The inevitability of rethinking in architecture design is put forward from closely question. Second, nonlinear scientific notion is the leading idea in the thesis.

On the basis of mechanism analysis for slope deformation\|failure and discussiopn for basic problems of landslide prediction,authors introduce the nonlinear scientific theory and gray system theory,which are proved to be effective in the solution of complex problems,into the landslide forecasting. The academic thought of the "real\|time tracing prediction of landslides" is presented.

The (combination) of nonlinear scientific theories of fractal, nerve net, cellular automaton etc with the traditional interpolation method has solved the problem that can't be settled by the traditional interpolation method.

For example, we can apply nonlinear scientific theory to study the deterministic pattern of seismic activity, dynamic behaviour in seismogenic process and critical characters of the occurrence of large earthquake in future.

The results are more complicated in the deoxycholate-CuCl_2 system co ntaining glucose, suggesting that the nonlinear scientific concept should be con sidered in understanding gallstone formation.

The experimental results suggested that a nonlinear scientific concept should be considered in understanding gallstone formation.

This paper holds that, the applications of nonlinear scientific methods to rock rupture and earthquake phenomena should be in accordance with the characteristics of the processes themselves of these phenomena. That is a). the fractal geometric characteristics of crack systems; b). the self-organization mechanisms in the evolution processes; c). the chaotic dynamical behavior of earthquake faulting. Tracing the evolution processes of earthquakes as well as rock rupture (including formation of crack systems,...

This paper holds that, the applications of nonlinear scientific methods to rock rupture and earthquake phenomena should be in accordance with the characteristics of the processes themselves of these phenomena. That is a). the fractal geometric characteristics of crack systems; b). the self-organization mechanisms in the evolution processes; c). the chaotic dynamical behavior of earthquake faulting. Tracing the evolution processes of earthquakes as well as rock rupture (including formation of crack systems, deformation localization and formation of faults, faulting and finally stress relaxation), this paper sruveys the application of nonlinear scientific methods (fractal geometry, chaotic dynamics, and self-organization synergetics)to earthquake as well as rock rupture phenomena, proposes the universal characteristics and mechanisms of the corresponding processes obtained by using the nonlinear scientific methods, and argues on problems that are still controversy and need further investigating.

The widely existing nonlinear phenomena revealed by high-resolution geological records need to be explored With nonlinear scientific methods. As a comprehensive science which has far-reaching influence, nonlinear science has become very popular with the international scientific circle. The development and application of nonlinear science in geosciences is the prelude of the birth of a series of nonlinear geosciences. Fractal theory, time-series analysis and chaotic dynamics are...

The widely existing nonlinear phenomena revealed by high-resolution geological records need to be explored With nonlinear scientific methods. As a comprehensive science which has far-reaching influence, nonlinear science has become very popular with the international scientific circle. The development and application of nonlinear science in geosciences is the prelude of the birth of a series of nonlinear geosciences. Fractal theory, time-series analysis and chaotic dynamics are hopefully the most promising nonlinear methods in Quaternary studies. Both neotectonic vertical movement and ancient climate changes are oscillating movement which, as a complicated irregular oscillation between regular oscillation (e. g. B-Z oscillation in chemistry) and chaos. The oscillation which is a so-called geophysical chaotic time-series results from the internal stochastic nature of the deter mined Earth system. In the frequency change of oscillation, bifurcation space and width of frequency separation are attenuating respectively in aocordance with the Feigenbaum constants δ and α. The oscillating movement of the Earth system is a transition to chaos. The uprise of mountains, the rise of continents, the fall of ocean floors and the change of the global sea level and a series of such intense changes are indications of chaos. Oscillation movement appears to be nonperiodically, rhythmic, it together with erosion of external forces, creates the undulating geomorphological landforms which are similar hierarchically at some extent. The geomorphological phenomena which have similarity are therefore one of resources of fractal concepts. By a couple of popular simple fractal functions, it is possible to "create" Various geomorphological landforms which are similar fairly with natural landforms. The artificial landforms which we call fractal landforms are called Mandelbrot landscape by mathematicians. It is significant for Quaternary studies: no matter how complicated the modern and ancient landforms appear to be, their mechanisms are simple. It is in accordance with traditional concepts of geosciences: landforms are a result of interaction of both internal and external forces. Simple fractal functions are helpful for the study of the interaction and its evolution characteristics. Relief of landforms is a height field. The conformity between Mandelbrot landscape and real landforms indicates that the geomorphological height field is fractal. The complexity of landforms, i.e. the complexity of the height field (or roughness) can be estimated by fractal dimension of their surface. The difference of fractal dimensions of landforms shows the difference of environmental conditions and the difference of evolution stages. The time-series of the Quaternary environmental change generally not random, i.e. not a Brownian condition, but a fractal Brownian movement(FBM), which has a long-term persistence. Whether a time-series is FBM or not can be decided by Hurst exponent. This provides us a theoretical base for forcasting the mean behaviour of volution. he time-series Hurst ex- ponents of lots of natural phenomena such as the change of precipitation, temperature and the water surface of river, lake and sea are all larger than 1/2, which indicates that every successive value of the time-series is not independent, i. e. they are not Gaussian variable or white Gaussian ncise. Although the traditional statistical methods have been used all the time, they cannot accurately describe the behaviour of time-series. It is desirable to use R/S(range over standard deviation). In the eyes of statisticians, time-series=trend +period + random Since the appearance of Chaotic theory, scientists have however found that the irregularity of time-series results from the stochasticity inside the system, so time-serles=chaos + fluctuation The freedom of a time-series is decided by its correlation dimension of the chaotic attractor of time-series, which also decide whether the time-serits is a stochastic system or a determined system of a limited dimension. If it is the latter, a nonlinear dynamic model can be inferred. Besides fractal dimension, Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogonov entropy(K-entropy) are usually used to describle the chaotic characteristics of time-series. When a system is chaotic the Lyapunov exponent is larger than 0(λ>0). In most cases K-entropy equals the sum of all plus Lyapunov exponents. For a order system K=0, for a stochastic system K=∞. When K=c (a limited value) the system is chaotic. The larger K is the stronger the chaos is. The characteristics of the Quaternary time-series will help us to know the further changes of environment. In the field of Quaternary studies, as the resolving power of data is enhancing, we will have a new insight into the Quaternary process. As we are facing a stern challenge like the catastrophe process of climate change, the traditional linear methods are obviously not enough. The system of climate like many other geographical systems is a nonlinear system. At critical condition a sequence of reaction caused by small events will exert influences on lots of elements in the system and lead to happening of great events. To solve the problem, the theory SOC(selforganized criticality) is much helpful. Nonlinear science is very important for Quaternary studies and it also will develop in turn in the field of Quaternary studies.

With the studies and developments on fractals and chaotic theory irregularity on geometrics and the inherent stochasticity of dynamical evolution of a big class of natural phenomena have been revealed.It provides some new approaches and possibility for us to explore the physical essence of the natural phenomena, especially, to seismic problems. For example, we can apply nonlinear scientific theory to study the deterministic pattern of seismic activity, dynamic behaviour in seismogenic process and critical...

With the studies and developments on fractals and chaotic theory irregularity on geometrics and the inherent stochasticity of dynamical evolution of a big class of natural phenomena have been revealed.It provides some new approaches and possibility for us to explore the physical essence of the natural phenomena, especially, to seismic problems. For example, we can apply nonlinear scientific theory to study the deterministic pattern of seismic activity, dynamic behaviour in seismogenic process and critical characters of the occurrence of large earthquake in future.In this article, the applied investigations of fractals and chaotic theory to seismology are reviewed in detail.This paper is divided into five sections.The general outline of seismogenic porcess is discribed in the first part. Some applications of fractals and chaotic theory to seismogenic porcess are discussed in section two and three respectively. In the section four, the SOC theory and its some applications to earthquake problems are discussed. The final, some applied perspectives for nonlinear science to earth science are discussed.