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notch
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     Progress in Notch Signaling
     Notch信号通路研究进展
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     Notch strength was predicted.
     预测了切口强度。
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     is maximum at the center of the notch. The value of σm /(?)
     Ⅰ+Ⅱ型复合加载时,缺口前端钝化一侧的σ_m/(?)
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  notch
PSEN dependent intramembrane proteolysis was described as an important step required for cleavage of Notch receptors, Notch-dependent signal transduction, and processing of other proteins.
      
It is still unclear whether presenilins are unusual intramembrane proteases or they are necessary cofactors of γ-secretase cleavage of APP and Notch.
      
The main signalling pathways controlling the wing development are Hedgehog, Notch, Wingless, Epidermal growth factor receptor, and Decapentaplegic.
      
The major morphological characteristics of larvae of different Liparis species-body height and shape, pelvic disk length, preanal length, presence of a notch in the dorsal fin, pigmentation pattern, and others-have been distinguished.
      
The notch is a commonly used type of fabricated flaw in ultrasonic testing of welded joints of small and intermediate thicknesses.
      
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Mental and mandibular foramen of 250 Chinese mandibles were studied. It wasfound that the mental foramina wer located as follows: below apex of the lst premolar--1.2% on the right, 0.4% on the left; between the lst and 2nd premolar--18.8% on theright, 7.6% on the left; below apex of the 2nd premolar--74.4% on the right,82.4% on the left; between the 2nd premolar and lst molar--5.6% on the right,8.8% on the left; below apex of the lst molar--none on the right, 0.8% on the left. Theaverage distance of the anterior...

Mental and mandibular foramen of 250 Chinese mandibles were studied. It wasfound that the mental foramina wer located as follows: below apex of the lst premolar--1.2% on the right, 0.4% on the left; between the lst and 2nd premolar--18.8% on theright, 7.6% on the left; below apex of the 2nd premolar--74.4% on the right,82.4% on the left; between the 2nd premolar and lst molar--5.6% on the right,8.8% on the left; below apex of the lst molar--none on the right, 0.8% on the left. Theaverage distance of the anterior margin of the foramen to the mental symphysis was26.5 mm. on the right, 26.8 mm. on the left; to the posterior border of the ramus, 70.0 mm.on the right, 69.0 mm. on the left; to the alveolar border, 15.5 mm. on the right, 15.2 mm.on the left; to the basal margin, 15.6 mm. on the right, 15.5 mm. on the left.With regard to the occurrence of the multiple mental foramina, it was found tobe 1.2% on the left 1.8% on the right, and 0.4% on both sides simultaneously. Theapproximate position of the mandibular foramen was slightly higher than the midpointof the ramus and is a little to the posterior border of the ramus. The average distanceof the lowest margin of the foramen to the mandibular notch was 22.5 mm. on the right,25.1 mm. on the left; to the basal margin, 25.5 mm. on the right, 27.6 mm. on the left;to the posterior border, 15.8 mm. on both sides; to the anterior border, 20.0 mm. on theright, 20.6 mm. on the left. Various observations on this subject by other authors wereintroduced and discussed.

观察250个中国人颏孔及下颌孔的位置所得到的结果如下:1.78.4%的颏孔是在第2前臼齿的下方。2.多颏孔以下颌骨数计算有5.2%,以侧计算有2.8%。3.颏孔大致是在下颌体长的前1/4的地点,下颌体高的中间。4.下颌孔大致是在下颌支高的中央,稍靠後缘。

1 he present paper deals with six species of Setaria: S. labiato papillosa, S. equina, S. digitals, S. marshalli, S. tangi sp. nov. and S. erschovi sp. nov., found in the peritoneal cavity of the cattle, sheep and horse in Peking, Shanghai. Nanking, Wuhan, Kwangsi, Kunming, Kweiyang, Changchun, Hailar, Talien. Harbin, and Turfan, the last two species being new to science. The percentage of infection as observed is fairly high in cattle and horse, but rather low in sheep. Un-lortunately. for the study of the...

1 he present paper deals with six species of Setaria: S. labiato papillosa, S. equina, S. digitals, S. marshalli, S. tangi sp. nov. and S. erschovi sp. nov., found in the peritoneal cavity of the cattle, sheep and horse in Peking, Shanghai. Nanking, Wuhan, Kwangsi, Kunming, Kweiyang, Changchun, Hailar, Talien. Harbin, and Turfan, the last two species being new to science. The percentage of infection as observed is fairly high in cattle and horse, but rather low in sheep. Un-lortunately. for the study of the two new species, only female specimens are found. According to 1940, however, in the genus of Setaria the characteristics of female could be used as the specific diagnosis of the species.The new species are characterized as follows:1. Setaria tangi sp. nov.Heaj not separated from the rest of the body and appearing truncated anteriorly. Mouth provided with chitinous peribuccal ring, which is prolonged anteriorly to form four lip-like prominences: two lip-like lateral projections with one to two less deep notches at the free anterior borders, both the dorsal and ventral lips have a less deep notch at the middle of the free anterior border. Four pairs of sub-median head papillae arranged in two rows: two nipple-like anterior-submedicn papillae and two large sessile posterior-submedian papillae.Female: Body 75-127 mm in length and 0,697-0.996 mm in the greatest diameter. The anterior muscular portion of oesophagus measures 0.763-1.245 mm in length, the posterior glandular portion 9.165-13.885 mm. Anterior end to nerve ring 0.282-0.381 mm. Vulva 0.614-0.996 mm from the anterior extremity, and the body has a width at vulva between 0.415 to 0.647 mm. The body width at anus is about 0.149-0.199 mm. Posterior end of the body gradually attenuated and curved to the ventral side. The tail is tipped by a round knob and has 7 petal-like prominences. A pair of lateral cuticular appendages situated 0.026-0.083 mm from the tail end.Host: Cattle (Bos taurus L.), sheep (Ovis aries L.). Location: Peritoneal cavity. Locality: China: Tsinan, Changchun. Harbin.Type-specimens: Deposited in the Laboratory of Helminthology, Zoology, Institute of Academia Simca, Peking, China.2. Setaria erschovi sp. nov.Head rounded and provided with a chitinous peribuccal ring which is prolonged anteriorly to form four lip-like prominences. The two lateral lips are cresentic in outline and both the dorsal and ventral lips have a deep notch at the free anterior border, so as to present two cusps. At the base of either lateral side of the peribuccal ring there is a spine-like projection. Xine pairs of head papillae are present: One sub-ventral, one subdorsal, one button-like. lateral and six sub-median. Among the six submedian, two small anterior-submedian papillae are situated at a little distance from the base of lateral lips; two largest ones, the medio-submedian are situated at the outer posterior region of the anterior-submedian papillae and two smallest posterior-submedian are situated at the inner posterior side of the lateral papilla. The cuticular layer of the anterior end covered with bosses of different sizes.Female: Body 96-102 mm in length and 0.913-0.963 mm in the greatest diameter. Oesophagus divided into two parts, anterior muscular portion 0.963-0.979 mm in length, and posterior glandular portion 11.400-12.000 mm. The body in the posterior region of oesophagus 0.813-0.830 mm in width. Anterior end to nerve ring 0.249-0.332 mm. Vulva situated between 0.664-0.946 mm from the head end, the body width at vulva 0.394-0.498 mm. Posterior part attenuated and curved to tie ventral side. The tail end truncated. A pair of wrinkled lateral cuticular appendages are situated 0.049-0.059 mm to the tail end.Host: Cattle (Bos taunts L.).Location: Peritoneal cavity.Locality: China: Talien.Type specimens: Deposited in the Laboratory of Helminthology, Zoology, Institute of Academia Sinica, Peking, China.

1.在我国北京、上海、南京、武汉、广西、济南、昆明、贵阳、长春、海拉尔、大连、哈尔滨、吐鲁番等地的牛、马腹腔中普遍地找到丝状线虫,而在羊腹腔内找到的丝状线虫比较少。 2.在马、牛、羊腹腔中所找到的丝状线虫有六种: 1)唇乳突丝状线虫 S.labiato-papillosa;2)指形丝状线虫 S.digitata;3)马氏丝状线虫 S.marshalli;4)马丝状线虫 S.equina;5)唐氏丝状线虫新种 S.tangi sp.nov.;6)叶氏丝状线虫新种 S.erschovi sp.nov.。

The present paper is the second part of a series of papers on the ncmatodcs of donkeys in Peking. Eight species belonging to the family Trichonematidae are reported, namely, Trichonema labratum, T. labiatum, T. labiatum var. digitatum, T. coronatum, T. longibursatum, T. mimttum, T. tsengi sp. nov., and Petrovinema peculation.Trichonema tsengi sp. nov.A moderately small species. Male 6.4-7.6mm; maximum breadth 0.275-0.345 mm. Female 6.6-8.4mm; maximum breadth 0.275-0.36mm. The anterior extremity tapers slightly...

The present paper is the second part of a series of papers on the ncmatodcs of donkeys in Peking. Eight species belonging to the family Trichonematidae are reported, namely, Trichonema labratum, T. labiatum, T. labiatum var. digitatum, T. coronatum, T. longibursatum, T. mimttum, T. tsengi sp. nov., and Petrovinema peculation.Trichonema tsengi sp. nov.A moderately small species. Male 6.4-7.6mm; maximum breadth 0.275-0.345 mm. Female 6.6-8.4mm; maximum breadth 0.275-0.36mm. The anterior extremity tapers slightly to the head; there is no definite neck. Mouth collar moderately high and is marked off from the rest of the body by a constriction. Circumoral papillae projected forward and are as long as the external leaf-crown. The external leaf-crown composed of about 18 long pointed elements, projecting well beyond the mouth collar. The elements of the internal leaf-crown are about 36 short refractive rods. The region of origin of the elements of the internal leaf-crown extends back to 0.005 mm behind the anterior border of the buccal capsule. Buccal capsule is general long and is somewhat narrower anteriorly than posteriorly. It has a depth of 0.037-0.046 mm in the male, 0,038-0.048 mm in the female, with a maximum breadth of 0.032-0.036 mm in the male and 0.033-0.038 mm in the female at its posterior extremity. The walls are thick and swollen at the posterior end and decrease in thickness anteriorly. Dorsal gutter well developed, and projects far into the buccal capsule, extending nearly to the level of the anterior fourth of the buccal capsule. Length of the oesophagus is 0.276-0.348 mm in the male, and is 0.314-0.407 mm in the female. The breadth of the oesophagus is 0.057-0.067 mm at the anterior extremity, and the greatest breadth is 0.081-0.101mm.Excretory pore and cervical papillae are at about the same level behind the nerve ring, and are 0.247-0.379 mm from anterior extremity. Distance from the extremity to the nerve ring is 0.18-0.23 mm.Posterior extremity, male,-fairly long median lobe; lateral lobes marked off from the dorsal lobe by a shallow notch. Main dorsal ray, measured from point of insertion of the externo-dorsal ray is 0.47-0.555 mm in length. Genital cone is well developed, with about 16 processes on its posterior surface.Posterior extremity, female,-straight. Distance of anus from tip of the tail is 0.0875-0.125mm. Distance between anus and vulva is 0.063-0.11mm. Vagina is 0.215-0.39mm in length.Relationship-This worm is more closely allied to T. calkatum than to either of the other species in the calkatum group (of Ihle), but it differs from T. calkatum in the shape of the buccal capsule, in its much greater depth of the buccal capsule in proportion to its width, in the shape of the wall of the buccal capsule, in the number of elements of the external leaf-crown, and in the different shape of the distal ends of >the external leaf-crown elements.Host-Equus asinus. Locality-large colon. Place of distribution-Peking.

本文报告了寄生于北京地区的驴的圆形线虫8种,分属于两个属;内包括一新种的叙述。即Trichonema labratum,T.labiatum,T.labiatum var.digitatum,T.coronatum,T.longibursatum,T.minutum,Trichonema tsengi sp.nov.和Petrovinema poculatum。

 
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