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  eyes
Among the total 62 eyes with pterygium, satellite foci were found in 34.
      
TA was injected intravitreally 72 h post PDT on 12 eyes and from three months to one year (mean nine months) post PDT on four eyes respectively.
      
The visual acuity was improved in seven eyes (43.8%) of all the 16 eyes and stable in nine eyes (56.2%), respectively.
      
Transient intraocular pressure elevation occurred in one patient (6.25%) of all the 16 eyes and intraocular pressure returned to the normal after a transient treatment with antiglaucoma medication.
      
The results demonstrated that, although the compound eyes of invertebrates and the camera eyes of vertebrates markedly differ in their structure and development, they exhibit a striking similarity at the molecular level.
      
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A method for the paper chromatography of aureomycin is here described. Out of 43 kinds of developing solvents studied, four have been proved satisfactory. They are: (1) n-butanol saturated with M/10 citrate buffer of pH 3.9, (2) 1% aqueous solution of boric acid, (3) M/10 citrate buffer of pH 3.9 saturated with n-butanol, and (4) n-butanol-acetic acid-water (5∶1∶4). The upward R_F values for the above four solvent systems are 0.40 ± 0.02, 0.83 ± 0.02, 0 and 1 respectively when Whatman No. 1 filter paper is...

A method for the paper chromatography of aureomycin is here described. Out of 43 kinds of developing solvents studied, four have been proved satisfactory. They are: (1) n-butanol saturated with M/10 citrate buffer of pH 3.9, (2) 1% aqueous solution of boric acid, (3) M/10 citrate buffer of pH 3.9 saturated with n-butanol, and (4) n-butanol-acetic acid-water (5∶1∶4). The upward R_F values for the above four solvent systems are 0.40 ± 0.02, 0.83 ± 0.02, 0 and 1 respectively when Whatman No. 1 filter paper is used. For general purpose the first solvent is preferred. With this solvent, the R_F values for terramycin hydrochloride, streptomycin hydrochloride-calcium chloride complex and chloromycetin are 0.32±0.03, 0 and 1 respectively. Chromatograms containing aureomycin may be easily recognized with naked eyes if the amount of the antibiotic present is not less than 5 μg/cm~2, or by fuming with HC1- vapour to give an orange stain of anhydroaureomycin hydrochloride if not less than 1.6 μg/cm~2, or by agar-plate method if not less than 0.3 μg/cm~2, or by fluorescence method if not less than 0.09 μg/cm~2. Under an UV-lamp, aureomycin hydrochloride shows a bright lemon-yellow fluorescence; terramycin, dirty yellow; and anhydroaureomycin hydro- chloride-boric acid complex, dull brown. The fluorescing chromatograms can be photo- graphed. The present method can be directly employed for qualitative as well as rough quantitative determination of the aureomycin in the beer of Streptomyces aureofaciens. It may serve as a useful aid in antibiotic screening. By means of mixing chromatography, aureomycin may be detected in the human urine collected after oral administrations. Using 1% boric acid as the developing solvent, anhydroaureomycin hydrochloride can be successfully separated from aureomycin hydrochloride by chromatography. In fact, the existence of a trace of the anhydro-compound has been detected in some crude aureomycin preparations.

本報告提供了一個金黴素的紙上層析方法。在28°用Whatman 1號濾紙研究了43種紙上層析用的顯層溶劑。用其中的四種顯層溶劑,M/10檸檬酸鹽pH 3.9緩衝液飽和的丁醇(I),1%硼酸水溶液(II),丁醇飽和的M/10檸檬酸鹽pH3.9緩衝液(III),和丁醇-醋酸-水(5∶1∶4)(IV)顯層,都可以得到較滿意的色層。它們的比移分別是0.40±0.02,0.83±0.02,0.87±0.01和0.88。這四種中尤以顯層溶劑(I)的結果最佳。用顯層溶劑(I),在同一條件下的鹽酸地黴素、鹽酸鏈黴素氯化鈣複鹽和氯黴素的比移,分別是0.32±0.03,0和1。色層辨認的方法,在超過5微克/厘米~2以上可用肉眼;1.6微克/厘米~2以上可用氯化氫氣體顯色;在0.3微克/厘米~2以上可用瓊脂平板培養基制菌法;在0.09微克/厘米~2以上可用螢光法。色層螢光可以直接攝照。 應用本法可以直接鑑定金黴菌發酵液中的金黴素,並可以初步估計含量。用混合層析法也可以鑑定尿中的金黴素。 應用1%硼酸水溶液作顯層溶劑,可以鑑別鹽酸金黴素和鹽酸脫水金黴素,用本法曾鑑定了幾批鹽酸金黴素粗製品中有微量脫水化合物的存在。

The changes in the spontaneous electrical activity and in various kinds of evoked potentials of the cerebral cortex of the rabbit were studied during the period of post-natal development. Continuous spontaneous electrical potential changes of the cerebral cortex are first detectable about one week after birth. They attain the adult pattern about the end of the third week. Local application of 2% strychnine sulphate solution can already generate "strychnine spikes" during the first few days after birth, though...

The changes in the spontaneous electrical activity and in various kinds of evoked potentials of the cerebral cortex of the rabbit were studied during the period of post-natal development. Continuous spontaneous electrical potential changes of the cerebral cortex are first detectable about one week after birth. They attain the adult pattern about the end of the third week. Local application of 2% strychnine sulphate solution can already generate "strychnine spikes" during the first few days after birth, though there is much longer lag in their onset than in adult animal. The spikes are also of smaller voltage, slower time course and lower frequency. Among the evoked potentials, the response due to direct electrical stimulation of the cortex is the first to become elicitable, in a number of rabbits on the very first day after birth. The response of one hemisphere due to the stimulation of corresponding points of the other hemisphere and also the cortical response to antidromic stimulation of the pyramidal tract usually become obtainable a little later, but all within the first week. One or two days before the opening of the eyes which occurs about twelve days after birth, visual stimulation can already evoke typical responses in the visual cortex. A number of baby rabbits were ,born and continuously kept in the dark room while a number of others had their eye balls destroyed shortly after birth: by these means the effect of lack of light stimulation on the maturation of the electrical activity of the visual cortex was tested. The result was negative. The author is indebted to Prof. T. P. Feng for guidance throughout this work.

本工作觀察在出生後發育時期中小兔大腦皮層自發電位的成熟過程和被激起的電位的出現與變化。初生的小兔,用番木龞鹼溶液直接塗在大腦皮層土郎能引起番木龞鹼波,但是在出生後一週左右大腦皮層才開始有連續的電位變化。在出生後的第三週末第四週初時小兔大腦皮層的自發電位的圖形已與從大免得到的相仿。在大腦皮層各種被激起的電位變化中,直接刺激大腦皮層所引起的負電位出現得最早。通過胼胝體所引起的電位變化以及刺激錐體束在大腦皮層引起的電位變化都在小兔出生後一週內出現,這兩種電位初出現時都缺少相當於在成年兔得到的相應的反应中,由於突觸後反應所引起的那些部分。兔在出生後的12天左右睜眼。在出生後10天左右用光線刺激眼睛已能在大腦皮層視區引起反應,使眼睛不見光或摘除眼睛對視區電位變化的成熟看不出有影響。

A series of α,ω-bis-(p-aminophenoxy)-alkanes was found to show high schi- stomicidal activity in experimental animals but have toxic effects on the eyes. This precluded the clinical use of these compounds on human beings. For this reason, we prepared a series of N, N'-disubstituted derivatives of α,ω-bis-(p-methylamino- phenoxy)-pentane (Ⅰ) and -heptane (Ⅱ) for the purpose to find the most active and least toxic compound, and at the same time, to study the relationship between their chemical constitution...

A series of α,ω-bis-(p-aminophenoxy)-alkanes was found to show high schi- stomicidal activity in experimental animals but have toxic effects on the eyes. This precluded the clinical use of these compounds on human beings. For this reason, we prepared a series of N, N'-disubstituted derivatives of α,ω-bis-(p-methylamino- phenoxy)-pentane (Ⅰ) and -heptane (Ⅱ) for the purpose to find the most active and least toxic compound, and at the same time, to study the relationship between their chemical constitution and schistomicidal activity. R=-CH_2SO·ONa, -CH_2SO_2·ONa, -CH_2COONa, -CH_2CONH_2, -CH_2CN, -CONH_2, -COCH_3, -COOC_2H_5, -CH_2CH_2OH The sodium salts of N, N'-di-methanesulfonic acid (R=-CH_2SO_2·ONa) and N, N'-di-methanesulfinic acid (R=-CH_2SO·ONa) derivatives were prepared by the condensation of sodium formaldehyde bisulfite and sodium formaldehyde sulfo- xylate with the corresponding amines in methanolic alkaline solution respectively. N, N'-di-methanesulfonate derivatives were treated with potassium cyanide to give the corresponding N, N'-di-acetonitril (R=-CH_2CN) derivatives, from which N, N'-di-sodium acetate (R=-CH_2COONa) derivatives were obtained by alkaline hydrolysis. The latter could also be resulted from the hydrolysis of N, N'-di-acet- amide (R =-CH_2CONH_2) derivatives by using the same reagent. Ⅱ was treated with ethyl chloroformate, to give the N, N'-di-ethyl formate (R=-COOC_2H_s) derivative. By the condensation of p-(N-Carbamylmethyl-N-methyl)-aminophenol, p-(N- carbamyl-N-methyl)-aminophenol and p-(N-β-hydroxyethyl-N-methyl)-aminophenol with α,ω-di-bromoalkanes, the corresponding N, N'-di-acetamide, N, N'-di-carbamide (R=-CONH_2) and N, N'-di-β-hydroxyethyl (R=-CH_2CH_2OH) derivatives were obtained respectively. N, N'-di-carbamide derivatives could also be obtained by direct reaction of Ⅰand Ⅱ with potassium cyanate. Tests of these compounds against Schistosonaes japonicum in experimentally infected animals are still in progress and will be reported elsewhere.

α,ω-双-[对-氨基苯氧基]-烷类对感染日本血吸虫病的实驗动物具有显著疗效,惟毒性较大.本文叙述了α,ω-双-[对-甲氨基苯氧基]-戊烷及-庚烷-N,N′双取代衍生物的合成,希望这些衍生物的毒性减低,而疗效增大.n=5或7.R=-CH_2SO·ONa,-CH_2SO_2·ONa,-CH_2COONa, -CH_2CONH_2,-CH_2CN,-CONH_2,-COCH_3,-CH_2CONH_2,-COOC_2H_5.N,N′-双甲亚磺酸鈉及N,N′-双甲磺酸鈉衍生物系以α,ω-双-[对-甲氨基苯氧基]-戊烷Ⅰ及庚烷Ⅱ分別与烴甲亚磺酸鈉及烴甲磺酸鈉在碱性甲醇中作用生成.N,N′-双甲磺酸鈉衍生物与氰化鉀反应得N,N′-双乙腈衍生物,再行水解則得N,N′-双乙酸鈉衍生物.由对-N-氨基碳酰甲基-N-甲氨基苯酚、对-N-氨基碳酰-N-甲氨基苯酚,以及对-N-β-羥乙基-N-甲氨基苯酚分別与α,ω-二溴烷类縮合,得N,N′-双乙酰胺、N,N′-双碳酰胺、以及N,N′-双-β-羥乙基衍生物.N,N′-双碳酰胺亦由Ⅰ及Ⅱ直接与氰酸鉀反应制得。N,N′-双甲酸乙酯衍生物系以Ⅱ与氯代甲酸乙酯作用合成,而N,N′-双乙酰衍...

α,ω-双-[对-氨基苯氧基]-烷类对感染日本血吸虫病的实驗动物具有显著疗效,惟毒性较大.本文叙述了α,ω-双-[对-甲氨基苯氧基]-戊烷及-庚烷-N,N′双取代衍生物的合成,希望这些衍生物的毒性减低,而疗效增大.n=5或7.R=-CH_2SO·ONa,-CH_2SO_2·ONa,-CH_2COONa, -CH_2CONH_2,-CH_2CN,-CONH_2,-COCH_3,-CH_2CONH_2,-COOC_2H_5.N,N′-双甲亚磺酸鈉及N,N′-双甲磺酸鈉衍生物系以α,ω-双-[对-甲氨基苯氧基]-戊烷Ⅰ及庚烷Ⅱ分別与烴甲亚磺酸鈉及烴甲磺酸鈉在碱性甲醇中作用生成.N,N′-双甲磺酸鈉衍生物与氰化鉀反应得N,N′-双乙腈衍生物,再行水解則得N,N′-双乙酸鈉衍生物.由对-N-氨基碳酰甲基-N-甲氨基苯酚、对-N-氨基碳酰-N-甲氨基苯酚,以及对-N-β-羥乙基-N-甲氨基苯酚分別与α,ω-二溴烷类縮合,得N,N′-双乙酰胺、N,N′-双碳酰胺、以及N,N′-双-β-羥乙基衍生物.N,N′-双碳酰胺亦由Ⅰ及Ⅱ直接与氰酸鉀反应制得。N,N′-双甲酸乙酯衍生物系以Ⅱ与氯代甲酸乙酯作用合成,而N,N′-双乙酰衍生物則按常法制取之。

 
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