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initiation from
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  启动至今
     With the initiation from the Opium War in the mid of the 19th century, modernization in China has been undergoing a century and a half. The development has experienced 3 historical periods.
     现代化是二、三百年来人类历史的最基本主题,中国现代化自19世纪中叶的鸦片战争开始启动, 至今已经历了一个半世纪之久,其发展历经三个历史时期。
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  “initiation from”译为未确定词的双语例句
     With R=0.1,f=100Hz and the specimen size B×W×L=12.5×25×117mm,the nominalstress range at the threshold of crack initiation from the notch,or the equivalent ΔK_(th),isfound to be dependent on the notch radius ρ.
     当 R=0.1,f=100Hz,试样尺寸 B×W×L=12.5×25×117mm 时,缺口名义应力幅的门槛值为Δσ_(th)=3315ρ~(0.352) MPa,0.5mm≤ρ≤5mmΔK_(th)=250ρ~(0.352) MPam~(1/2)门槛值与ρ有关。
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     The Perspective of Our Country False Accounting Information Initiation from A New Angel of View:Resting On the Psychology and Behavior Analysis of Users of Accounting Information
     透视我国虚假会计信息产生根源的新视角——基于会计信息使用者的心理与行为分析
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     2,4-D played a pivotal role in somatic embryo induction, with the optimum concentration at 5 mg/L. Appropriate BA concentration was important in reducing abnormal embryos and enhancing somatic embryogenesis, but BA also promoted adventitious buds initiation from callus.
     结果表明,2,4-D在体细胞胚诱导过程中起着极为重要的作用,其适宜浓度为5mg/L,适当浓度(1mg/L)的BA在降低畸形胚比例和增加体细胞胚发生率方面有重要作用,但BA也会促进愈伤组织分化不定芽;
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     The effect of ABT on root initiation from tissue culture of carnation was studied by varying theABT concentrations in the rooting medium. It was found that the frequency of rooting and seedling survivalin the ABT trcjtment were increased significantly as campared with NAA,IBA and control treatmeat.Theconcentration of ABT and IBA on rooting initiation is simUar,about 0.25~1mg/L,but 4mg/L would inhibit root formation.
     本文报道ABT附加于康乃馨生根培养基和直接用于试管苗瓶外生根的效果.结果显示,附加ABT培养基培养的康乃馨试管苗与附加NAA,IBA和对照培养基培养的试管苗相比,其生根率及移栽存活率均有显著或极显著的提高,ABT诱导试管苗生根的适用范围与IBA一致,适宜浓度为0.25~1mg/L,抑制浓度为4mg/L以上。
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     OBSERVATIONS ON THE INDUCTION OF FLOWER BUD INITIATION FROM MESOPHYLL CELL PROTOPLAST CULTURE OF NICOTIANA RUSTICA L.
     黄花烟草(Nicotiana rustica L.)叶肉原生质体培养花芽形成的观察
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     Initiation on American Lands
     成长在美国的土地上
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     The mechanism of initiation was discussed.
     讨论了温度对聚合反应的影响 ,并探讨了引发机理
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     From the Initiation of Children to the Rise of Talents
     从儿童启蒙到人才崛起
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  initiation from
Numerical calculations are carried out for the energy release rate and the crack initiation from the ends of the debonded surfaces is discussed.
      
Crack initiation from the ends of partially debonded surfaces of a flat inclusion
      
InPolanisia dodecandra, the 9-18 stamens show unidirectional initiation from the adaxial side toward the abaxial side of the flower.
      
The hydrogen absorbed during welding facilitated crack initiation from this weld defect during storage of the component after welding.
      
This is attributed to surface residual compressive stresses, which prohibit fatigue crack initiation from surface positions at lower applied stress levels.
      
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The leaf explants of tobacco were grown on MS medium and the effects of plant hormones and organic supplements on cell proliferation and organogenesis were studied. The results obtained showed that BA greatly stimulated bud formation in concentrations ranging from 0.2—5.0 mg/l, but higher concentrations suppressed further bud development and root formation. Among all the cytokinins tested (BA, KT and zeatin), zeatin showed the highest stimulating effect on bud initiation. Cytokinin was necessary for bud initiation...

The leaf explants of tobacco were grown on MS medium and the effects of plant hormones and organic supplements on cell proliferation and organogenesis were studied. The results obtained showed that BA greatly stimulated bud formation in concentrations ranging from 0.2—5.0 mg/l, but higher concentrations suppressed further bud development and root formation. Among all the cytokinins tested (BA, KT and zeatin), zeatin showed the highest stimulating effect on bud initiation. Cytokinin was necessary for bud initiation from tobacco leaf explants. The presence of cytokinin was only needed for the first 5—6 days. If the leaf explants were transplanted to MS basic medium at this time, buds were still initiated, shoot growth and root formation were all accelerated. In the presence of lower concentrations of BA in the medium, NAA was markedly stimulatory to root formation. The stimulatory effect of BA on bud and callus formation was increased by organic supplements, such as LH, CM, and adenine sulfate. AU (6-azouracil) and TU (2-thiouracil) at the concentration of 10~(-4) M inhibited the promoting effects of BA, and AU was especially pronounced. But lower concentrations (10~(-5) and 10~(-6) M) of both AU and TU had no apparent effects on these processes. Cytological observations showed that mesophyll cells were greatly enlarged, undergoing repeated cell divisions, then forming meristematic mass, from which buds were initiated.

用MS培养基培养烟草叶组织,研究了不同激素及有机附加成分对培养组织增殖及器官分化的影响,发现BA在所试浓度范围内(0.2~5.0毫克/升)明显促进芽的形成,但较高浓度的BA对芽的进一步生长及根的形成有抑制作用。不同细胞分裂素的比较表明:玉米素促进芽形成的活性最高,BA次之,KT较弱。细胞分裂素为烟草叶组织形成芽所必需,但其作用时间仅需保持5~6天即可,此时如移到MS基本培养基上,即能形成芽,并促进茎叶及根的形成。NAA与较低浓度的BA结合使用时,明显促进根的形成。有机附加物水解乳蛋白(1000毫克/升)、硫酸腺嘌呤(100毫克/升)和椰乳(10%)在有BA存在时,明显促进芽的形成以及愈伤组织的增殖。10~(-4)M6-氮杂尿嘧啶(AU)和2-硫尿嘧啶(TU)抑制BA对芽形成及愈伤组织增殖的促进作用,AU的作用尤为明显;但在较低浓度下(10~(-5)和10~(-6)M)无明显影响。细胞学观察表明,培养后叶肉细胞明显增大,细胞分裂形成分生组织,由之形成芽原基。

The mechanism of bow—tie water trees initiation from voids in the

本文研究湿法(交联聚乙烯)(XLPE)电缆中由气隙产生的蝶结水树枝的引发机理.首先指出湿法XLPE 电缆中孔径为10~60μm 的气隙是极易引发蝶结水树枝的气隙,研究结果表明蝶结水树枝引发的可能机理之一是基于水质的电导效应,这种电导效应表现在水质电导率γ越大,蝶结水树越易引发,其生长速度亦越快,引发的水树密度亦越大.从而提出蝶结水树引发的新观点,即含有较高电导率γ水质的水分凝缩于气隙中并在高场强下被加热膨胀,导致气隙弱点处发生细微开裂而形成喷流状蝶结水树.

The stress intensity K_Ⅱ of a mode Ⅱ specimen was calculated using a finite element method via the J integral. The site direction and threshold value for crack initiation from the notch under cyclic mode Ⅱ loading in air, in water and under dynamic charging with hydrogen were investigated. The results showed that the mode Ⅱ fatigue crack in a high strength steel initiated at or close to the site of the maximum principal stress, rather than at the site of the maximum shear stress, and the subsequent crack...

The stress intensity K_Ⅱ of a mode Ⅱ specimen was calculated using a finite element method via the J integral. The site direction and threshold value for crack initiation from the notch under cyclic mode Ⅱ loading in air, in water and under dynamic charging with hydrogen were investigated. The results showed that the mode Ⅱ fatigue crack in a high strength steel initiated at or close to the site of the maximum principal stress, rather than at the site of the maximum shear stress, and the subsequent crack growth was orientated approximately normal to the direction of the maximum principal stress. The site and direction of crack initiation in water and under dynamic charging with hydrogen were similar but different from that in air. The threshold values for crack initiation in air, in water and under dynamic charging were 28.8, 12.3 and 10.2 MPa·m~(1/2), respectively. The fracture surface of a corrosion fatigue crack in water and under dynamic charging consisted of intergranular facets at low △K_Ⅱ values but of quasi-cleavage at higher △K_Ⅱ values and were different than those in air.

用有限元法通过J积分计算了Ⅱ型试样的应力场强度因子K_Ⅱ·在此基础上,用高强度钢40CrNiMoA Ⅱ型缺口试样研究了疲劳和腐蚀疲劳裂纹形核的规律,并探讨了氢的影响.结果表明,疲劳裂纹不在最大剪应力位置(θ=80°)形核,而是在最大正应力位置(θ=-110°)形核,裂纹取向和最大正应力垂直(α=-80°)。如充氢或在水中腐蚀疲劳,则裂纹形核位置和取向发生了改变,即θ=-85°,α=-55°。动态充氢使缺口形成疲劳裂纹的门槛值从28.8降为10.2MPa·m~(1/2).当△K_Ⅱ较低时,腐蚀疲劳裂纹沿晶形核,这和空气中疲劳时完全不同.

 
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