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Detailed theoretical investigations on the nature of internal friction of linear type have been made by Zener and others. It appears that their results are not systemmatic enough owing to the lack of generality. In particular, very little has been attempted to the illucidation of the nature of mutual interactions due to causes which give rise to internal friction.

甄纳等对线型内耗的计算曾作了一系列的研究。但是其所考虑的内容缺乏系统性。特别,当有着数个因素交互作用时,所得的结果是不够普遍的。本文试用一般的热力学不可逆的线型理论,应用了玻耳兹曼叠加原理,整理出一个较全面的有系统的普遍线型内耗理论。一般地,所得结果和普通的理论是相符合的,但是在交互作用问题上就有着差异。最近的内耗的研究上又逐步地进入反常内耗的研究。因此研究交互作用成为必要的了。可以指出,利用类似的理论和方法,有可能创造出反常效应及振幅效应的非线性的一般的内耗理论,为分析这些实验数据的工具。

Even though in the application of adsorption to industry or research one almost never deals with solutions containing only a single solute, yet the number of investigations on the adsorption from mixed solutions is very limited. Following the lead of Freundlich the generally held opinion is that the effect of one adsorbate on the adsorption of another is simple displacement. While this may be true for some special cases, it is undoubtedly too simple to be of general validity, because the various interactions,...

Even though in the application of adsorption to industry or research one almost never deals with solutions containing only a single solute, yet the number of investigations on the adsorption from mixed solutions is very limited. Following the lead of Freundlich the generally held opinion is that the effect of one adsorbate on the adsorption of another is simple displacement. While this may be true for some special cases, it is undoubtedly too simple to be of general validity, because the various interactions, such as solid-solvent, solute-solute, solute-solvent, have been neglected in this theory. In the theoretical study of chromatography it is necessary to know the equation for the adsorption isotherm when more than one solute are present in the solution. The most widely adopted equation for this purpose is (x/m)_a=k'_aC_a/(1+k_iC_i) (1) This equation can be easily derived from that for a single adsorbate: x/m = k'C/ (1+kC) (2) by assuming that the presence of an additional solute merely reduces the available surface area of the solid. Formally, this equation is analogous to that of Langmuir for the adsorp- tion of gaseous mixtures, replacing pressures by concentrations, but it is actually an empirical equation, because the numerical values of the k's can be obtained only from experimental data and their physical significance is not at all clear. This equation predicts the de-pression of the adsorption of one solute by another. While it is in line with the current idea, there is no experimental proof of its validity. It is the dual purpose of the present investigation to substantiate or disprove the dis- placement theory and to test the applicability of equation (1). We have studied the adsorption from binary solutions of hydrochloric, acetic, and oxalic acids by sugar char. The adsorbates are chosen because of their widely different strength. Sugar char is chosen because it has been shown from previous studies that with this adsorbent the experimental data for single adsorbate follow equation (2). The experimental results are given below: HCl-CH_3COOH and CH_3COOH-H_2C_2O_4 systems: (1) The adsorption of any acid is less than when it is present alone; (2) When the corresponding (x/m)'s are plotted, straight lines with negative slopes are obtained; (3) The slopes of these straight lines vary with the concentration of the acid being displaced; (4) The order of the displacing power, measured by the slope, is HCl> CH_3COOH > H_2C_2O_4, while the order of adsorption is just the reverse; (5) Equation (1) is not valid. HCl-H_2C_2O_4 system: (6) The adsorption of HCl is decreased; (7) When its concentration is higher than about 0.005 N, the adsorption of oxalic acid is increased; at lower concentrations the adsorption is decreased; (8) The higher the concentration of HCl is, the more pronounced will be the increase of adsorption of oxalic acid; (9) Corresponding (x/m)'s give straight lines whose slopes change sign as C_ox increases beyond 0.005 N. From (3) and (4) it is concluded that the observed decrease of adsorption is not due to simple displacement. Based on the hypothesis that it is primarily the solvent which is displaced with the subsequent shift of equilibrium, a mechanism is proposed to account for the effect of one solute on the adsorption of another, which seems to agree with all the observed results. The increase of the adsorption of oxalic acid disproves conclusively the displacement theory. The fact that there is a critical concentration below which the adsorption of oxalic acid is decreased indicates that there are two opposite influences at work. It is suggested that three factors contribute to the increase of adsorption of oxalic acid: (a) the decrease of dissociation; (b) the lowering of solubility; and (c) electrostatic effect. To determine the relative importance of these factors requires further investigation. Finally, an empirical equation involving three constants has been derived to represent the adsorption of oxalic acid in the presence of hydrochloric acid.

在此工作中我們研究了三種混合酸的吸附。在鹽酸-酸的體系中,鹽酸增加糖炭對於草酸的吸附量,倘若草酸的濃度超過0.005N。這個事實否定了在混合酸中各溶質間的作用是彼此頂替的說法。在醋酸-草酸及醋酸-鹽酸的混合溶液中,各酸的吸附量皆較其單獨存在時低。根據實驗的數據我們指出了各家說法的可疑之點。我們認為在混合溶液中吸附量之減少主要是因為溶質甲頂替了表面上的溶劑,因而使溶質乙的吸附量降低。若是溶質甲能使溶質乙的電離度或溶度降低,或增加溶質乙的Gegen-ion,則能使乙的吸附量增加。因為Langmuir式的混合吸附公式不能代表吸附之增加,我們提出了一個可以此較滿意的代表實驗結果的三常數經驗公式。各溶質的吸附量皆成直線關係。對此結果我們不能作定量的解釋,雖然此種現象與我們的假設並不矛盾。

This paper reports on biological investigations on two Scelionid egg-parasites,Telenomus dendrolimusi Chu and Telenomus sp., of the pine caterpillar (Dendroli-mus punctatus), and their parasitization under field conditions at Nanking, Kiangsuand Changshan, Chekiang during 1954 to 1955. The effect of cold storage on theeggs both of pine caterpillar and the parasites is discussed. Telenomus dendrolimusi is the well-known egg parasite of pine caterpillar inChina. Formerly there was no knowledge that Telenomus...

This paper reports on biological investigations on two Scelionid egg-parasites,Telenomus dendrolimusi Chu and Telenomus sp., of the pine caterpillar (Dendroli-mus punctatus), and their parasitization under field conditions at Nanking, Kiangsuand Changshan, Chekiang during 1954 to 1955. The effect of cold storage on theeggs both of pine caterpillar and the parasites is discussed. Telenomus dendrolimusi is the well-known egg parasite of pine caterpillar inChina. Formerly there was no knowledge that Telenomus sp. parasitizes the cater-pillar egg in China, and this is the first report of its parasitization. Differences bothin the morphological characters and physiological reactions of the adult and larvaof Telenomus dendrolimusi and Telenomus sp. show that they are two different spe-cles. According to data at hand, Telenomus sp. is distributed in Nanking, Kianin,(Kiangsu Province), Changshan(Chekiang Province) and Canton(Kwangtung Pro-vince). It forms about 80% of the two Scelionids found in Nanking. Telenomus sp. overwinters in the larval stage in the egg-shall of its host, Ly-mantria sp. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) and the adult emerges from the time whenthe first-brood Dendrolimus eggs appear the following spring. It does not perish either from low temperature in winter or from shortage of food or hosts in spring.So it is saperior to Telenomus dendrolimusi from the standpoints of biological con-trol practice. In Nanking, Telenomus dendrolimusi has 10-12 generations and Telenomus sp.has 8-9 generatiom annually. The proportion of females is about 80%. A female ofTelenomus sp. parasitizes 30 host-eggs in average, this amount being twice as manyas parasitized by Telenomus dendrolimusi. It oviposites all its eggs within a shortperiod and is easy to rear on a large scale under laboratory conditions. One-dny-old pine caterpillar egg was stored in a refrigerator at 4℃ for onemonth, the development of the embryo was not effected. The mature larvae ofTelenomus sp. are best suited for cold storage. Adults emerging from these eggsafter treatment produce normal healthly progeny without showing any ill effects.

1.本文主要研究松毛虫卵的两种黑卵蜂(Telenomus dendrolimusi Chu及Teleno-mus sp.,Scelionidae,Hymenoptera)的生物学特性;及1954—55年江苏南京和浙江常山等地林间的寄生情况,同时对松毛虫卵及黑卵蜂的冷藏也进行了试验。 2.两种黑卵蜂中,松毛虫黑卵蜂(Telenomus dendrolimusi Chu)与毒蛾黑卵蜂(Telenomus sp.)不但在形态上有所不同。而且在生活习性及各期虫态对低温的反应上亦各异,证明它们确系不同的两种。毒蛾黑卵蜂在我国系首次记载寄生于松毛虫卵中,现知在江苏南京、江宁,浙江常山及广东广州均有分布,在南京的黑卵蜂中占80%以上。 3.毒蛾黑卵蜂以幼虫态在寄主卵内越冬,利于冬季生存。越冬代成虫羽化时间接近松毛虫第1代卵出现期。且有松毒蛾(Lymantria sp.,Lymantriidae,Lepidoptera)作为补充寄主。这些特性均较松毛虫黑卵蜂为优。 4.室内外饲育结果,知松毛虫黑卵蜂在南京年可发生10—12代,毒蛾黑卵蜂年有8—9代,性比雌蜂占80%左右,毒蛾黑卵蜂破坏寄主卵粒平均为30粒左右比松毛虫黑卵蜂平...

1.本文主要研究松毛虫卵的两种黑卵蜂(Telenomus dendrolimusi Chu及Teleno-mus sp.,Scelionidae,Hymenoptera)的生物学特性;及1954—55年江苏南京和浙江常山等地林间的寄生情况,同时对松毛虫卵及黑卵蜂的冷藏也进行了试验。 2.两种黑卵蜂中,松毛虫黑卵蜂(Telenomus dendrolimusi Chu)与毒蛾黑卵蜂(Telenomus sp.)不但在形态上有所不同。而且在生活习性及各期虫态对低温的反应上亦各异,证明它们确系不同的两种。毒蛾黑卵蜂在我国系首次记载寄生于松毛虫卵中,现知在江苏南京、江宁,浙江常山及广东广州均有分布,在南京的黑卵蜂中占80%以上。 3.毒蛾黑卵蜂以幼虫态在寄主卵内越冬,利于冬季生存。越冬代成虫羽化时间接近松毛虫第1代卵出现期。且有松毒蛾(Lymantria sp.,Lymantriidae,Lepidoptera)作为补充寄主。这些特性均较松毛虫黑卵蜂为优。 4.室内外饲育结果,知松毛虫黑卵蜂在南京年可发生10—12代,毒蛾黑卵蜂年有8—9代,性比雌蜂占80%左右,毒蛾黑卵蜂破坏寄主卵粒平均为30粒左右比松毛虫黑卵蜂平均15粒左右为高。产卵期较集中,且在室内容易繁殖。 5.从发育1天的松毛虫卵冷藏于4℃冰箱中1个月不影响毒蛾黑卵蜂的寄生发育。毒蛾黑卵蜂在4℃冰箱中冷藏,以老熟幼虫为最好,冷藏1个月后,对其产生后代数无影

 
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