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martensite
相关语句
  相似匹配句对
     the martensite was twinned;
     马氏体含有孪晶;
短句来源
     Carbon and Nitrogen in Martensite
     马氏体中的碳和氮
短句来源
     (2) the electrical resistance of martensite abnormally increasing;
     ②马氏体电阻反常增大;
短句来源
     The first stage of isothermal martensite transformation iscont(?)
     等温马氏体形成的第一阶段是由马氏体内碳扩散过程所控制。
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  martensite
A quantitative index martensite fraction was used to describe the phase transformation degree of shape memory alloy (SMA).
      
On the basis of the martensite fraction, a non-linear analysis model for major and minor hysteresis loops was developed.
      
The model adopted two exponential equations to calculate the martensite fractions for cooling and heating, respectively.
      
The martensite fractions were derived as the relative parameters were adjusted timely according to continuous, common initial and common limit constraints.
      
By use of the linear relationship between the curvature of embedded SMA actuator and SMA's martensite fraction, the curvature was determined.
      
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Internal friction in hardened carbon steels was measured with a torsion pendulum and an internal friction peak was observed around 130℃when measurements were taken from room temperature upwards. This peak disappeared completely after the temperature of the specimen reached 170℃. This phenomenon was observed in carbon steels containing carbon ranging from 0.29% to 1.4%, and also in an alloy steel. The appearance of this internal friction peak seems to indicate that the transformation product ( ∈ -carbide) formed...

Internal friction in hardened carbon steels was measured with a torsion pendulum and an internal friction peak was observed around 130℃when measurements were taken from room temperature upwards. This peak disappeared completely after the temperature of the specimen reached 170℃. This phenomenon was observed in carbon steels containing carbon ranging from 0.29% to 1.4%, and also in an alloy steel. The appearance of this internal friction peak seems to indicate that the transformation product ( ∈ -carbide) formed in the first-stage tempering of martensite is in coherence with its parent phase, and the origin of internal friction is the stress-induced movement of the plane of coherence.

用扭摆测量淬硬碳钢的内耗,当测量温度由室温渐渐升高时,在130℃附近有一个内耗峰出现。当温度达到170℃后再降温测量,这个内耗峰完全消逝不见。上述的现象在含碳0.29%到1.4%的几种淬硬碳钢和淬硬滚珠钢中都曾经看到。由内耗峰的出现可以认为马氏体在第一个回火阶段中的转变产物(ε-碳化铁)与母体具有共格性,由于共格界面的应力感生运动而引起内耗。 曾用具有马氏体组织的0.25%碳钢试样作实验,没有观测到上述的内耗峰。但是当回火温度达到280-300℃以后,在降温或升温测量中都观测到一个内耗峰(在150℃附近)。这表示低碳马氏体在第三个回火阶段中的转变产物与母体具有共格性。但是由于这个内耗峰的表现与上述高碳试样的内耗峰不同,所以我们认为这转变产物并不是ε-碳化铁。

The isothermal transformation of austenite in a ball-bearing steel within thetemperature range between martensite point M and room temperature has been investigated by electrical resistance measurements.The steel employed was ofcommercial production containing 1.43% Cr and 1.02% C and its martensite pointis 159℃ when quenched from 1100℃.The specimen was first quenched toroom temperature(in which state it contained 17% retained austenite),and thenupquenched to isothermal bath in which its transformation...

The isothermal transformation of austenite in a ball-bearing steel within thetemperature range between martensite point M and room temperature has been investigated by electrical resistance measurements.The steel employed was ofcommercial production containing 1.43% Cr and 1.02% C and its martensite pointis 159℃ when quenched from 1100℃.The specimen was first quenched toroom temperature(in which state it contained 17% retained austenite),and thenupquenched to isothermal bath in which its transformation was followed.Theeffect of tempering of martensite was eliminated by employing two specimens ofdifferent martensite contents.1)By comparing the kinetics of isothermal transformation below and abovemartensite point,it was concluded that isothermal transformation below M pointtakes place by the martensite process and not by intermediate transformation(bainitic),in.spite of the presence of large amount of martensite and relativelyhigh temperature at which the transformation takes place.2)From kinetics considerations it appears that isothermal transformationof retained austenite to martensite takes place not by the formation of new nuc-lei but mainly by the growth of already existing martensite.This would alsoinfer that coherency between martensite and austenite is not destroyed(or notcompletely destroyed)during quenching transformation.3)The tempering of martensite appears to be the controlling process forthe isothermal transformation of retained austenite to martensite,such that theelastic strain energy relaxed by tempering of martensite exceeds the difference offree energies between the two phases.The activation energy of tempering ofmartensite within the temperature range considered(below 150℃)was found tobe 13,300 cal/mol,which compares favourably well with the value of 16,000 cal/molas given by Averbach and Cohen in 1953.4)The results show that isothermal keeping for prolonged duration at theneighbourhood of 100℃ brings about maximum amount of transformation of re-tained austenite.That is,at either higher or lower temperatures and for a speci-fied time,the amount of austenite-martensite transformation is less.This is signifi-cant for practical heat-treating of precision gauges and tools for which dimen-sional stability is important and high temperature tempering may not be de-sirable for hardness consideration.

用电阻法研究了含1.43%Cr,1.02%C的滚珠钢在室温到马氏体点(159℃)温度范围内奥氏体等温转变过程。结果指出在这一温度范围内的等温转变是以马氏体转变的形式进行的,而不产生中温转变形式的等温转变。当样品由1100℃淬火至室温后再“上淬”至低于马氏体点的温度进行等温保持时,部分的残留奥氏体即等温转变为马氏体。根据动力学的考虑,这一转变很可能不是通过形成新的晶核,而是已有马氏体晶体的长大过程。同时,这种转变主要受已有马氏体回火过程的控制。在100℃左右长期等温保持时可以得到最大的残留奥氏体转变量。更高或更低的温度,在同一时间内转变量都较100℃左右为小,这可作为精密量具刃具实际热处理的参考。

Internal friction in hardened low-carbon nickel steel was measured with a torsion pendulum and an internal friction peak was observed around 155℃ with a frequency of vibration of about 2 cycles per second. The condition for the appearance of this internal friction peak is that the steel specimens contain martensite, alloying element and carbon. This internal friction peak has also been observed in chromium steel and chromium-nickel steel under suitable conditions. Systematic observations were made with...

Internal friction in hardened low-carbon nickel steel was measured with a torsion pendulum and an internal friction peak was observed around 155℃ with a frequency of vibration of about 2 cycles per second. The condition for the appearance of this internal friction peak is that the steel specimens contain martensite, alloying element and carbon. This internal friction peak has also been observed in chromium steel and chromium-nickel steel under suitable conditions. Systematic observations were made with steel specimens containing 29.7% Ni, and the height of internal friction peak was found to be proportional to the carbon content in the specimen. The experimental results mentioned above show that the new internal friction peak is associated with the stress-induced micro-diffusion of carbon in low-carbon alloy martensite.

用扭摆测量淬硬低碳镍合金钢中的内耗,当振动频率约为每秒2周时,在155℃附近有一个内耗峰出现。这个内耗峰的出现条件是:钢中必须含有马氏体、合金元素和碳。在适当的条件下,铬钢和铬镍钢中也曾观察到这个内耗峰。用含镍29.7%的钢作了系统试验,观察到内耗峰高度与试样中的含碳量成正比。内耗峰的高度由于在较高温度(165℃以上)的回火处理而不断降低。由内耗测量所测得的激活能是25,000卡/克分子。以上的实验结果指出,所观测到的155℃新内耗峰是由于碳在合金马氏体中的应力感生微扩散所引起来的。 提出了一个产生内耗峰的初步模型。假定碳在四角马氏体中是处于00(1/2)型的间隙位置。合金元素原子的存在引起晶体点阵中不均匀的畸变,因而应力的作用便改变了碳原子在热平衡状态下在Fe-C-Fe和B-C-Fe(B是合金元素原子)两种00(1/2)型间隙位置之间的跳动几率。这种应力感生的碳原子运动便引起内耗。用这个模型可以定性地解释所观测到的事实。关于这方面的定量研究正在进行中。

 
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