased.

As in general in all time service works, the problem is to obtain and keep an accurate time, to determine the corrections of standard clock and to transmit time signals. This present report is concerned only with the last two items. At Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, radio method was introduced into time service in 1914. Some rigorous changes occured in 1926, a number of instruments were installed. Many of them are still in use. In 1940, the observatory began to transmit rhythmic signals twice a day. From then...

As in general in all time service works, the problem is to obtain and keep an accurate time, to determine the corrections of standard clock and to transmit time signals. This present report is concerned only with the last two items. At Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory, radio method was introduced into time service in 1914. Some rigorous changes occured in 1926, a number of instruments were installed. Many of them are still in use. In 1940, the observatory began to transmit rhythmic signals twice a day. From then on until December 1950, no further developments were made. The main instruments we had in 1950 were: a 80mm Prin transit with impersonal micrometer, two Leroy pendulums as standard clocks, three astronomical clocks and their slaves, equipments for receiving and recording time signals, etc. Since 1952, we began to make some improvements, especially on rhythmic signals. First, we converted a common clock into a "transmitting clock" to obtain 61 impulses in every minute and second by making use of photoelectric arrangement (Fig. 1), we succeeded to raise the accuracy of our signals. To improve signal accuracy further, we have to deal with various sources of errors which are conditioned by our equipments. The most important among these are: 1. error in prediction of corrections of the standard clocks, 2. error in the adjustment of the transmitting clock and 3. time lag in transmission. In consequence of last three-year's research, these errors are reasonably reduced. The first two are now±0~s.007 and ±0~s.005 respectively and the last is small. Accordingly, the deviation of time signals XSG has been supposed to be±0~s.01. However, this is not enough for the requirement. The more efforts are being made to bring further improvements. But as the requirements for signal accuracy is far above what the present installation can offer, some new equipments are ordered and they will joint in force with the old ones in the nearest future. Since February 1954, Zi-Ka-Wei Observatory has cooperated with the time service departments in Soviet Union. This has been helpful to our works in every way.

An experimental verification of the theoretical peak current equation forreversible electrode reactions of the Randles-Sevcik oscillopolarography, i_p=Kn~(3/2)D~(1/2)m~(2/3)θ~(2/3)α~(1/2)cμΑ, is carried out with both single- and multisweep methods. Themultisweep method is essentially that of Delahay, while a simplified circuit isdevised for the single-sweep procedure. The constant K in the above equation has been worked out by Randlesand Sevcikc, but their values differ by some twenty-one percent. Experimentalresults...

An experimental verification of the theoretical peak current equation forreversible electrode reactions of the Randles-Sevcik oscillopolarography, i_p=Kn~(3/2)D~(1/2)m~(2/3)θ~(2/3)α~(1/2)cμΑ, is carried out with both single- and multisweep methods. Themultisweep method is essentially that of Delahay, while a simplified circuit isdevised for the single-sweep procedure. The constant K in the above equation has been worked out by Randlesand Sevcikc, but their values differ by some twenty-one percent. Experimentalresults as to which K value is correct have been contradictory. The authorspoint out that Sevcik's value of K is too low, due to the error in choosing too largea unit in his numerical integration. By taking smaller units and reperformingthe integration, the K value increases and approaches that of Randles. Thus thecorrectness of Randles' K value is ascertained and this value is used in calculatingthe theoretical slope. Their single-sweep results, with concentrations from 2×10~(-4) to 1×10~(-3) m/l andα~(1/2) from 1 to 4 volts/sec, agreement between experimental and theoretical slopesis obtained in the case of Tl~+ in m NaCl. In the case of Cd~(++) in m NaCl, experi-mental results deviate from the theoretical value, and the deviation increases withincreasing c and α~(1/2). Contrary to an unproven idea of Delahay, i_p obtained bymultisweep method is higher than that by the single-sweep procedure. However,in calculation of the theoretical values, a value of 15.0×16~(-6) obtained by polarLographic method is used for D of Tl~(+) in m NaCl. The use of the value of Dat infinite dilution is thought to be unjustified. If a D value of 15.0×10~(-6) is used,Delahay's results of Tl~+ in KNO_3 would be higher than the theoretical equationinstead of agreeing with it. This fact seems to support the findings of this paper. Various methods of correcting for capacity currents are compared and discus-sed. The authors point out that at α~(1/2) less than 2 volts/sec, the method of drawingan hbrizontal line introduces no appreciable error while at, high α, various methodsyield different results. This fact lowers the accurraey of data obtained at high α. The iR drop in the electrolytic cell and on the series resistance causes themeasured α to be different from the a actually applied on the drop electrode. Anelementary approximate correction of this effect is mentioned. Results after thiscorrection show that the deviation of Cd~(++) from theoretical at high c and α maybe due partly to this effect.