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initiated from
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    The results are as follows:[1] The sporangium is initiated from a single surface cell which developed to form a sporangium by mitosis. The young sporangium consists of a layer of sporangial wall cells, two layers of periplasmism tapetum cells and the inside sporocytes.
    [1] 孢子囊起源于单细胞,单细胞经过有丝分裂形成孢子囊,幼孢子囊由外到内由一层孢子囊壁细胞、二层周缘质团型绒毡层细胞和中间的孢子母细胞构成。
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    (2) somatic embryogenesis was initiated from the isolated single embryogenie cells in the loose callus near the vascularity of the hypocotyl and radicle;
    (2) 体细胞胚起源于下胚轴及胚根维管束周围愈伤组织中单个离散的胚性细胞;
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    The slow calcium waves initiated from the plasma membrane and spread across the whole cell with a speed of 0.025-0.047 μm/s and showed a spatial heterogeneity.
    外毛细胞(outerhaircel,OHC)受药物或机械刺激后,其钙信号起源于一侧质膜,可形成钙波传向全细胞,对其中1个OHC测得传播速度为0.025-0.047μm/s。
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    Five separated nectaries all initiated from the epidermis of the ovary basis and its interior cells which is 2-4 layer thick.
    荇菜的5枚花蜜腺均起源于子房基部的表皮及表皮内的2-4层细胞。
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  “initiated from”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Immature zygotic embryos of Quercus variabilis Bl. were excised and cultured on MS basal medium containing 0.25 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyace-tic acid and 0.5 mg/L 6-benzyl aminopurine. Callus was initiated from these embryos within 6 weeks.
    以栓皮栎未成熟合子胚为外植体,在添加0.25mg/L 2,4-D和0.5mg/L 6-BA的MS培养基上6周可诱导产生2种类型的胚性愈伤组织,一种表面具光泽、白色;
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    We cloned xTbx6 and examinedthe expression pattern of xTbx6. We find that xTbx6 is initiated from earlygastrula stage (St10+) at ventral and lateral mesoderm.
    我们克隆了Tbx6 基因的全序, 检测了Tbx6 表达图式。 发现Tbx6 从St10+ 时期开始在旁侧和腹侧中胚层表达。
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    Analysis on DNA replication patterns demonstrated that the activation of intra-S-phase checkpoint inhibited the DNA replication initiated from late origins.
    DNA复制模式的分析证明激活的S期检查点抑制了由晚期起始点(late origin)起始的DNA复制。
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    Signals initiated from many leukocyte adhesion molecules (LFA-1, CD28, CD31 and L-selectin) can induce the alteration of the F-actin-based cytoskeleton.
    已知许多白细胞黏附分子如LFA-1、CD28、CD31及L-selectin等起始的信号可引起F-actin细胞骨架的变化,那么,起始黏附过程中PSGL-1在与配体结合时,转导的胞外信号是否也可引起白细胞F-actin细胞骨架的改变?
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    Six new cell lines were initiated from the larval fat bodies of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which were designated as IOZCAS-Spex-II, IOZCAS-Spex-III, IOZCAS-Spex-IV, IOZCAS-Spex-V, IOZCAS-Spex-VI, IOZCAS-Spex-VII, respectively.
    运用上述方法,本研究共建立了7株昆虫幼虫脂肪体细胞系(IOZCAS-Spex-Ⅱ,IOZCAS-Spex-Ⅲ,IOZCAS-Spex-Ⅳ,IOZCAS-Spex-Ⅴ,IOZCAS-Spex-Ⅵ,IOZCAS-Spex-Ⅶ,IOZCAS-Ha-Ⅰ),其中6株来自甜菜夜蛾(Spodoptera exigua),1株来自棉铃虫(Helicoverpa aimigera)。
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  initiated from
Its expression initiated from phase II oocytes after vitellogenesis, and was consistent with the mRNA transcription.
      
To develop a rabbit corneal endothelial (RCE) cell line, in vitro culture of RCE cells was initiated from Oryctolagus curiculus corneas and a novel RCE cell line was established in this study.
      
Results Overall, a significant increase in blood pressure and decrease in R-R interval occurred throughout phases I-IV of the Valsalva maneuvers that were initiated from end-expiratory lung volume as compared to total lung capacity.
      
In quantitative studies with selected strains it was found that growth could be initiated from as few as 200 organisms/ml.
      
The electrical tree initiated from the side of the needle electrode was not from the tip where the reinforced field is the highest.
      
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Callus cultures initiated from leaves of haploid and diploid Nicotiana tabacum were transferred to a suspension culture and then treated with 0.25% EMS.Selec- tion of nutrient mutant cells was carried out by planting the culture in a medium with 1% beef extract without any inorganic nitrogen.In this medium the normal cells turned brown and quickly died,while mutant cells remained viable and its fresh weight increased fourteen-fold after 14 days.This trait was stable as mutant cells grown at inorganic nitrogen...

Callus cultures initiated from leaves of haploid and diploid Nicotiana tabacum were transferred to a suspension culture and then treated with 0.25% EMS.Selec- tion of nutrient mutant cells was carried out by planting the culture in a medium with 1% beef extract without any inorganic nitrogen.In this medium the normal cells turned brown and quickly died,while mutant cells remained viable and its fresh weight increased fourteen-fold after 14 days.This trait was stable as mutant cells grown at inorganic nitrogen medium without beef extract for 42 days(subcultures for 6 passages)were still adapted to beef extract medium. The relationship between various levels of beef extract(medium containing no inorganic nitrogen)and growth of normal and mutant cells was studied.Without beef extract,the normal cells were still viable but grew very slowly.The mutant cells were able to grow at 1% while stopped at 4%.It shows that some growth in- hibitory factors were contained in the beef extract and the mutant cells were resisted to these growth inhibitory factors. In order to regenerate plants,mutant callus was inoculated onto a beef medium extract containing 2 mg benzyladenine and 0.5 mg NAA per liter.After one month about 10 shoots were obtained(2/3 green shoots,1/3 albino shoots),while all other mutant calluses could not be regenerated.All the shoots could not produce any roots except those subcultured in the inorganic nitrogen medium.

从单倍体或二倍体烟草叶片诱发的愈伤组织,转入液体培养,然后用0.25%EMs(甲基磺酸乙酯)处理,引起突变。在1%牛肉膏培养基(没有无机氮的)上筛选突变细胞。正常细胞迅速褐化死亡,而突变细胞能继续生长,培养14天后鲜重增加了14倍。把突变细胞转入没有牛肉膏的无机氮培养基上,经6代42天培养,仍能生长,表明突变型的特性是比较稳定的。在牛肉膏含量为零时,正常细胞仍保持活力,只是生长十分缓慢。突变细胞虽能在1%牛肉膏培养基上生长,但达4%时生长也停止了。表明在牛肉膏中有某种抑制正常细胞生长的因子,而突变细胞具有对此抑制因子的抗性。为了诱导愈伤组织分化植株,突变细胞移入牛肉膏分化培养基(每升含2毫克苄基嘌呤和0.5毫克萘乙酸)。一月后得到约10个芽,其中2/3是绿芽,1/3是白化芽。其他突变细胞株不具备再分化芽的能力。表明突变细胞株之间有差别。绿芽在牛肉膏培养基上生长越来越慢,也不能出根,除非把它们再移到无机氮的培养基上。

This paper deals with the response of plants to ozone effects. Experiments have been carried on for three years under artificial mimic conditions. Ozone was generated through ionization of oxygen in the ambient air by high electrical pressure of over 13,000 volts. 93 plant species have been subjected to fumigation with ozone. The ozone concentrations ranged from 0.7ppm to 1.5ppm. The purpose in this paper lies in the searching after the following aspects, namely: (1) the susceptibi lityand resistance of various...

This paper deals with the response of plants to ozone effects. Experiments have been carried on for three years under artificial mimic conditions. Ozone was generated through ionization of oxygen in the ambient air by high electrical pressure of over 13,000 volts. 93 plant species have been subjected to fumigation with ozone. The ozone concentrations ranged from 0.7ppm to 1.5ppm. The purpose in this paper lies in the searching after the following aspects, namely: (1) the susceptibi lityand resistance of various plants to ozone injury; (2) types of injured symptoms to ozone and relationship among them; (3) degree of maturity of leaves in relation to sensitivity. Some preliminary conclusions are as follows:Symptoms of ozone injury vary considerably with species or varieties.Among the 93 fumigated species, 55 of them manifested conspicuous visible injured symptoms, in which 24 species were appraised most sensitive to ozone.38 species failed to develop injury during exposure to ozone and they were looked upon as resistant plants, of which many are superior greening trees in the region of Lanzhou and northwestern China.A list of plant species which are relatively sensitive to ozone is provided in this paper. Five types of ozone injured symptoms have been identified through fumigation experiments in our laboratory, They are:(1) Chlorosis;(2)upper-surface or either-surface bleaching;(3) pigmented lesion; (4)bifacial necrosis, and (5) membranous or papery areas due to the sinking of either surface of a leaf. The above symptoms are not consistent and should be considered as different stages in the development of ozone damages. Symptoms often initiate from chlorosis or bleaching spots and then develop in accordance with two courses and finally arrive at necrosis or membranous areas. The relation among them constitutes a frame of netting system.In our experiments, plant leaves with different degree in maturity expressed different susceptibility to ozone damage. 61.81 percents of injury occurred on the matured leaves of various species, 18.18 percents on semi-matured leaves,16.36 percents on young leaves and 3.63 percents were indifferent, Such a result is by no mean in accord with the informations reported by certain foreign researchers.

利用电离空气发生臭氧,对93种植物进行了309种次模拟熏气实验;在植物对臭氧的外部症状反应方面得到一些初步结果:(1)不同植物对臭氧有不同的反应,有55种植物出现明显症状反应,其中24种很敏感;有38种植物对臭氧具抗性,多数适宜作兰州地区的绿化树种。(2)臭氧伤害植物叶片在外观上可以区分为褪绿、漂白斑,色素斑、两面坏死、膜质斑五种症状类型。这些类型并非固定不变,而是彼此关联,实为臭氧对叶片内部结构伤害发展各阶段在外观的表现,总的分为褪绿与漂白斑两条发展路线,最后发展到坏死和膜质斑,可以联成一个发展系统图式。(3)各级叶龄对臭氧的反应也是不相同的,以老龄叶易被臭氧所伤害,约占61.81%的种类,中龄叶易受伤害的种占18.18%,幼龄叶占16.36%,有3.63%的植物受害不分叶龄,这一结果与国外报道不尽相同。

Rice haploid young panicles (0.5-4 cm length) were cut into fragments in 1 mm size and cultured on a N6 medium with addition of 2.1-D 1 mg/1 at 26℃ for 15 days. The fragments were easy to be induced into calli. About 30% of calli transferred on a medium with addition of NAA 0.5 + KT 2mg/l differentiated into plantlets. About 30 clusters of green plantlets were obtained from the fragments of one panicle on average. Plantlets also regenerated directly, not through callus, from the fragments cultured on a N6 medium...

Rice haploid young panicles (0.5-4 cm length) were cut into fragments in 1 mm size and cultured on a N6 medium with addition of 2.1-D 1 mg/1 at 26℃ for 15 days. The fragments were easy to be induced into calli. About 30% of calli transferred on a medium with addition of NAA 0.5 + KT 2mg/l differentiated into plantlets. About 30 clusters of green plantlets were obtained from the fragments of one panicle on average. Plantlets also regenerated directly, not through callus, from the fragments cultured on a N6 medium with addition of NAA 1+KT 2mg/l. The shoot buds were initiated from the epidermis cells and cortex cells adjacent to them at the region between the sterile lemma and the fertile lemma of a spikelet on a fragment. About 12 clusters of plantlets were obtained from the fragments of one panicle by this way. In both cases, albino plantlets were less than 2 % in regenerated plantlets. 98% of regenerated plants were haploids. However, treating the calli with the colchicine at 200 mg /1 in a 2% dimethyl sulphonate(DMSO) aqueous solution resulted in production of 50% fertile diploids in regenerated plants without decreasing the differentiation frequency of calii.

长0.5—4厘米的水稻单倍体幼穗,剪切成1毫米左右的碎块,培养在附加2.4-D 1mg/l的N_6培养基上,切块容易被诱导生成愈伤组织。愈伤组织转移到附加NAA0.5-KT 2mg/l的培养基上培养,约30%分化出苗。由单个幼穗的全部切块平均可得30丛绿苗。幼穗切块培养在附加NAA 1+KT 2mg/l的培养基上,切块上颖花不孕稃片与内外稃之间的表皮和皮层细胞被诱导分裂并形成芽和根。通过这种直接出苗方式,每个幼穗的全部切块平均出苗12丛。由上述二种途径再生的小苗中,白化苗均低于2%。98%的再生植株仍为单倍体。用含有2%二甲基亚砜和200mg/l秋水仙碱的培养液浸泡愈伤组24小时(26℃),再生的植株中,能育二倍体植株达50%。

 
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