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For these bismuthates the symmetry of the structure changes from monoclinic to orthorhombic and finally to tetragonal upon increasing the K-content thus resulting in the decrease of the Bi-O distances and reduction of the network distortions.
      
Single phase samples of Sr1-xKxBiO3 were prepared for the broad range of K-content: 0.25≤x≤0.65.
      
when the K-content of the tissue was low, little Cs transport occurred and solution concentrations of K up to 0.01 me per liter increased Cs-transport.
      
Transport to shoots was reduced by Ca at pH 6, by NH4, and by K and Rb when the K-content of the tissue was high.
      
Shoot excision appeared to result in a serious reduction of upward K-transfer, whereas root K-content was hardly affected.
      
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This investigation was undertaken to attain by means of pot cultures and chemical analyses a better understanding of the significance of the degree of base saturation in relation to the growth and mineral composition of certain crops. Two relatively pure mineral colloids, bentonite and kaolin, and a lucastrine orchard soil containing illitic type of clay minerals were used for the studies. Bentonite and kaolin were first electrodialyzed and then mixed with different amounts of pure quartz sand to give different...

This investigation was undertaken to attain by means of pot cultures and chemical analyses a better understanding of the significance of the degree of base saturation in relation to the growth and mineral composition of certain crops. Two relatively pure mineral colloids, bentonite and kaolin, and a lucastrine orchard soil containing illitic type of clay minerals were used for the studies. Bentonite and kaolin were first electrodialyzed and then mixed with different amounts of pure quartz sand to give different levels of base exchange capacity. Treatments were made to all three cultural media for varying degrees of base saturation with constant ratio between exchangeable bases. Oats and rye were grown in succession in montmorillonitic and kaolinitic media, while peach, soybean, proso, tomato and oats were grown in the illitic soil. Dry weights and contents of certain mineral constituents of oats, rye and tomato were determined. Yield data from the montmorillonitic media showed nearly linear relationship between the degree of base saturation and the growth of the plants. In the kaolinitic media the increase of yield was only noticeable from the first increment of bases, effects above 40% total base saturation being insignificant. The results from illitic soil were intermediate between those mentioned above, i.e., the highest yield of tomato was obtained at the 75% saturation level. The yield data further indicate that the growth of plants was more closely related to the degree of base saturation than to the total supply of exchangeable bases. With the same amounts of bases and at the levels below 60% base saturation, the yields of rye in the kaolinitic colloid were higher than in the montmorillonitic colloid. In the montmorillonitic media, the increase of Ca uptake by the plants from the first increment of Ca was pronounced with only little effects above 30% Ca saturation (or 40% level of total base saturation). The K content of the plants was increased appreciably at only the higher levels of base saturation, while significant increases of the Mg content of the plants occured at lower levels (i.e. below 60% base saturation level). In the kaolinitic media, no appreciable change of Ca and Mg contents of the plants was noticed. This is an interesting contrast to the results obtained with the montmorillonitic media. However, there were definite increases in K content of plants with increasing increments of K at the lower levels of saturation. The higher contents of Ca and Mg in the plants were found in kaolinitic media rather than in the montmorillonitic media provided that the total base saturation level was under 60% of the exchange capacity. On the other hand, the K content of the plants from montmorillonitic media was invariably higher than from kaolinitic media. In the illitic soil, the most marked increase of Ca content in plants occured when the degree of base saturation increased from the 50% to the 75% level. Beyond that point, no appreciable increase was noticed. As the degree of base saturation of illitic soil increased, the K and Mg percentages in plants increased also. Among the conclusions obtained from the experiments, the following are of outstanding significance: 1. Exchangeable cations are not equally available. With the equal supply of total exchangeable cations, their availability varies with the degree of base saturation. Within a certain range, the higher the degree of base saturation, the greater the availability of the exchangeable cation. This affords a theoretical explanation of the advantage of localized application of fertilizers. 2. The availability of exchangeable cations varies with the nature of clay minerals. With the given amount of exchangeable cations and the same degree of base saturation, the individual exchangeable cation held by the clay mineral differs in availability according to the following order: For Ca" and K', kaolinite>montmorillonite>kaolinite. This gives the reason why a montmorillonitic soil should be fertilized with respect to the Ca and K to higher levels than a kaolinitic soil. 3. In order to afford sufficient amount of active cations for the growth of plants, higher degree of ionic saturation is required for Ca" than is for Mg", which in turn should be higher than for K'. The study also discusses, from the theoretical point of view, some of the factors involved in determining the availability of exchangeable bases.

本研究之主要目的在于寻求不同粘粒矿物所吸附的代換性陽离子对植物生長及其矿質营养成分的影响。通过这一試驗,希望了解影响代换性陽离子的若干重要因子,从而提供关于施肥原則及技术的若干理論。试验分温室栽培及植株化学分析兩部份。栽培所用植物包括燕麦、黑麦、小米、大豆、番茄、桃树等数种,培养基根据所合粘番矿物不同,分微晶高陵土系,高陵土系及水化云母系三大类。培养基的鹽基代換率、鹽基飽和度,以及各代换性鹽基間的互相比例,均加以控制。另以砂培处理为对照,試驗的主要結果可以綜結如下: 1.在微晶高陵土系的栽培試驗里,植物的生長概和鹽基飽和度成直线相关,但高陵土系及水化云母系的栽培試驗結果并不完全如此。在这些培养基理,植物的生長,虽然也因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善,但其改善的趋势停止于一定的鹽基飽和度水平上。例如,在本試驗里,对黑麦和燕麦言,当高陵土系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到40%时,或对番茄言, 当水化云母系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到75%时,植物的生長都不再因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善了,这說明就植物的矿質营养言,鹽基飽和度具有特殊重要的意义。一般說来,鹽基飽和度愈大,代换性鹽基的有效度也愈大。 2.作为影响植物矿質营养的土埌肥力因素,鹽...

本研究之主要目的在于寻求不同粘粒矿物所吸附的代換性陽离子对植物生長及其矿質营养成分的影响。通过这一試驗,希望了解影响代换性陽离子的若干重要因子,从而提供关于施肥原則及技术的若干理論。试验分温室栽培及植株化学分析兩部份。栽培所用植物包括燕麦、黑麦、小米、大豆、番茄、桃树等数种,培养基根据所合粘番矿物不同,分微晶高陵土系,高陵土系及水化云母系三大类。培养基的鹽基代換率、鹽基飽和度,以及各代换性鹽基間的互相比例,均加以控制。另以砂培处理为对照,試驗的主要結果可以綜結如下: 1.在微晶高陵土系的栽培試驗里,植物的生長概和鹽基飽和度成直线相关,但高陵土系及水化云母系的栽培試驗結果并不完全如此。在这些培养基理,植物的生長,虽然也因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善,但其改善的趋势停止于一定的鹽基飽和度水平上。例如,在本試驗里,对黑麦和燕麦言,当高陵土系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到40%时,或对番茄言, 当水化云母系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到75%时,植物的生長都不再因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善了,这說明就植物的矿質营养言,鹽基飽和度具有特殊重要的意义。一般說来,鹽基飽和度愈大,代换性鹽基的有效度也愈大。 2.作为影响植物矿質营养的土埌肥力因素,鹽基飽和度的重要性一般超过鹽基代換率。試驗的結果表明:鹽基代換率不等,而鹽基飽和度相等的同一發生学来源的土埌,其植物生長狀况一般相等或相差不远。这說明代換性鹽基的絕对数量不足以指示作物生長的优劣。不仅如此,試驗的結果也啟示出含代換性陽离子絕对数量相等的兩种同源土埌,就对植物的矿質营养言,并不意味着具有相等的供应該有效性陽离子的能力。由于它們間質地上的可能差異,——質地輕者鹽基代换率小,質地粘重者,鹽基代換率大,——因之其鹽基飽和度就不相等。飽和度大者,鹽基的有效度就高。 3.栽培試驗及室內化学分析的結果都表明在总鹽基飽和度为60%以下的土埌中(Ca:Mg:K=15:3:2),高陵土类粘粒矿物上的代换性Ca~(++)及Mg~(++)的有效度均高于微晶高陵土,而K~+則相反。 4.植物矿質成分的化学分析結果表明:各营养离子的鹽基飽和度在一定范圍内的变化,可以显著地影响它进入植物体內的量。例如,当微晶高陵土系培养基的鈣离子飽和度在30%以下的范圍內作增减的变动时,都能明显地反映在其所生長的植物体內的含鈣量上。植物体內的鉀离子,則能反映飽和度自4%至6%的范圍內的变化。鎂的情况大体近似于鉀,只是其变化范圍更小一些。这說明同一种植物为了滿足其自身的营养需要,对于同一种粘粒矿物上所吸附的不同离子,有不同的飽和度的要求。鈣最大,(对黑麦,燕麦而言約30%以上),鎂次之(約9%),鉀最小(約6%)。这些标准也是施肥的最低要求。 5.栽培試驗及化学分析都証明同一种离子吸附在不同的粘粒矿物上,縱然离子飽和度相等,其对植物生長和矿質养分的影响也不相等。研究結果显示出在同一离子飽和度下,不同粘粒矿物上的离子有效度大体依下列次序变化:高陵土>微晶高陵土>水化云母。在农業实踐中,不同类型的土埌所要求的施肥标准不等,在这里也得到了一些理論根据。試驗結果对于实际施肥,应有一定的指导价值。除以上主要結果外,本文还对有关代換性离子有效度的理論問題进行了討論和分析,并提出了作者自己的初步意見。

Field experiments and biochemical analysis were carried out to study the effect of potassium status of paddy soils on the peroxidase activity in the leaves and the oxidizing power of the rice roots.The experiments were conducted on two types of paddy soils:Yellow-mottling silty clay and bluish purple clay,which are widely distributed in Zhejiang province.The available K of the experimental plots varied at a range of 33-42 ppm.Four different varieties of late rice grown on Yellow-mottling silty clay showed poor...

Field experiments and biochemical analysis were carried out to study the effect of potassium status of paddy soils on the peroxidase activity in the leaves and the oxidizing power of the rice roots.The experiments were conducted on two types of paddy soils:Yellow-mottling silty clay and bluish purple clay,which are widely distributed in Zhejiang province.The available K of the experimental plots varied at a range of 33-42 ppm.Four different varieties of late rice grown on Yellow-mottling silty clay showed poor growth with accompanying disturbance in metabolism,e.g.,higher peroxidase activity in the leaves and lower oxidizing power of the rice roots.Application of potassium caused an increase of K content in the rice plants,thereby improving their normal metabolism.The average activity of peroxidase in the 3rd leaves among the four varieties decreased from 34.8 to 21.6 G.U(guiacol unit)per gram at panicle initiation stage and the average a-NA oxidation power of rice roots increased from 504 to 596μg/hill/h at heading stage.The grain yields of all tested varieties in the K-treated plots increased significantly(P<0.01).On paddy soils with a K-status favorable for the rice growth,no significant yield difference among the early rice varieties was found by the application of K-fertilizer,irrespective of the amount applied.At the same time,the activity of peroxidase in the 3rd leaves.did not decrease by K-fertilization,sometimes even increased.By comparing peroxidase activity in the 3rd leaves and a-NA oxidizing power of the rice roots with and without K-fertilization,difference in activities can be used for the diagnosis of K-status of paddy soils.

以田间试验和生化分析来研究水稻土中钾对于水稻叶片中过氧化物酶活性和根中氧化力的影响。试验是在浙江省分布较广的两种土壤:黄斑坤和青紫泥上连续进行两年。试验土壤有效钾含量在33~42ppm范围内。 用四个不同的晚稻品种于缺钾的的黄斑坤土上进行试验。水稻生长很差,代谢失调,表现在叶片中过高的过氧化物酶活性和较低的根的氧化力。施钾后,由于增加植株体内钾的含量,改善了水稻的正常代谢,无论下部叶片有无缺钾褐斑,各品种第三叶片中过氧化物酶的活性均减少。在幼穗分化期每克鲜叶平均由34.8G.U降至21.6G.U(愈创木酚单位)。在抽穗期根的α—萘胺氧化力每丛鲜根每小时平均由504微克增至596微克。所有试验品种都显著增产,并超过1%的显著性。 当土壤钾已满足水稻生长,如再施钾肥,无论用量多寡,增产均不显著,同时第三叶片中过氧化酶的活性不再下降,有时甚至有所增强。因此,比较施钾与不施钾两处理水稻第三叶片中过氧化物酶活性和根的α—萘胺氧化力的差别,可作为诊断水稻土是否缺钾的一个指标。

cis-Dinitrodibenzo-18-crown-6 is hydrogenated over pd/c catalyst in DMF. The hydrogenated product reacts with picryl chloride to form cis-dlpicryldibenzo -18-Crow-6.This Product is reddish brown powder. Yield 42,%, m.p. 175-180%].The photometric determination of potassium has been studied with thif crown ether dye in THF. The caribration Una of A\-[K+] plot had linearity readily in the range of K+ Content between 0-100 .g. the sensitivity according to Sandell is 0.028 /

研制了文献上尚未见有报导的顺式—二苦胺基二苯并—18—冠—6.用此生色冠醚在四氢呋喃中作钾的光度测定,0—100微克范围内,△A—[K~+]作图有良好的线性关系.反应灵敏度比同类型的4’—苦胺基苯并—15—冠—5测定钾的方法高12倍(Sandell系数为0.028μg/cm~2)。

 
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