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initiated from
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     Jury System, mainly adopted by countries of common law, initiated from the 11th Century’s Britain and preliminarily consummated by the 13th Century.
     陪审团制主要为英美法系国家所采用,起源于11世纪的英国,至13世纪初步完备,此种陪审制度以美国为代表。
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     The slow calcium waves initiated from the plasma membrane and spread across the whole cell with a speed of 0.025-0.047 μm/s and showed a spatial heterogeneity.
     外毛细胞(outerhaircel,OHC)受药物或机械刺激后,其钙信号起源于一侧质膜,可形成钙波传向全细胞,对其中1个OHC测得传播速度为0.025-0.047μm/s。
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     Five separated nectaries all initiated from the epidermis of the ovary basis and its interior cells which is 2-4 layer thick.
     荇菜的5枚花蜜腺均起源于子房基部的表皮及表皮内的2-4层细胞。
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     (2) somatic embryogenesis was initiated from the isolated single embryogenie cells in the loose callus near the vascularity of the hypocotyl and radicle;
     (2) 体细胞胚起源于下胚轴及胚根维管束周围愈伤组织中单个离散的胚性细胞;
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     The flaking cracks in medium carbon steel are initiated from surface layer.
     中碳钢剥落裂纹起源于表面;
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  “initiated from”译为未确定词的双语例句
     in medium MG2, Kanamycin-resistance regeneration shoots were obtained from hypocoty1. Only firm green callus were initiated from cotyledons. Medium MG1 was Ms+BA0 5+TIBA0 2+Kan200+Cb500+3% Sucrose, medium MG2 was MS+BA0 5+NAA0 2+Kan50+Cb500+3% Sucrose.
     从叶柄及下胚轴诱导再生芽的诱导培养基分别为 :MS +BA0 5+TIBA0 2 +3 %蔗糖 +Kan2 0 0 +Cb50 0、MS+BA0 1 5+NAA0 2 +3 %蔗糖 +Kan1 0 0 +Cb50 0。
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     The callus culture in Coptis chinensis (cultivated and wild varietes) were initiated from young leaf segment explants on 6.7-V and Er medium containing 1-2mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.1-1mg/L KT.
     利用中国野生和家栽黄连幼叶切块,分别接种在含2,4—D1~2mg/1、KT0.1~1mg/1的6.7—V和ER培养基上诱导愈伤组织的形成。
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     Signals initiated from many leukocyte adhesion molecules (LFA-1, CD28, CD31 and L-selectin) can induce the alteration of the F-actin-based cytoskeleton.
     已知许多白细胞黏附分子如LFA-1、CD28、CD31及L-selectin等起始的信号可引起F-actin细胞骨架的变化,那么,起始黏附过程中PSGL-1在与配体结合时,转导的胞外信号是否也可引起白细胞F-actin细胞骨架的改变?
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     The embryogenic callus was initiated from the shoots,stems,leaves and floral discs of Tetraena mongolica in MS medium with 2,4 D 0.5 mg/L and 6 BA 0.1 mg/L.
     2)基本培养基为改良Ms固体培养基:a.附加0.1mg/L6-BA和0.5mg/L,2.4-D可诱导产生大量的淡黄色疏松状愈伤组织;
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     A variety of upland cotton, Jiwu2031, was studied on somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration. Callus was initiated from hypocotyls explants on a callus initiation medium, modified MS with 0.1mg/L IAA+0.1mg/L2,4-D+0.1mg/L KT.
     以陆地棉冀无2031无菌苗下胚轴为外植体,在MS中附加激素0.1mg/LIAA+0.1mg/L2,4-D+0.1mg/LKT的培养基上诱导出愈伤组织。
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     The RMS algorithm was initiated by K.
     RMS算法是K.
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     initiated the intention of Historian.
     首倡史家之心术。
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     Thinking initiated from SARS Epidemic Situation
     SARS疫情引发的思考
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  initiated from
Its expression initiated from phase II oocytes after vitellogenesis, and was consistent with the mRNA transcription.
      
To develop a rabbit corneal endothelial (RCE) cell line, in vitro culture of RCE cells was initiated from Oryctolagus curiculus corneas and a novel RCE cell line was established in this study.
      
Results Overall, a significant increase in blood pressure and decrease in R-R interval occurred throughout phases I-IV of the Valsalva maneuvers that were initiated from end-expiratory lung volume as compared to total lung capacity.
      
In quantitative studies with selected strains it was found that growth could be initiated from as few as 200 organisms/ml.
      
The electrical tree initiated from the side of the needle electrode was not from the tip where the reinforced field is the highest.
      
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Callus cultures initiated from leaves of haploid and diploid Nicotiana tabacum were transferred to a suspension culture and then treated with 0.25% EMS.Selec- tion of nutrient mutant cells was carried out by planting the culture in a medium with 1% beef extract without any inorganic nitrogen.In this medium the normal cells turned brown and quickly died,while mutant cells remained viable and its fresh weight increased fourteen-fold after 14 days.This trait was stable as mutant cells grown at inorganic nitrogen...

Callus cultures initiated from leaves of haploid and diploid Nicotiana tabacum were transferred to a suspension culture and then treated with 0.25% EMS.Selec- tion of nutrient mutant cells was carried out by planting the culture in a medium with 1% beef extract without any inorganic nitrogen.In this medium the normal cells turned brown and quickly died,while mutant cells remained viable and its fresh weight increased fourteen-fold after 14 days.This trait was stable as mutant cells grown at inorganic nitrogen medium without beef extract for 42 days(subcultures for 6 passages)were still adapted to beef extract medium. The relationship between various levels of beef extract(medium containing no inorganic nitrogen)and growth of normal and mutant cells was studied.Without beef extract,the normal cells were still viable but grew very slowly.The mutant cells were able to grow at 1% while stopped at 4%.It shows that some growth in- hibitory factors were contained in the beef extract and the mutant cells were resisted to these growth inhibitory factors. In order to regenerate plants,mutant callus was inoculated onto a beef medium extract containing 2 mg benzyladenine and 0.5 mg NAA per liter.After one month about 10 shoots were obtained(2/3 green shoots,1/3 albino shoots),while all other mutant calluses could not be regenerated.All the shoots could not produce any roots except those subcultured in the inorganic nitrogen medium.

从单倍体或二倍体烟草叶片诱发的愈伤组织,转入液体培养,然后用0.25%EMs(甲基磺酸乙酯)处理,引起突变。在1%牛肉膏培养基(没有无机氮的)上筛选突变细胞。正常细胞迅速褐化死亡,而突变细胞能继续生长,培养14天后鲜重增加了14倍。把突变细胞转入没有牛肉膏的无机氮培养基上,经6代42天培养,仍能生长,表明突变型的特性是比较稳定的。在牛肉膏含量为零时,正常细胞仍保持活力,只是生长十分缓慢。突变细胞虽能在1%牛肉膏培养基上生长,但达4%时生长也停止了。表明在牛肉膏中有某种抑制正常细胞生长的因子,而突变细胞具有对此抑制因子的抗性。为了诱导愈伤组织分化植株,突变细胞移入牛肉膏分化培养基(每升含2毫克苄基嘌呤和0.5毫克萘乙酸)。一月后得到约10个芽,其中2/3是绿芽,1/3是白化芽。其他突变细胞株不具备再分化芽的能力。表明突变细胞株之间有差别。绿芽在牛肉膏培养基上生长越来越慢,也不能出根,除非把它们再移到无机氮的培养基上。

Initiated from Graham's and Landauer's criticism, we discuss the problem of applicable range and practical value of the Glansdorff-Prigogine criterion and of the theorem of minimum entropy production in this paper. We point out that the Glansd-orff-Prigogine criterion as a thermodynamic theory is rigorous, but in the practical problem of many variables, it has no applicable value. And, the applicable range of the theorem of minimum entropy production is much smaller than that of other theorem's in the...

Initiated from Graham's and Landauer's criticism, we discuss the problem of applicable range and practical value of the Glansdorff-Prigogine criterion and of the theorem of minimum entropy production in this paper. We point out that the Glansd-orff-Prigogine criterion as a thermodynamic theory is rigorous, but in the practical problem of many variables, it has no applicable value. And, the applicable range of the theorem of minimum entropy production is much smaller than that of other theorem's in the linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics, therefore, to use it as a principle is not adequate. But landauer's criticism about the theorem of minimum entropy production is wrong.

起因于Graham和Landauer的批评,我们在本文中讨论了Glansdorff-Prigogine判据和最小熵产生定理的应用范围及实用价值问题。文中指出Glansdorff-Prigogine判据作为热力学理论是严格的,但在多变量的实际问题中没有实用价值。同时指出最小熵产生定理的应用范围比线性非平衡热力学中其他定理的适用范围要小得多,因此把它作为一个原理是不恰当的。但是Landauer对最小熵产生定理的批评是错误的。

This paper deals with the response of plants to ozone effects. Experiments have been carried on for three years under artificial mimic conditions. Ozone was generated through ionization of oxygen in the ambient air by high electrical pressure of over 13,000 volts. 93 plant species have been subjected to fumigation with ozone. The ozone concentrations ranged from 0.7ppm to 1.5ppm. The purpose in this paper lies in the searching after the following aspects, namely: (1) the susceptibi lityand resistance of various...

This paper deals with the response of plants to ozone effects. Experiments have been carried on for three years under artificial mimic conditions. Ozone was generated through ionization of oxygen in the ambient air by high electrical pressure of over 13,000 volts. 93 plant species have been subjected to fumigation with ozone. The ozone concentrations ranged from 0.7ppm to 1.5ppm. The purpose in this paper lies in the searching after the following aspects, namely: (1) the susceptibi lityand resistance of various plants to ozone injury; (2) types of injured symptoms to ozone and relationship among them; (3) degree of maturity of leaves in relation to sensitivity. Some preliminary conclusions are as follows:Symptoms of ozone injury vary considerably with species or varieties.Among the 93 fumigated species, 55 of them manifested conspicuous visible injured symptoms, in which 24 species were appraised most sensitive to ozone.38 species failed to develop injury during exposure to ozone and they were looked upon as resistant plants, of which many are superior greening trees in the region of Lanzhou and northwestern China.A list of plant species which are relatively sensitive to ozone is provided in this paper. Five types of ozone injured symptoms have been identified through fumigation experiments in our laboratory, They are:(1) Chlorosis;(2)upper-surface or either-surface bleaching;(3) pigmented lesion; (4)bifacial necrosis, and (5) membranous or papery areas due to the sinking of either surface of a leaf. The above symptoms are not consistent and should be considered as different stages in the development of ozone damages. Symptoms often initiate from chlorosis or bleaching spots and then develop in accordance with two courses and finally arrive at necrosis or membranous areas. The relation among them constitutes a frame of netting system.In our experiments, plant leaves with different degree in maturity expressed different susceptibility to ozone damage. 61.81 percents of injury occurred on the matured leaves of various species, 18.18 percents on semi-matured leaves,16.36 percents on young leaves and 3.63 percents were indifferent, Such a result is by no mean in accord with the informations reported by certain foreign researchers.

利用电离空气发生臭氧,对93种植物进行了309种次模拟熏气实验;在植物对臭氧的外部症状反应方面得到一些初步结果:(1)不同植物对臭氧有不同的反应,有55种植物出现明显症状反应,其中24种很敏感;有38种植物对臭氧具抗性,多数适宜作兰州地区的绿化树种。(2)臭氧伤害植物叶片在外观上可以区分为褪绿、漂白斑,色素斑、两面坏死、膜质斑五种症状类型。这些类型并非固定不变,而是彼此关联,实为臭氧对叶片内部结构伤害发展各阶段在外观的表现,总的分为褪绿与漂白斑两条发展路线,最后发展到坏死和膜质斑,可以联成一个发展系统图式。(3)各级叶龄对臭氧的反应也是不相同的,以老龄叶易被臭氧所伤害,约占61.81%的种类,中龄叶易受伤害的种占18.18%,幼龄叶占16.36%,有3.63%的植物受害不分叶龄,这一结果与国外报道不尽相同。

 
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