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passenger
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     The Disappearing Passenger
     失踪的乘客
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     There are many methods to calculate passenger?
     回顾了多种当量车PCE的计算方法 ,不同的计算方法结果大不相同。
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  passenger
Attention was focused on the relations for passenger flow densities that would adequately describe the main characteristics of the averaged passenger behavior and their distribution during boarding, travel, and exit.
      
Besides studying the passenger flows and observance of schedules, these models could be used to predict the degree of bus filling, estimate the comfort level, and work out recommendations for bus configurations.
      
A mathematical model of the transport system of a city or an urban agglomeration intended for forecasting the transport and passenger flows was described.
      
Studies are made of the competition of enterprises of passenger transport on intraurban routes.
      
In its turn, the number of passengers in the passenger compartment and at bus stops depends on the buses motion on the route.
      
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The purpose of this paper is to propose a theory and method which will enable a ship designer to evaluate analytically the longitudinal bending,str- ess in long superstructure and main hull girder of a ship,respectively in bending and thus in turn the effectiveness of a long superstructure as a longitudinal strength member of a ship.Although in recent years,there is no lack of paper dealing with long superstructure,however,this is the first paper ever published,which has taken the actual loading conditions of...

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theory and method which will enable a ship designer to evaluate analytically the longitudinal bending,str- ess in long superstructure and main hull girder of a ship,respectively in bending and thus in turn the effectiveness of a long superstructure as a longitudinal strength member of a ship.Although in recent years,there is no lack of paper dealing with long superstructure,however,this is the first paper ever published,which has taken the actual loading conditions of a ship and also the effect of the presence of transverse bulkheads and webs under the deckhouse into consideration. Also as an illustration,the bending stress analysis for the passenger ship S.S.“President Wilson”made by this method shows the calculated results agree reasonably well with the test results.

本文目的,是为确定船舶长上层建筑(长甲板室这里也简称上层建筑)参于船舶总纵弯曲的有效程度.过去几年内,虽然有不少关于上层建筑参于船舶总纵弯曲的论文的发表,但本文则根据船舶实际负荷条件及考虑到长甲板室下的舱壁等的影响而第一次提出长甲板室总纵弯曲的理论和应用.

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theory and method which will enable a ship designer to evaluate analytically the longitudinal bending stress in long superstructure and main hull girder of a ship respectively in bending, and thus in turn, the effectiveness of a long superstructure as a longitudinal strength member of a ship. Although in recent years, there is no lack of paper dealing with long superstructure, however this is the paper ever published, which has taken for the first time the actual loading...

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theory and method which will enable a ship designer to evaluate analytically the longitudinal bending stress in long superstructure and main hull girder of a ship respectively in bending, and thus in turn, the effectiveness of a long superstructure as a longitudinal strength member of a ship. Although in recent years, there is no lack of paper dealing with long superstructure, however this is the paper ever published, which has taken for the first time the actual loading conditions of a ship and also the effect of the presence of transverse bulkheads and webs under the deckhouse into consideration. The bending stress calculation for the passenger ship S. S. "President Wilson", made by this method shows the calculated results agree reasonably well with the test results.

本文目的,是为用計算方法确定船舶长上层建筑(长甲板室这里也简称上层建筑)参予船舶总纵弯曲的有效程度。过去几年內,虽然有不少关於长上层建筑参於总纵弯曲論文的发表,但本文则初次根据船舶实际負荷条件及考虑到长甲板室下的仓壁等的影响提出了长甲板室总纵弯曲理論及其在設計上的应用。

1.With the enormons increase of electrical power loads on board ships.the old D.C.system is very difficult to meet the challenge,the trend is toward the development of A.C.system. 2.A.C.System is not only economical in generating and distribution,hut also made possible the application of squirrel cage motor,which is simplest, cheapest and most rugged rotating electrical machine obtainable. 3.The variable speed characteristics of A.C.motors is inferior to D.C. motors.particularly as applied to cargo winches....

1.With the enormons increase of electrical power loads on board ships.the old D.C.system is very difficult to meet the challenge,the trend is toward the development of A.C.system. 2.A.C.System is not only economical in generating and distribution,hut also made possible the application of squirrel cage motor,which is simplest, cheapest and most rugged rotating electrical machine obtainable. 3.The variable speed characteristics of A.C.motors is inferior to D.C. motors.particularly as applied to cargo winches. 4.A.C.is specially suitable for large power installations.As the installed generating capacity exceeds 1000 kw.,A.C.is definitely superior to D.C.As the generating capacity is under 1000 kw.,the choice is dependent on usage,for passenger ships,tankers,inland vessels and harbour crafts,where there is little need for variable speed.the superiority of A.C.is quite noticable,for eargo ships, where the electrical load is mainly cargo winches,the advantage is not so noticable. 5.Considering the development of large capacity semi-conductor rectifiers. A.C.and D.C.in the future are not so distinctively different from each other,but may be under a unified system. 6.The author suggests immediate research and experiment works directed to the subject of application of A.C.to ships,and recommends installation of various systems on same type of ships to obtain direct comparisons,and conclusions to be drawn.

1.由于船舶需用之电量急剧增加,旧有之直流系统难以满足需要。发展的趋向为使用交流电。2.交流系统不但在发电及输配电方面经济合算,并且使使用鼠笼式电动机成为可能。鼠笼式电动机为所有旋转电机中最简单、价廉、坚固之电机。3.交流电动机之变速特性较直流电动机为差,特别在使用于起货机时。4.对于大容量装置,交流系统特别适宜。如果发电机容量大于1000千瓦,交流肯定的比直流有利。如果发电机容量小于1000千瓦,应视用途而定。对客船、运油船、内河船舶和港湾作业船等,变速的需要不大,交流显然有利。在以起货机作为主要负荷的货船上,交流电的优点不显著。5.考虑到大容量半导体整流器的发展,将来的情况将是直流和交流的分界不是截然不同的,而是可能在一个体系之下的。6.作者建议对交流电应用到船舶上的问题立即进行研究和试验,并建议在同一型式船舶上装置不同系统,以获得经验,得出结论。

 
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