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The mass fragmentation pattern of thiones is also discussed.
      
Two compounds were designed, synthesized, and characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), ultraviolet (UV)-visible, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectra.
      
For two important special cases of mass action incidence and standard incidence, global stability of the endemic equilibrium is proved provided the threshold is larger than unity.
      
In this paper, a method has been established and validated for screening and identification of individual as well as total BFA by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry in fungal raw materials.
      
Their structures were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrum.
      
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The recent opportunity of examining the faecal material of the water-scorpion Leccotrephes japonensis revealed a flagellate which had not previously been described from this host. After fuller investigation I found that it is a species new to science and should be referred to the genus Retortamona; I have named it Retortamonas leccotrephae sp. nov.The specimens of Leccotrephes japonensis used for studies on the parasitic flagellate R. leccotrephae, were collected from ponds on the outskirts of Shanghai, China....

The recent opportunity of examining the faecal material of the water-scorpion Leccotrephes japonensis revealed a flagellate which had not previously been described from this host. After fuller investigation I found that it is a species new to science and should be referred to the genus Retortamona; I have named it Retortamonas leccotrephae sp. nov.The specimens of Leccotrephes japonensis used for studies on the parasitic flagellate R. leccotrephae, were collected from ponds on the outskirts of Shanghai, China. Apart from studying the living flagellates, at the same time stained specimens were prepared for the detailed study of various structures. These specimens were fixed either in Hollande's or in Schaudinn's fluid; stained in Heidenhain's haematoxylin, and destained in 2% aqueous phospho-tungstic acid. Moskowitz' (1950) modification of the Protargol impregnation method was also used for staining.In the living state, the flagellare has a slender, slipper-shaped trunk with an anterior dorsal flexure. The mean body size, exclusive of the posterior spike, is 12.8μ×4.8μ. The length of the slender posterior spike varies from 4.6μ to 15.8μ. There are two flagella of unequal length. The longer one extends forwards and lashes rapidly, causing the animal to rotate and to pursue a special course. The shorter flagellum is directed backwards and usually lies in the cytostome; it moves in an undulating manner.In fixed and stained preparations, the flagellates, not including the posterior spike, show a size-range of 6.2×2.2μto 15.6×5.4μ, with a mean of 11.9×3.4μ. The spike varied from 4.6μ to 13.6μ long, with an average length of 11.2μ. In general, a normal specimen of R. leccotrephae has a slender body; the anterior portion is narrower than the postcerior, and is markedly bent as shown in the living indivi.duals. The posterior portion of the body usually has a dorsal convexity, and the widest region is located near the two-thirds of the body-length from the anterior end.Near that edge of the nuclear membrane lying next to the cytostome, there are two minute, but separate, basal granules which give rise to the two flagella. The anterior flagellum is about as long as the body proper: much longer and more slender than the posterior flagellum, which usually lies within the cytostome, and commonly shows a series of two or three undulations; it often stains more deeply than the anterior flagellum.In hematoxylin preparations the nucleus is well stained, and clearly shows a layer of chromatin granules lying against the nuclear membrane, and a large central endosome, composed of a mass of granules.The cytostome is a large structure in this animal. It usually occupies about twothirds of the total length of the body proper. Along the margin of the cytostome there are two deeply staining fibres, the one on the right margin is longer than that on the left.Both the precystic forms and cysts of R. leccotrephae have been observed. The body of precystic individuals which are preparing to encyst, becomes smailer and rounds up; meanwhile, the chromatin of the nucleus condenses and forms a deeply staining endosome. The anterior flagellum is still disposed freely, and no cyst wall has as yet been formed. The border-line of the cytostome is distinct, but the two basal granules are visible only in favourable preparations. The mature cysts are nearly peanut-shaped, and are about twice as long as wide. In the stained specimens they are about 4.6μ long and 2.4μ wide. The cyst wail is of uniform thickness, and the nucleus is visible at one end. The other conspicuous structures within the cyst are the two flagella and the cytostomial fibres, which are arranged as they are in the trophozoite, except that the anterior flagellum is here directed posteriorly.DISCUSSION & SUMMARYIn its general body-form, R. leccotrephae closely resembles Mackinnon's R. agilis ('11) from crane-fly larvae, and also Corradett's R. gryllotalpae ('37) from the mole cricket, but it is especially like Geiman's R. caudacus ('32) from the aquatic larvae ef certain beetles.

红娘华蛐的身体结构,一般与Mackinnon所述的R.(Embadomonas) agilis和Corradetti所述的R.grillotalpae相似,特别近似Geiman所述的R.caudacus(图15,16)。但红娘华蛐有大约等於体长2/3的大胞口,和长於或等於体长的针状尾巴,而且无论在生活时或固定染色後,头部均向背後扭曲(此较图1和15)。这些特性,显然与过去文獻中所记载的种类不同,故(氵夬)定为蛐属——新种。

A new species under a new genus of the stbfamily Derogenetinae is described. The cirrus pouch is present and envelopes the upper portion of the curved seminal vesicle and the whole mass of prostate glands. The ventral sucker is situated in the posterior part of the ,body. The vitellaria are in a single and compact mass, located at the posterior extremity, and the eggs are provided with two long filaments at one pole. For the new genus and new species the name Chenia cheni is proposed.

本文把Derogenetinae亚科中之一新属及新种作一详细叙述。其主要特徵为(1)有阴茎囊包被貯精囊之上端及攝護腺之全部,(2)腹吸盤在体之中部稍近下方,(3)单块卵黄腺在体之最末端,(4)在无卵蓋之一端具两條细长丝状体。擬名陈氏半尾吸蟲(Chenia cheni)为本亚科中之一新属及新种。

In connection with experiments on the control of the rice stem borer, aseries of observations were conducted in 1949 to 1952 in Canton to determinethe form of the distribution of the moth, the egg-mass and the larval popula-tions of this species. It was found that the moth and egg-mass populations inrice seed-beds are in essential agreement with the random distribution of thePoisson series. The larval population in spring-crop fields apparently conformsto the contagious and the negative binomial...

In connection with experiments on the control of the rice stem borer, aseries of observations were conducted in 1949 to 1952 in Canton to determinethe form of the distribution of the moth, the egg-mass and the larval popula-tions of this species. It was found that the moth and egg-mass populations inrice seed-beds are in essential agreement with the random distribution of thePoisson series. The larval population in spring-crop fields apparently conformsto the contagious and the negative binomial distributions. The larval population during hibernation period appears to be neither of the random distribution norof the contagious type but agrees with the negative binomial distribution. The population distribution of the injured stems, characterized by the ap-pearance of "dead-hearts" and "white ears" was also studied. The "dead-hearts"popolation in autumn-crop fields conforms with the contagious and the negativebinomial distribution. The distribution of the "white ears" is not at random. It iseither in essential agreement with the contagious or with the negative binomialdistribution, depending on the size of the sampling unit. Based on the form of population distribution the questions of sampling tech-nique, the design of field experiments, the transformation of data for statisticalanalysis, as well as the habits and control of insects have been discussed inrelation to the rice stem borer. Since the populations of larvae and "whiteears" differ significantly from the random distribution, a new technique forsampling has been proposed. It is hoped that this may be useful in the investi-gations on the relative effectiveness of control operations and for census purposes.

(一)本文就昆虫常见的数种集团分布:潘松分布、核心分布和负二项式分布的公式、性质和例子等略加讨论介绍。 (二)我们在广州附近对三化螟各时期和白穗、枯心苗的田间分布型式作了初步的调查,所得结果如下: 1.螟蛾和卵块在秧田上是随机分布的。 2.幼虫在本田分布不随机,符合核心分布和负二项式分布。 3.白穗在田间的分布不随机,1×1丛、2×2丛、……6×6丛各种取样单位型样本均符合负二项式分布,4×4丛、5×5丛和6×6丛三种取样单位型样本则更符合核心分布。 4.稻遗株内越冬幼虫分布不随机,亦不符合核心分布,但符合负二项式分布。 5.晚造本田枯心苗田间分布不随机,符合核心分布和负二项式分布。 (三)本文就昆虫集团分布型式的调查在实用上的意义,联系到三化螟来讨论,我们论及与虫害调查取样技术、田间试验设计、统计代换方法、昆虫生活习性和害虫防治等各方面的关系;其中取样技术方面,我们举出针对三化螟幼虫在本田和白穗不随机分布的取样新方法的尝试,希望对今后螟害调查工作有所帮助。 (四)最后,我们就一些昆虫分布的特殊问题加以论列,像密度对分布型式的影响,混合集团和环境因素的影响于昆虫集团分布类型等,就中说明了密度过大过 小时了解分...

(一)本文就昆虫常见的数种集团分布:潘松分布、核心分布和负二项式分布的公式、性质和例子等略加讨论介绍。 (二)我们在广州附近对三化螟各时期和白穗、枯心苗的田间分布型式作了初步的调查,所得结果如下: 1.螟蛾和卵块在秧田上是随机分布的。 2.幼虫在本田分布不随机,符合核心分布和负二项式分布。 3.白穗在田间的分布不随机,1×1丛、2×2丛、……6×6丛各种取样单位型样本均符合负二项式分布,4×4丛、5×5丛和6×6丛三种取样单位型样本则更符合核心分布。 4.稻遗株内越冬幼虫分布不随机,亦不符合核心分布,但符合负二项式分布。 5.晚造本田枯心苗田间分布不随机,符合核心分布和负二项式分布。 (三)本文就昆虫集团分布型式的调查在实用上的意义,联系到三化螟来讨论,我们论及与虫害调查取样技术、田间试验设计、统计代换方法、昆虫生活习性和害虫防治等各方面的关系;其中取样技术方面,我们举出针对三化螟幼虫在本田和白穗不随机分布的取样新方法的尝试,希望对今后螟害调查工作有所帮助。 (四)最后,我们就一些昆虫分布的特殊问题加以论列,像密度对分布型式的影响,混合集团和环境因素的影响于昆虫集团分布类型等,就中说明了密度过大过 小时了解分布型式成为不必要的,因为极度的不均衡会回复为均衡状态的。

 
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